Skip to main content

Full text of "A documentary history of American industrial society"

See other formats


A Documentary History of 

American Industrial 

Society 

Volume X 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/documentaryhisto10commuoft 






^ATHOITS' 



B ^XLETHr 







TOE IAU0K S 




^i^Sttu 




Official Organs, 1860-1880 

Including those of national unions of farmers, shoemakers, molders, machinists and black- 
smiths, socialists, miners, and engineers 



Ec H 



A Documentary History of 

American Industrial 

Society 

Edited by John R. Commons 

Ulrich B. Phillips, Eugene A. Gilmore 

Helen L. Sumner, and John B. Andrews 

Prepared under the auspices of the American Bureau of 

Industrial Research, with the co-operation of the 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

With preface by Richard T. Ely 
and introduction by John B.Clark 

Volume X 
Labor Movement 




y 







Cleveland, Ohio \ 

The Arthur H. Clark Company 
i 9 i i 



Copyright, 191 i, bv 

THE ARTHUR H. CLARK CO. 

All rights reserved 



AMERICAN BUREAU OK INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 






DIRECTORS AND EDITORS 

RICHARD T. ELY, PH.D., LL.D., Professor of Political Economy, 
University of Wisconsin 

JOHN R. COMMONS, A.M., Professor of Political Economy, 
University of Wisconsin 

JOHN B. CLARK, PH.D., LL.D., Professor of Political Economy, 
Columbia University 

V. EVERIT MACY, Chairman, New York City 

ALBERT SHAW, PH.D., LL.D., Editor, American Review 
of Reviews 

ULRICH B. PHILLIPS, PH.D., Professor of History and Political 
Science, Tulane University 

EUGENE A. GlLMORE, LL.B., Professor of Law, 
University of Wisconsin 

HELEN L. SUMNER, PH.D., United States Bureau of Labor 

John B. Andrews, ph.d., Secretary, 
American Association for Labor Legislation 



THE DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF AMERICAN 
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY COMPRISES— 

VOL. I Plantation and Frontier, Volume 1, 

by Ulrich B. Phillips 

VOL. II Plantation and Frontier, Volume 2, 

by Ulrich B. Phillips 

VOL. Ill Labor Conspiracy Cases, 1806-1842, Volume 1, 

by John R. Commons and Eugene A. Gilmore 

VOL. IV Labor Conspiracy Cases, 1806-1842, Volume 2, 

by John R. Commons and Eugene A. Gilmore 

VOL. V Labor Movement, 1820-1840, Volume 1, 

by John R. Commons and Helen L. Sumner 

VOL. VI Labor Movement, 1820-1840, Volume 2, 

by John R. Commons and Helen L. Sumner 

VOL. VII Labor Movement, 1840-1860, Volume 1, 
by John R. Commons 

VOL. VIII Labor Movement, 1840-1860, Volume 2, 
by John R. Commons 

VOL. IX Labor Movement, 1860-1880, Volume 1, 

by John R. Commons and John B. Andrews 

VOL. X Labor Movement, 1860-1880, Volume 2, 

by John R. Commons and John B. Andrews 



LABOR MOVEMENT 

1860-1880 

Selected, Collated, and Edited by 

JOHN R. COMMONS, am. 

Professor of Political Economy 

University of Wisconsin 

and 

JOHN B. ANDREWS, ph.d. 

Secretary, American Association for Labor Legislation 
New York City 

Volume II 



CONTENTS 



Labor Movement Documents, 1860-1880 {continued): 
V The Knights of Labor 

1 Initiation Ceremony ..... 

2 Founding Ceremony ..... 

3 The Great Seal of Knighthood 

4 The Spread of Secret Orders .... 

VI Farmers' Organizations 

1 Illinois Farmers, 1858 .... 

2 Illinois Farmers, 1869-1873 .... 

(a) The First Bloomington Convention, 1869 
(1) The Call 

(a) The Resolutions 

(b) Illinois State Farmers' Association, 1873 

(1) Preliminary Convention, Kewanee — Resolutions 

(2) Call for the Second Bloomington Convention 

(3) Resolutions, Second Bloomington Convention, 1873 

(4) Springfield Convention, April 2, 1873 

(5) Princeton Convention, June, 1873 — Resolutions 

3 The Kansas Farmers' Cooperative Association, 1873 . 

4 The Second National Agricultural Congress, 1873 

5 Farmers' and Producers' Convention, New York, 1873 

6 Patrons of Husbandry .... 

(a) Outline of the Order 

(b) The First Grange Circular 

(c) "The Real Foundation" 

(d) From Manufacturer to Farmer, 1872 

(e) Legislation, not Politics 

(f) Southern Problems 

(g) Annual Sessions of Delegates, 1873-1879 
) Sixth Session, Georgetown, D.C, January 8-11, 1873 
) Seventh Session, 1874 
) Eighth Session, 187s 
) Ninth Session, 1875 
) Tenth Session, 1876 



19 
25 
32 
33 

39 
42 



61 
64 
67 
71 



i 4 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

(6) Eleventh Session, 1877 

(7) Twelfth Session, 1878 

(8) Thirteenth Session, 1879 

Finding List of Sources quoted 

Guide to Libraries and Abbreviations . . . . 139 

Newspapers . . . . . . .142 

Books and Pamphlets . . . . . . 15 1 

Index ........ 159 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
Official Organs, 1860-1880 . . Frontispiece 

Including those of national unions of farmers, shoemakers, molders, 
machinists and blacksmiths, socialists, miners, and engineers 

Letter-head of National Land Reform Association in 
1873 53 



V 
THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 



i. INITIATION CEREMONY 

From a Manual, not dated. The Opening Service and Initiation were 
drafted by Uriah S. Stephens. The Master Workman's charge was 
drafted by William Fennimore. The whole was prepared in Novem- 
ber, 1869. Stephens's interpretation of the Initiation and Founding 
Ceremonies is given in Powderly's Thirty Years of Labor, 170-180. 1 
The key to abbreviations is reproduced in part from the Manual. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

M. W. Master Workman 

W. F. Worthy Foreman 

V. S. Venerable Sage 

W. I. or W. INS. Worthy Inspector 

A. Almoner 

R. S. Recording Secretary 

F. S. Financial Secretary 

W. T. or T. Worthy Treasurer 

S. Statistician 

U. K. Unknown Knight 

A. U. K. Assistant Unknown Knight 

I. E. Inside Esquire 

O. E. Outside Esquire 

J. Judge 

J. A. Judge Advocate 

C. Clerk 

0. V. Outer Veil 

1. V. Inner Veil 

S. of O. Sign of Obliteration 

S. of D. Sign of Decoration 

S. of R. Sign of Recognition 

S. of C. Sign of Caution 

C. of D. Cry of Distress 



: We are indebted to Hon. Terence V. Powderly, Grand Master Workman 
from 1879 to 1893, for information used in our notes.- Eds. 



20 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

S. O. and M. A. Secrecy, Obedience, and Mutual Assistance 

A. (*••) Assembly 

L. A. (***) Local Assembly 

D. A. (*****) District Assembly 

G. A. General Assembly 

A. K. Adelphon Kruptos (Secret Brotherhood) 

A. T. P. W. Annual Travelling Password 

F. and I. Founding and Installation 

ADELPHON KRUPTOS 

Opening Service. A Globe being placed on the outside of the 
Outer Veil ; a copy of the Sacred Scriptures closed, and a box or basket, 
containing blank cards on a triangular Altar, red in color, in the centre 
of the vestibule ; a Lance on the outside of the Inner Veil, or entrance 
to the Sanctuary, over the wicket ; that the initiated may know that an 
Assembly of the ***** are in session. 

The M. W. will proceed to open an Assembly in due form as 
follows : 

Precisely at the hour for opening, the M. W. standing at the 
Capital, shall give one rap and say, "All persons not entitled to sit 
with us will please retire." After a short pause, he will say: 

M. W. The proper Officer will satisfy himself that 
all present are entitled to sit with us, and make the prop- 
er record. . . 

Initiation. [The assistant U. K. meets the candidate in the ves- 
tibule.] 

A. U. K. Do you believe in God, the Creator and 
Universal Father of All? 

Candidate. I do. 

A. U. K. Do you obey the Universal Ordinance of 
God, in gaining your bread by the sweat of your brow? 

Candidate. I do. 

A . U. K. Are you willing to take a solemn vow bind- 
ing you to S. 0. and M. A.? 

Candidate. I am. 

A. U. K. Do you swear or affirm? 

Candidate answers as to which way. 

The M. W. has previously to their entering, formed the Assembly 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR ai 

in a circle around the centre, leaving an opening in front of the W. F. 
station, hands joined, arms crossed, right arm over left, palm down, 
left arm under right, palm up. The U. K. halts at the opening and 
says: 

U. K. M. VV., Mr. , has satisfactorily answered 

all inquiries and now desires to be covered with our 
shield and admitted to fellowship in this noble and holy 
Order. 

After a short pause, and amid perfect silence, the M. W. says: 
M. W . Place him at the centre and administer the 
vow. 

The U. K. places the candidate and friends at the centre; places 
their left hands on the sacred Scriptures, fingers over, thumb under; 
directs the candidate to grasp the * of his friend, the friend that of 
the U. K., and the U. K. takes that of the candidate, the three form- 
ing a triangle over and around the Altar, and all pronounce the Vow. 
Affirmation, when preferred by the candidate, made in the same way. 

I , do truly and solemnly swear, (or affirm) 

that I will never reveal, by word, act, art, or implication, 
positive or negative, to any person or persons whatsoever 
the name or object of this Order, the name, or person of 
any one a member thereof, its signs, mysteries, arts, priv- 
ileges or benefits: now or hereafter, given to, or con- 
ferred on me, any words spoken, acts done, or objects 
intended; except in a legal, and authorized manner, or 
by special permission of the Order granted to me. 

I do truly and solemnly promise strictly to obey all 
laws, regulations, solemn injunctions, and legal sum- 
mons, that may be sent, said or handed to me. 

I do truly and solemnly promise that I will to the best 
of my ability, defend the life, interest, reputation and 
family, of all true members of this Order, help and assist 
all employed, and unemployed, unfortunate, or dis- 
tressed Brothers to procure employ, secure just remuner- 
ation, relieve their distress, and counsel others to aid 



22 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

them, so that they and theirs may receive and enjoy the 
just fruits of their labor, and exercise of their art. 

All this I swear (or affirm), without reservation or 
evasion, to do and perform until death, or honorable 
discharge, (an accepted resignation), and bind myself 
under the penalty of the scorn and neglect due to perjury, 
and violated honor, as one unworthy of trust or assistance. 
So help me God, and keep me steadfast unto the end. 
Amen. 

All respond Amen. 

The M. W. gives one tap to seat the Assembly. The U. K. will, 
after the Assembly is seated, proceed with the candidate to the Capital, 
and report to the M. W. 

U. K. M. W., Mr. , has taken the solemn 

vow of S. O. and M. A. 

M . W. That act has covered him with the shield of 
our Brotherhood. Proceed with him to the Base of the 
Sanctuary, there to receive the instructions of the W. F. 

Arrived at the Base the U. K. introduces the candidate to the W. 
F. thus: 

U. K. W. F., by permission of this Assembly of true 
*s and the command of the M. W., I present to you 
Mr. , for instruction. 

W. F. In the beginning God ordained that man 
should labor, not as a curse, but as a blessing; not as a 
punishment, but as a means of development, physically, 
mentally, morally, and has set thereunto his seal of ap- 
proval, in the rich increase and reward. By labor is 
brought forth the kindly fruits of the earth in rich abun- 
dance for our sustenance and comfort; by labor, (not 
exhaustive) is promoted health of body and strength of 
mind; and labor garners the priceless stores of wisdom 
and knowledge. It is the "Philosopher's Stone," every- 
thing it touches turns to gold. "Labor is noble and 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 23 

holy." To glorify God in its exercise, to defend it from 
degradation, to divest it of the evils to body, mind and 
estate, which ignorance and greed have imposed; to 
rescue the toiler from the grasp of the selfish is a work 
worthy of the noblest and best of our race. Without 
your seeking, without even your knowledge, you have 
been selected from among your fellows, for that exalted 
purpose. Are you willing to accept the responsibility, 
and trusting in God and the support of sworn true *s, 
labor with what ability you possess, for the triumph of 
these principles among men? 

The candidate answers. If affirmatively, the W. F. will say to 
the candidate and the U. K. : 

W. F. We will now proceed with our friend to the 
M.W. 

And accompanying them to the M. W. says: 

W. F. M. W., I present Mr. , as a fitting 

and worthy person to receive the honor of fellowship 
with this noble and holy Order. 

The M. W. taking his hand will say: 

M. W. On behalf of the toiling millions of earth, I 
welcome you to this Sanctuary, dedicated to the service 
of God, by serving humanity. Open and public asso- 
ciations having failed, after a struggle of centuries, to 
protect or advance the interest of labor, we have law- 
fully constituted this Assembly. Hid from public view, 
covered by an impenetrable veil of secrecy (not to pro- 
mote or shield wrong doing) but to shield ourselves and 
you, from persecution and wrong by men in our own 
sphere and calling, as well as others out of it, when we 
endeavor to secure the just reward of our toil. In using 
this power of organized effort and co-operation, we but 
imitate the example of capital heretofore set in number- 
less instances. In all the multifarious branches of trade, 



24 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

capital has its combinations, and whether intended or 
not, it crushes the manly hopes of labor and tramples 
poor humanity in the dust. We mean no conflict with 
legitimate enterprise, no antagonism to necessary capi- 
tal, but men in their haste and greed, blinded by self 
interest, overlook the interests of others, and sometimes 
even violate the rights of those they deem helpless. We 
mean to uphold the dignity of labor, to affirm the no- 
bility of all who live in accordance with the ordinance 
of God, "in the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread." 
We mean to create a healthy public opinion on the sub- 
ject of labor, (the only creator of values or capital) and 
the justice of its receiving a full, just share of the values 
or capital it has created. We shall with all our strength, 
support laws made to harmonize the interests of labor 
and capital, for labor alone gives life and value to cap- 
ital, and also those laws which tend to lighten the ex- 
haustiveness of toil. We shall use every lawful and 
honorable means to procure and retain employ for one 
another, coupled with just and fair remuneration, and 
should accident or misfortune befall one of our num- 
ber, render such aid as lies within our power to give, 
without inquiring his country or his creed ; and without 
approving of general strikes among artisans, yet should 
it become justly necessary to enjoin an oppressor, we will 
protect and aid any of our number who thereby may 
suffer loss, and as opportunity offers, extend a helping 
hand to all branches of honorable toil. Such is but an 
epitome of our objects. Your duties and obligations, 
your privileges and benefits you will learn as you mingle 
with, and become acquainted in, the noble and holy Or- 
der of the *s of *. . . [Form of instruction in signs, 
symbols, etc., omitted.] 



2. FOUNDING CEREMONY 



From a Manual, not dated. This ceremony wai prepared by Stephens 
in the early seventies, and was used in manuscript form until 1878. 
In that year the references to G.A. and L.A. were added, indicating 
the General Assembly and Local Assembly. The Cypher was also 
made in 1878 by the grand secretary, Charles H. Litchman. At the 
first General Assembly, held at Reading, Pennsylvania, January 1-4, 
1878, the Declaration of Principles of the Industrial Congress of 
1874 (except sections 1, 13, and 14) was adopted as the Preamble to 
the Constitution of the Knights of Labor. This preamble was after- 
wards substituted in the Founding Ceremony for the religious feature*. 



V 
V 
A 
A 



CYPHER 

w o 



M 

N 
X 



D 
C 

a 

B 

p 



I 

F 
3 
H 
L 
E 



K 
T 
X 
Y 
Z 
A 



The usual characters for 
numbers- 1, 2, 3, etc. 



KEY TO CYPHER 



A 
B 
C 
D 



E 
F 
G 
H 



I 

J 
K 

L 

M 

N 



O 
P 

Q 
R 

S 
T 



U 
V 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 



After becoming fa- 
miliar with the cypher 
destroy this explanation. 



26 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

With a full complement of D. A. officers at the stations, the W. A. 
(or M. W.) shall give ipw hvf and elevate the xvpa, all ris- 
ing. Perfect quiet being had, the choir shall sing or the W. A. (or 
M. W. ) and brothers shall read in responsive style the xxixth Psalm. 

W. A. (or M. W.) The earth is the Lord's and the 
fulness thereof ; the world, and they that dwell therein. 

Brothers. For he hath founded it upon the seas, and 
established it upon the floods. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Who shall ascend into the hill of 
the Lord? or who shall stand in his holy place? 

Brothers. He that hath clean hands, and a pure 
heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity nor 
sworn deceitfully. 

W. A. (or M. W.) He shall receive the blessing 
from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of his 
salvation. 

Brothers. This is the generation of them that seek 
him, that seek thy face, O Jacob. 

(A short pause and solemn silence.) 

Selah. 

A pause of silence. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; 
and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King 
of glory shall come in. 

Brothers. Who is this King of glory? The Lord 
strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; 
even lift them up, ye everlasting doors, and the King 
of glory shall come in. . . 

Brothers. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of 
hosts, He is the King of glory. Selah. 

VOLUNTARY 

The W. A. (or M. W.) shall advance to the centre, and facing 
the Capital shall say: 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 27 

W. A. (or M. W.) Behold the tabernacle of God is 
with men. (Rev. xxi. 3.) 

Response by all. 

Brothers. And he will dwell with them, and they 
shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, 
and be their God. (Rev. xxi. 3.) 

Choir and Brothers. 

AIL Amen. 

The W. A. (or M. W.) shall draft or describe the nhwve Lwva 
im cponxexiia at the centre, and when done resume his station, give 
exhww HVFL, form the members of the new Assembly in a chain 
around the centre (the other officers standing at their stations) and 
say: 

W. A. (or M. W.) Thus do I imprint the NHWVE 
Lwva im cponxexiia on the centre of the sanctuary, 
and thereby dedicate it to the service of God 
by serving Humanity. Brothers, look well upon that 
Sacred Symbol of "God and Humanity," and indelibly 
imprint it upon your memory. Henceforth, while mem- 
ory lasts, or ever this Globe performs its annual cycles in 
obedience to the Laws of the Universe, so shall ye per- 
form your obligations in obedience to the Laws of Uni- 
versal Brotherhood. 

Jubilate - Full Orchestra. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Venerable Sage, How can the 
pivaw and xiaz ihawh of the cponxel im awiH attain 
their objects. 

V. S. By ever standing miie ei miie, xvpa op xvpa, 
and bopa xoEx bopa an unbroken circle of Harmony. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Venerable Sage, How do the 
Pivaw and xiaz ihawh of the cponxel im awiH re- 
ceive others into fellowship? 

V. S. By standing MIIE El MIIE, etc. (as above), 
an unbroken circle of Harmony and Friendship. 



28 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol 

W. A. (or M. W.) Venerable Sage, how can the 
pivaw and xiaz ihawh of the cponxel im awm pre- 
serve the A. K. and shield themselves and us from wrong 
and persecution? 

V. S. By ever standing MIIE El MIIE, etc. ( as above) , 
an unbroken circle of Harmony, Friendship, and Se- 
crecy, an Impenetrable Shield. 

To the members of the new Assembly : 

W. A. (or M. W.) Ye have heard. Are you willing 
to thus secure yourselves and us from wrong and per- 
secution? 

They must all answer distinctly. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Then repeat: 

1 (each giving his own name) do truly and solemnly 
swear (or affirm) that I will never reveal, by word, act, 
art or implication, positive or negative, to any person or 
persons whatsoever, except my Religious Confessor at 
the Confessional, 2 the name or object of this Order; the 
name or person of any one a member thereof ; its signs, 
mysteries, arts, privileges, or benefits, now or hereafter 
given to or conferred on me; any words spoken, acts 
done, or objects intended, except in a legal and author- 
ized manner, or by special permission of the Order 
granted to me. And should this Assembly lapse, decay, 
or cease to work, I will at all times and at every expense 
and trouble, return and deposit, and see safely and se- 
curely placed in the hands of the officers legally author- 
ized to receive them, the Charter, A. K., books, papers, 
properties, moneys and valuables of this Assembly. So 
help me God, and keep me steadfast to the end. Amen. 

2 The words "except my Religious Confessor" were added by Thomas P. 
Crowne, and the words "at the Confessional" by T. V. Powderly, in February, 
1878.- Eds. 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 29 

To the Venerable Sage: 

W. A. (or M. IV.) Venerable Sage, how can the 
pivaw and xiaz ihawh of the cponxel im owih pro- 
vide for necessities and meet emergencies? 

V. S. Ever and forever standing MIIE EI MIIE, 
etc. (as above) , an unbroken circle of Harmony, Friend- 
ship, Secrecy, and Obedience to law and to the officers 
of their choice. 

W . A. (or M. W.) To the members of the new Assembly: 

W. A. (or M. W.) Ye have heard. Are you willing 
to obey the laws of cponxexiia, and attend when- 
ever and wherever solemnly enjoined and legally sum- 
moned? 

They all answer distinctly. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Then repeat: 

I do truly and solemnly promise strictly to obey all 
laws, regulations, solemn injunctions, and legal sum- 
mons that may be sent, said, or handed to me, and 
should I be summoned by the nhwve lwvo im 
cponxexiia I will attend and bear my part with- 
out fear, favor, or expectation of reward, and should it 
be necessary to resist special pleading in any court or 
inquest whatsoever, I will remain mute at the hazard of 
imprisonment, or loss of goods, or employ, where the 
rights of cponxexiia are involved. So help me God, 
and keep me steadfast to the end. Amen. 

W. A. (or M. TV.) Venerable Sage, How do the 
pivaw and xiaz ihawh of the cponxel im awm re- 
ceive the law of cponxexiia? 

V. S. Ever, for ever, and for evermore standing 
MIIE El MIIE, etc. (as above), an unbroken circle of 
Harmony, Friendship, Secrecy, Obedience, and Mutual 
Assistance. 



3 o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

W. A. (or M. TV.) Repeat the Great Law of 

CPONXEXIIA. 

V. S. I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat; I 
was thirsty, and ye gave me drink; naked, and ye clothed 
me; I was sick, and ye visited me; I was in prison, and 
ye came unto me. 

To the members of the new Assembly: 

W. A. (or M. W.) Ye have heard. Are you willing 
to vow unswerving fidelity to that Great Law? 

They all answer. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Then repeat: 

I do truly and solemnly promise that I will, to the 
best of my ability, defend the life, interest, reputation, 
and family of all true members of this Order; help and 
assist all employed and unemployed, unfortunate or dis- 
tressed Brothers to procure employ, and secure just re- 
muneration ; relieve their distress, and counsel others to 
aid them, so that they and theirs may receive and enjoy 
the just fruits of their labor and exercise of their art ; and 
even in prison will not desert a cponxe im owih until 
cponxexiia passes judgment and gives me permission. 
So help me God and keep me steadfast unto the end. 
Amen. 

Amen by the Choir and Brothers with Organ accompaniment. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Ye have faithfully and earnestly 
performed your part towards men. Let us mioa aowvp 
xvpal over true and sincere xwvhel, and vix ikh xwval 
in reverence and adoration and ask God's Blessing. 

The Venerable Sage leads in appropriate prayer, at the end of 
which the Amen is given in unison, with musical accompaniment. 
W. A. (or M. W.) then says: 

W. A. (or M. W.) WKHWCV. 

V. S. O XVTW MIKPA OE. 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 31 

W. A. (or M. W.) Then read from the records of 
eternity what you have here found. 

V. S. In the year of the Independence of the 

United States of America (or beginning of whatever 

government the Assembly is located under), in the 

year of the nineteenth century of the Christian Era (or 
whatever era time is reckoned by in the country where 
the Assembly is founded), and the — day of the month 

and in the quarter of the year of 

cponxexiia, in the (town or city of state, government, 
or dominion), was found in working order the (craft 
and name) Assembly, No. — of the pivaw and xiaz 

IHAWH of the CPONXEL IM CIWIH. 

W. A. (or M. W.) Esto Perpetual 
V. S. May it be perpetual ! 

Choir and Brothers. 

"Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia, praise ye the Lord." The W. A. 
(or M. W.) gives one tap and seats the Assembly. 

The officers of the Assembly should now be installed in accordance 
with the Installation Ceremony. 

[The Installation Ceremony follows.] 



3 . THE GREAT SEAL OF KNIGHTHOOD 

The initials stood for Secrecy, Obedience and Mutual Assistance, the num- 
ber in the center being that of the Local Assembly. When a special meeting of 
a Local Assembly was called it was done by imprinting the seal, in chalk, on 
sidewalk or wall with initials above given left off. The number of the Local 
Assembly would appear in the center and in place of the initials M.A., the 
hour of the meeting. 




/ 






4 . THE SPREAD OF SECRET ORDERS 

Allan Pinkerton [Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives, 88-89] 
writing in 1878, said: 

1 organization called the Knights of Labor has recently attracted some 
attention in the coal regions of Pennsylvania. It is probably an amalgamation 
of the Molly Maguirea and the Commune. In the vicinity of Scranton and 
Wilkesbarre, two-thirds of the workingmen belong to it. . . It is certainly 
true that the agitation in labor circles during the past few years, under 
leadership of agents of the Commune, has caused the outgrowth of numerous 
organizations, which, while working independently, have the same ultimate 
object in view, and propose to accomplish the same object, namely ; the de- 
struction of all government by the ballot, and if that shall fail, by force, when 
the proper opportunity arrives. Among these are the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, The Junior Sons of '76, and the Universal Brotherhood. There are 
scores more, but these are samples of them all." 

Pinkerton reprints [pages 90-95] the ritual of the Universal Brotherhood. 
John M. Davis, the editor of the National Labor Tribune, of Pittsburgh, from 
whose paper the following notices are taken, was the leading Western organizer 
of the Knights of Labor. Beginning in 1877, the Tribune added the five stars 
to the list of organizations for which it was the official organ. The rapid 
growth of this order after 1875 led to the first national delegate meeting, at 
Reading, Pennsylvania, January 1-4, 1878. At this meeting the General As- 
sembly was founded and a constitution was framed. The delegates decided 
against publicity; but at the second regular session, in 1879, assemblies were 
permitted to make the name public after April x, 1879. 

National Labor Tribune, March 13, 1875, p. 1, col. 5. 

The organization of the various trades into a secret 
labor organization has been conducted in the east to very 
satisfactory results. In Philadelphia all trades are 
united. They are able to turn out twenty thousand at 
twenty-four hours' notice without public notice. The 
principles of the organization are such as to allow all 
who toil in it, without reference to craft. It is the latest 
and most successful effort of labor to combine for its 
own defense. The obligation of secrecy gives it per- 
manency and safety. The well known Archbishop 
Wood, of Philadelphia, gives it his sanction. 

Nothing is required but that a man earns his living 
by labor, and desires to unite with his fellow men for 



34 A MERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

their common good. The organization has spread 
through several eastern cities, and sweeps in all who 
have any desire to see labor bettered. 

We understand it is coming to Pittsburgh. If so, we 
heartily welcome it. In it, men of all crafts, and all 
shades of opinion and belief can meet, and stand on one 
common platform for one common purpose. In it all 
men come back to the first pure and simple principles 
and ideas of republican government as it was handed us 
by Hamilton, Washington and Adams, and all the co- 
lonial patriots. Our unions are grand and powerful 
agencies for the protection of our labor, but that is all. 
This union of unions, is designed to reach farther, and 
higher, and deeper, and take hold of and grapple with 
questions, and interests, and difficulties which our trades' 
unions cannot by its nature handle. We must make so- 
cial machinery to suit the times. This proposed organ- 
ization is not a talking union, but a working one. It is 
for action, and nothing else. It means business. 

National Labor Tribune, April 24, 1875, p. 2, col. 2. 

When men cannot assert their rights and resist a wrong 
perpetrated by an employer, for fear of discharge, it is 
time to devise some plan for the better protection of our 
labor. 

When men are persecuted for unionism, when they 
are robbed of the true value of their labor, when they 
feel it unsafe to speak in their interest, it is time to look 
farther and deeper for some means of defense. 

When monopolies become stronger than the law, when 
legislatures become the servants of monopolies, when 
corporations can successfully bid defiance to public 
good and trample on individual rights it is time for the 
people to come together to erect defenses for personal 
rights and public safety. 

When the commercial interests combine to exact the 



ten] THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 35 

greatest share of profits of labor and give labor the 
least, even to the verge of starvation, when all attempts 
of labor to openly oppose and defeat the efforts of these 
combinations are made the pretext for still further op- 
pression and persecution, it is time for the people to 
unite together for their individual and common safe- 
ty. . . These considerations have prompted men in 
all trades to have recourse to secret organization, not for 
wrong doing, but to bring about a better state of affairs. 
We have noticed from time to time the growth of one 
of the most powerful of these orders. It is especially 
deserving of notice and confidence as being exclusively 
composed of workingmen. Its numbers and the harmony 
and unity produced entitle it to our attention. It is rap- 
idly extending and will, ere long, number its hundreds 
of thousands, all guided by one common impulse, and 
for one common end. It numbers in its ranks our best 
men. In it all are equal. In it all are heard, respected 
and benefited. We learn that it is rapidly becoming a 
national organization. Cost of membership is little, to 
let in all good men. If ever an order turned bad men 
into good ones this one does. If there is a spark of man- 
hood in a man this order will kindle it into a flame of 
genial warmth for all who toil. We are glad to see the 
spread of this order. Its objects are noble and holy. It 
makes every man in it purer and better. It widens his 
comprehension, lifts his conceptions, widens his under- 
standing, deepens his affections and ennobles his whole 
nature. The order is moving westward. It has a solid 
footing in Pittsburgh, at which place officers are re- 
ceiving applications for its extension further west. All 
enquiries receive proper attention, but from the nature 
of the order the replies cannot be as full as some would 
like. To such we say enter the holy of holies and know 
all. 



VI 
FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 



I. ILLINOIS FARMERS, 1858 

Periam, J. The Grounds%oell (Chicago, 1874), 104-206. In aelecting 
and editing the documents of this chapter, we have been assisted by 
Dr. John Lee Coulter a of the Bureau of the Census, Washington, 
D.C., and Dr. Solon Buck * of the University of Illinois. The follow- 
ing platform waa adopted at Centralis, Illinois, on September 15, 1858. 

We believe that the time has come when the produc- 
ing classes should assert, not only their independence, 
but their supremacy; that non-producers can not be re- 
lied upon as guarantees of fairness; and that laws en- 
acted and administered by lawyers are not a true stand- 
ard of popular sentiment. 

We believe that a general application to commerce of 
the principle that the majority should rule, would in- 
crease the income and diminish the outlay of producers, 
and, at the same time, elevate the standard of mercantile 
morality. 

We believe that the producer of a commodity and the 
purchaser of it should, together, have more voice in 
fixing its price than he who simply carries it from one 
to the other. 

We believe that the true method of guarding against 
commercial revulsions is to bring the producer and con- 
sumer as near together as possible, thus diminishing the 
alarming number and the more alarming power of non- 
producers. 

We believe that in union there is strength, and that in 

* See: Coulter, J. L. "Organization among the Farmers of the United States," 
Yale Review, November, 1909. 

♦See: Buck, Solon J. "Agricultural Organization in Illinois, 1870-1880," 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, April, 191a 



4 o AMERI CAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

union alone can the necessarily isolated condition of 
farmers be so strengthened as to enable them to cope, on 
equal terms, with men whose callings are, in their very 
nature, a permanent and self-created combination of in- 
terests. 

We believe that system of commerce to be the best 
which transacts the most business, with the least tax on 
production, and which, instead of being a master, is 
merely a servant. 

We believe that good prices are as necessary to the 
prosperity of farmers as good crops, and, in order to 
create such a power as to insure as much uniformity in 
prices as in products, farmers must keep out of debt; 
and that, in order to keep out of debt, they must pay for 
what they buy and exact the same from others. 

Declaration of Principles. These truths we hold 
to be self-evident, that, as production both precedes' bar- 
ter and employs more labor and capital, it is more 
worthy the care and attention of governmente and of in- 
dividuals; that in the honorable transaction of a legiti- 
mate business there is no necessity for secret cost-marks ; 
that, in all well-regulated communities, there should be 
the smallest possible number of non-producers that is 
necessary to the welfare of the human race; that labor 
and capital employed in agriculture should receive as 
much reward as labor and capital employed in any 
other pursuit; that, as the exchanger is merely an agent 
between the producer and consumer, he should not have 
a chief voice in the establishment of prices; that the in- 
terests of agriculture and of commerce can only be con- 
sidered as identical when each has an equal share in 
regulating barter; and that the principal road to honor 
and distinction, in this country, should lead through 
productive industry. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 41 

Plan of Operations. First. The formation of 
Farmers' Clubs wherever practical, the object of which 
shall be to produce concert of action on all matters con- 
nected with their interests. 

Second. The establishment, as far as possible, of the 
ready pay system in all pecuniary transactions. 

Third. The formation of wholesale purchasing and 
selling agencies in the great centers of commerce, so that 
producers may, in a great measure, have it in their 
power to save the profits of retailers. 

Fourth. The organization of such a power as to in- 
sure the creation of a national agricultural bureau, the 
main object of which shall be an annual or semi-annual 
census of all our national products, and the collection 
and dissemination of valuable seeds, plants, and facts. 

Fifth. The election of producers to all places of pub- 
lic trust and honor the general rule, and the election of 
non-producers the exception. 



2. ILLINOIS FARMERS, 1869-1873 
(a) THE FIRST BLOOMINGTON CONVENTION, 1869 

(1) The Call. 

Periam, J. The Groundpwell, 225-227. This call was sent out in March, 
1869, by H. C. Wheeler, a farmer, of Du Page County, Illinois, who 
was afterwards a member of the legislature. The meeting was held 
at Bloomington, Illinois, April 20, 1869. 

To the Farmers of the Northwest: Will you 
permit a working farmer, whose entire interest is iden- 
tified with yours, to address to you a word of warning? 

A crisis in our affairs is approaching, and dangers 
threaten. 

You are aware that the price of many of our leading 
staples is so low that they can not be transported to the 
markets of Europe, or even to our own seaboard, and 
leave a margin for profits, by reason of the excessive 
rates of transportation. 

During the war but little attention was given to the 
great increase in the price of freights, as the price of 
produce was proportionately high; but we look in vain 
for any abatement, now that we are obliged to accept less 
than half the former prices for much that we raise. 

We look in vain for any diminution in the carrying 
rates, to correspond with the rapidly-declining prices 
of the means of living, and of materials for constructing 
boats, cars, engines, and track; but, on the other hand, 
we see a total ignoring of that rule of reciprocity be- 
tween the carrying and producing interests which pre- 
vails in every other department of trade and commerce. 

Does it not behoove us, then, to inquire earnestly how 
long we can stand this descending scale on the one 



FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 43 

hand, and the ascending on the other, and which party 
must inevitably and speedily go to the wall? 

I by no means counsel hostility to the carrying inter- 
est-it is one of the producer's best friends; but, like the 
fire that cooks our food and warms our dwelling, it may 
also become the hardest of masters. The fire fiend 
laughs as he escapes from our control, and in an hour 
licks up and sweeps away the accumulations of years of 
toil. 

As we cherish the fire fiend, so we welcome the clangor 
of the carrier fiend as he approaches our dwellings, 
opening up communication with the busy marts of trade. 
But it needs no great stretch of imagination to hear 
also the each! each! cachinations of the carrier fiend as 
he speeds beyond our reach, and leaving no alternative 
but compliance with his exorbitant demands. 

Many of us are not aware of the gigantic proportions 
the carrying interest is assuming. Less than forty years 
since the first railroad fire was kindled on this continent, 
but which now, like a mighty conflagration, is crackling 
and roaring over every prairie and through every moun- 
tain gorge. The first year produced fifteen miles; the 
last, five thousand. 

On the same mammoth scale goes on the work of or- 
ganization and direction. By the use of almost unlimit- 
ed means, it enlists in its service the finest talents of the 
land as officers, attorneys, agents, and lobbyists; gives 
free passes and splendid entertainments to the repre- 
sentatives of the people; and even transports whole 
legislatures into exceeding high mountains, showing 
them the kingdoms of the world, with lavish promises of 
reward for fealty and support: witness its land grants 
and franchises secured from the powers that be, such as 
no similar interest ever acquired even in the Old World. 



44 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

In Europe every corporation returns its franchises to 
the Crown within a specified time, while here their titles 
are more secure than the farmers' warranty deeds. 

Do you say that you are out of debt, and can stop pro- 
ducing when it does not pay? I tell you, my friends, 
that the carrying interest, with its present momentum 
unchecked, will soon acquire the power to tax your un- 
incumbered possessions into leaseholds, and you and me 
into tenants at will. 

I fancy I hear the response: "These things are so, 
but what can we do?" Rather, my friends, what can we 
not do? What power can withstand the combined and 
concentrated force of the producing interest of this Re- 
public? But what avails our strength if, like Poly- 
phemus in the fable, we are unable to use it for want of 
eyesight; or, like a mighty army without discipline, 
every man fighting on his own hook; or, worse, reposing 
in fancied security while Delilahs of the enemy have well 
nigh shorn away the last lock of strength? In this re- 
spect we constitute a solitary exception, every other in- 
terest having long since protected itself by union and 
organization. 

As a measure calculated to bring all interested, as it 
were, within speaking distance, and as a stepping stone 
to an efficient organization, I propose that the farmers 
of the great north-west concentrate their efforts, power, 
and means, as the great transportation companies have 
done theirs, and accomplish something, instead of frit- 
tering away their efforts in doing nothing. 

And, to this end, I suggest a convention of those op- 
posed to the present tendency to monopoly and extor- 
tionate charges by our transportation companies, to meet 
at Bloomington, Illinois, on the twentieth day of April 
next, for the purpose of discussion, and the appointment 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 45 

of a committee to raise funds to be expended in the em- 
ployment of the highest order of legal talent, to put in 
form of report and argument an exposition of the rights, 
wrongs, interests, and injuries (with their remedies) of 
the producing masses of the northwest, and lay it before 
the authorities of each state and of the general govern- 
ment. Congress is now in session, and the constitutional 
convention of this state will then again be convened. 
Farmers, now is the time for action 1 

(2) The Resolutions. 

Peri am, J. The Groundswell, 229-230. 

This Convention declares, First: That the present 
rates of taxation and transportation are unreasonable 
and oppressive, and ought to be reduced. 

Second: That our legal rights to transportation and 
market ought to be clearly set forth and defined. 

Third: That if there be any legal remedy under ex- 
isting laws for the wrongs we suffer, such remedy ought 
to be ascertained and enforced. 

Fourth: That, if there be no such remedy, measures 
should be taken to secure one by appropriate legislation. 

Fifth: That statistics should be collected and pub- 
lished to show the relation of north-western products to 
those of the rest of the country. 

Sixth : That nothing can be accomplished for the en- 
forcement of our rights, and the redress of our wrongs, 
without an efficient organization on the well-known 
principles that give the great corporations such tre- 
mendous power. 

Seventh : That, with honest pay for honest labor, and 
compensation commensurate with great service, we can 
secure the assistance and support of the highest order of 
learning, ability, and skill. 

Eighth : That this Convention should appoint a com- 



46 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

missioner of agricultural and carrying statistics, to pre- 
pare and publish, with the aid of eminent counsel, 
a report of the products of the north-west, the rights to 
market and transportation, and the remedies available 
for existing wrongs, the expenses thereof to be defrayed 
by subscription price for such report. 

(b) ILLINOIS STATE FARMERS' ASSOCIATION, 1873 

(1) Preliminary Convention, Kewanee — Resolutions. 

Peri am, J. The Groundsiuell, 23 6, 237. The dates of the convention 
were October 16 and 17, 1872. This association was launched as a 
permanent organization January 15, 1873, at the second Bloomington 
convention. Article 11 of the constitution shows the purpose of the 
association to be "the promotion of the moral, intellectual, social, and 
pecuniary welfare of the farmers of Illinois." 

RESOLVED, that the agricultural interests of this coun- 
try are the primary source of its growth, wealth, and 
prosperity; and that the protection and development of 
these are essential to the prosperity of every related in- 
dustry, and also of every other vocation or business. 

RESOLVED, that the immediate objects and purposes of 
the convention should be to devise some means, or sys- 
tem of means, to cheapen the process of production, and 
lessen the expense of transportation. 

Resolved, that the success of co-operative effort, as 
illustrated in the accumulation of capital for the carry- 
ing forward of immense business enterprises; in the 
combination of workingmen for the increase of wages, 
or the restriction of the hours of labor; in the formation 
of rings for controlling the price of agricultural or man- 
ufactured products, and for "bulling" or "bearing" the 
markets of every kind; and in the thorough and efficient 
organization of political parties for partisan ends, should 
teach the farmer the lesson, both of its efficiency and its 
adaptation to the particular needs, if applied with in- 
telligence and wisdom. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 47 

Resolved, that it is the duty of Farmers' Clubs, and 
similar organizations, to put forth their best efforts for 
extending and multiplying these organizations, until 
they shall compass the industrial interest of the entire 
west. 

Resolved, that this convention regards with favor the 
growth and prosperity of the organization called Pa- 
trons of Husbandry, and accept the evidences of its bene- 
fits and efficiency with hopeful expectations of its future 
usefulness. 

RESOLVED, that the destruction of Canada thistles and 
noxious weeds is a matter of vital importance to the agri- 
cultural interests of the west; and this convention would 
commend the action of the legislature of Illinois in its 
efforts to accomplish this object. 

Resolved, that the strength or weakness of the Rail- 
road Law, so-called, should be determined by its thor- 
ough trial and enforcement; and this convention would 
demand additional legislation on the subject, if required. 

RESOLVED, that this convention appoint a State Cen- 
tral Committee of one, and a committee of one from 
each county, whose duties shall be to act as a medium of 
communication between the various farmers' organiza- 
tions. 

RESOLVED, that the convention return a vote of thanks 
to the citizens of Kewanee and the Wethersfield Farm- 
ers' Club, for the very generous hospitality extended to 
the members of this convention ; and that especial thanks 
are due the aforesaid Club for inaugurating and carry- 
ing to so successful an issue this convention. 

(2) Call for the Second Bloomington Convention. 
Periam, J. The Grounds-well, 243, 244. 

Farmers' Convention. "Equal and exact justice to 
all; special privileges to none." The undersigned, the 




48 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Executive Committee appointed by the convention of 
delegates from Farmers' Clubs, held at Kewanee, Oct. 
1 6th and 17th, 1872, in pursuance of the duties assigned 
them, do hereby invite each Farmers' Club, Grange, or 
other agricultural, horticultural, or industrial associa- 
tion of the State of Illinois, to send delegates for every 
thirty-three members, and fraction in excess of that num- 
ber (provided, that every organization shall be entitled 
to at least one delegate), to an Illinois Farmers' State 
Convention, to be held in the City of Bloomington, 
Wednesday and Thursday, Jan. 15 and 16, 1873, com- 
mencing at 9 a.m. on Wednesday, with three sessions 
each day-at 9 a.m., 2 p.m., and 7 p.m. 

The purpose of said convention is to perfect the or- 
ganization made at Kewanee, by the formation of a 
State Farmers' Association for said delegates, adoption 
of a constitution, and for securing the organization and 
representation of associations in every county, and, if 
possible, in every township, of the state; to discuss and 
insist upon reform in railway transportation, the sale of 
agricultural implements, the sale of farm products by 
commission merchants, and such other abuses as have 
grown up in our midst, and are now taxing and im- 
poverishing producers and consumers; and to transact 
such other business as may be brought before the Con- 
vention. 

[L. F. ROSS, JOHN Prickett, Wm. Beem, Commit- 
tee (page 237).] 

(j) Resolutions, Second Bloomington Convention, 1873. 
Periam, J. The Groundsivell, 258-262. 

[By Committee on Resolutions] WHEREAS, the con- 
stitution of Illinois requires the legislature to pass laws 
to correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and 
extortion by railroads; and, whereas, the legislature has 






ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 49 

complied with this provision of the constitution; and, 
whereas, the railroads in the State of Illinois stand in 
open defiance of the laws, by charging rates greatly in 
excess of what the laws allow, and by unjust discrimina- 
tions and extortions; and, whereas, these exactions and 
extortions bear most heavily upon the producing class- 
es; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, that this convention of farmers and pro- 
ducers insist upon the enforcement of these laws. 

Resolved, that in obedience to the universal law that 
the creature is not above the creator, we declare our un- 
alterable convfction that all corporations are subject to 
regulation by law. 

Resolved, that we call upon every department of the 
state government- the executive, legislative, and judi- 
cial -in their joint and several capacities, to execute the 
constitution and laws now in force; and if amendments 
or new laws are needed to enforce obedience, we call 
for their speedy enactment. 

Resolved, that cheap transportation is of vital inter- 
est to the west, and that every combination to increase 
the price above what is just and legitimate is a conspiracy 
against the rights of the people, and a robbery which we 
loudly protest against. 

Resolved, that in the efforts of our officers to execute 
the laws in question, no narrow policy should be pur- 
sued by the legislature, but that the magnitude of the 
matter at stake demands that ample appropriations be 
made, to enable those in charge of the object to act with 
vigor and effect. 

RESOLVED, that the power of this, and all local organ- 
izations, should be wielded at the ballot-box by the elec- 
tion to all offices, from highest to lowest -legislative, ex- 
ecutive, and judicial -of such, and only such, persons as 



5 o A MERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

sympathize with us in this movement, and believe, as 
we do, that there is a rightful remedy for this wrong, 
and that it can and must be enforced ; and to this end we 
pledge our votes at all elections where they will have a 
bearing against the wrong in question. 

Resolved, that the late decision in the McLean Coun- 
ty Circuit Court, sustaining the constitutionality of our 
railroad law, is sound, and we hail it with satisfaction. 

RESOLVED, that persons traveling upon the railroads 
of the state, having tendered to the conductor the legal 
fare, are in line of their duty, and as they have complied 
with all their legal obligations, are entitled to the pro- 
tection of the civil power of the state ; and any conductor 
or other officers or employee of the road attempting to 
disturb any such person, or eject him from the cars, are 
violators of the peace and dignity of the state, and should 
be punished by exemplary penalties. . . 

[Mr. Carter, from the Committee on Resolutions, 
submitted a report, as follows:] 

RESOLVED, that we recommend to our legislature the 
enactment of a law making it a misdemeanor for any 
county or state officer to accept a free pass from any rail- 
road, while holding office. 

Resolved, that we view with favor the opening of 
feasible water communications, and all propositions to 
so improve and enlarge the great water line of the lakes 
and the St. Lawrence as to practically bring tide water 
to Chicago; and, for this purpose, completing the Illi- 
nois river improvement, and the extension of the canal 
to Rock Island, so as to connect the vast interior river 
system with the ocean commerce at our great commercial 
city, meet our approbation. 

RESOLVED, that it is the sense of this convention that, 
in the appointment of railroad and warehouse commis- 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 51 

sioners, at least one of the members of that commission 
should be a man whose business interests, sympathies, 
and knowledge of the experiences and wants of the 
farmer class, should fairly constitute him a representa- 
tive man of that class, and who shall be so recommended 
by them. 

Resolved, that in order to accomplish the ends ar- 
rived at by this convention, we earnestly recommend 
the organization of the farmers throughout the state 
into clubs, and granges of Patrons of Husbandry. 

[The following resolution was offered and adopted:] 

Resolved, that this convention appoint Capt. J. H. 
Rowell and R. W. Benjamin to proceed to our legis- 
lature, and procure an act condemning all railroads that 
are running in violation of the law, and we further 
recommend that a commission be appointed to take 
charge of such road or roads, and run them in compli- 
ance with the law. 

RESOLVED, that this convention hails with joy and 
pleasure the late action taken in Congress by representa- 
tives Shellabarger, of Ohio, and Hawley, of Illinois, as 
the harbinger of better things to come. 

[The following miscellaneous resolutions were of- 
fered, and referred to the committee on resolutions:] 

RESOLVED, that the secretary of this convention be in- 
structed to forward to Hons. Shellabarger, of Ohio, and 
Hawley, of Illinois, and to the President of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, copies 
of the resolutions of this convention, with request that 
they be laid before the respective houses. 

Resolved, that the names of the persons composing 
the meeting at Kewanee, on the 15th and 16th of Octo- 
ber, 1872, be inscribed on a suitable tablet, for permanent 
preservation by this society. 



5* 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 



RESOLVED, that in view of the power of the press, this 
convention urge upon the Farmers' Clubs over this state, 
the great importance of reporting their proceedings to 
their local papers, and, so far as practicable, to the pa- 
pers having a state circulation. 

RESOLVED, that the legislature of this state be requested 
to instruct our senators, and request our representatives 
in Congress, in view of the depressed condition of the 
agricultural interests of this state and all others depend- 
ent thereon, except that of railway transactions, to in- 
sist upon the utmost economy in appropriations and 
frugality in expenditure of national moneys consonant 
with the necessities of the country. 

RESOLVED, that we are in favor of removing the duties 
on iron, lumber, and salt. 

Resolved, that farmers buy no implements of those 
manufacturers or their agents who have entered into 
any conspiracy agreeing not to sell their implements to 
farmer's associations. 

RESOLVED, that this convention respectfully call the 
attention of the General Assembly to the bill introduced 
by Senator Vaughn, of Knox County, in 1871, affixing 
reasonable maximum rates of freights on railroads, and 
that we urge the immediate passage of that or some sim- 
ilar bill. . . 

(4) Springfield Convention, April 2, 1873. 
Periam, J. The Groundswell, 286-289. 

. . . The committee appointed to draft resolu- 
tions submitted the following: 

[ 1 ] RESOLVED, by the farmers of Illinois in mass meet- 
ing assembled, that all chartered monopolies, not reg- 
ulated and controlled by law, have proved in that re- 
spect detrimental to the public prosperity, corrupting 
in their management, and dangerous to republican in- 
stitutions. 







m 



w 







P 
















^ 




zr 






PI 
















c 








-. 
















< 






















V 


o 














H 






^ 





o 










FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 55 

[2] RESOLVED, that the railways of the world, except 
in those countries where they have been held under the 
strict regulation and supervision of the government, 
have proved themselves arbitrary, extortionate, and as 
opposed to free institutions and free commerce between 
states as were the feudal barons of the middle ages. 

[3] Resolved, that we hold, declare, and resolve that 
this despotism, which defies our laws, plunders our ship- 
pers, impoverishes our people, and corrupts our govern- 
ment, shall be subdued and made to subserve the public 
interest at whatever cost. 

[4] Resolved, that we believe the state did not and 
could not confer any of its sovereign power upon any 
corporation, and that now is the most favorable time to 
settle the question, so that it may never be hereafter mis- 
understood that a state can not create a corporation it 
can not thereafter control. 

[5] RESOLVED, that in view of the present extortions, 
we look with alarm upon the future of an interest which 
can combine in the hands of a few men a capital of nearly 
$250,000,000, and we believe it essential to the prosper- 
ity of all classes that this contest continue until these 
corporations acknowledge the supremacy of law. 

[6] RESOLVED, that we regard it as the undoubted 
power, and the imperative duty of the legislature, to pass 
laws fixing reasonable maximum rates for freight and 
passengers, without classification of roads, and that we 
urge upon our General Assembly the passage of such 
laws. 

[7] RESOLVED, that the existing statute, providing for 
a classification of railroads with a view to adjusting a 
tariff of charges according to the gross amount of earn- 
ings, is a delusion and a snare, and is so framed that the 
railroads are able to classify themselves, and that it 
ought to be carefully modified or repealed. 



56 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

[8] RESOLVED, that inasmuch as the Supreme Court 
has clearly pointed out the way to reach unjust discrim- 
inations made by the railroads of this state, we can see 
no reason for delay on the part of the legislature in en- 
acting the necessary laws on the subject, and we urge 
immediate action thereon. 

[9] Resolved, that we urge the passage of a bill en- 
forcing the principle that railroads are public highways, 
and requiring railroads to make connections with all 
roads whose tracks meet or cross their own, and to re- 
ceive and transmit cars and trains offered over their 
roads at reasonable maximum rates, whether offered at 
such crossings, or at stations along their roads, and em- 
powering the making of connections by municipal cor- 
porations for that purpose, and for the public use. 

[10] Resolved, that we heartily indorse the action 
of the General Assembly looking to the enforcement of 
the performance of their duties by monopolies as com- 
mon carriers; and that, in addition thereto, we believe 
that railroads should be required to carry all freight 
and passengers offered from the country through which 
they pass, and not permitted to limit the amount of their 
business and destroy its natural increase. 

[11] RESOLVED, that the constitution and laws of Illi- 
nois are as binding upon railroad corporations as upon 
the citizens, and that the state must require obedience to 
the law from all alike, whether the same be deemed 
constitutional or not by the parties affected, until re- 
pealed or declared unconstitutional. 

[12] RESOLVED, that we indorse most fully the action 
of those who tender legal rates of fare upon the railroads, 
and refuse to pay more; and that it is the duty of the 
legislature to provide by law for the defense by the State 
of Illinois of suits commenced, or that hereafter may be 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 57 

commenced, by railroad companies against individuals 
who have in good faith insisted, or hereafter may insist, 
upon the right to ride on railroads at legal rates. 

[13] RESOLVED, that the presentation of railroad 
passes to our legislators, whatever may be the spirit and 
intent with which they are accepted, are demoralizing 
in their influence ; and we look to our legislature, now in 
session, to rise above personal considerations of pecuni- 
ary interest or convenience, and to pass a law making it 
a misdemeanor for any Senator, or other state or county 
officers, to accept any railroad pass, knowing, as we do, 
that the people look upon the acceptance of these passes 
with decided and almost universal disapprobation. . . 

WHEREAS, the constitution of 1848, Article X, pro- 
hibits the legislature from granting special railroad 
charters in the following words: "And corporations not 
possessing banking powers or privileges, may be formed 
under general law, but shall not be created by special 
acts, except for municipal purposes; and in cases where, 
in the judgment of the General Assembly, the objects 
of the corporation can not be attained under general 
laws," therefore, 

[14] RESOLVED, that it is extremely doubtful whether 
any railroad charter granted since April 1, 1848, by the 
legislature of Illinois is of any validity, and that the 
vested rights of railroad monopolies in this state exist 
only by assumption of the monopolies and the sufferance 
of the people. . . 

WHEREAS, the constitution of 1870, Article XI, Sec- 
tion 13, prohibits any railroad company from issuing 
watered stock, in these words: "No railroad corpora- 
tion shall issue any stock or bonds except for money, 
labor, or property actually received and applied to the 
purposes for which such corporation was created; and 



58 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

all stock, dividends, and other fictitious increase of the 
capital, stock, or indebtedness of any such corporation 
shall be void. The capital stock of no railroad corpora- 
tion shall be increased for any purpose, except upon giv- 
ing sixty days' public notice in such manner as may be 
provided by law;" and, whereas, this article of the con- 
stitution has probably been violated by nearly all the 
railroad companies in the state; therefore, 

[15] RESOLVED, that it is the duty of the railroad com- 
missioners to look carefully into this matter, and to com- 
mence proceedings in all clear cases by quo warranto, or 
otherwise, against all railroad companies which have 
disregarded this important provision of the organic law 
of the state. 

[16] RESOLVED, that we regard the improvement of 
the Illinois River as not sectional, but of great im- 
portance ; and we request the members of the House of 
Representatives to vote for the bill now pending for the 
improvement of that river, as it will give our state ab- 
solutely into the hands of the people. 

[17] Resolved, that we demand of Congress a repeal 
of all laws preventing the competition of small vessels, 
which may choose to engage in the carrying trade on our 
inland lakes between ports in the United States, without 
regard to nationality. 

[ 1 8] RESOLVED, that we are in favor of the immediate 
repeal of the protective duties on iron, steel, lumber, and 
all materials which enter into the construction of rail- 
road cars, steamships, sailing vessels, agricultural im- 
plements, etc., and that we urge upon Congress immedi- 
ate action for this purpose, that cheap railroads and 
cheap ships are necessary to cheap freights; and that we 
invite the railroad companies to co-operate with us to 
that end. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 59 

[The first twelve resolutions were passed unanimous- 
ly, as also were numbers fourteen, fifteen, and seven- 
teen. Number thirteen was passed only after a heated 
debate. A clause was added which provided that offi- 
cers should receive no pay except during the time actual- 
ly employed. Number sixteen was laid on the tabic 
amid much excitement. Number eighteen was objected 
to as being a side issue, but was declared carried by the 
chair. Other resolutions adopted were: requesting 
the legislature to pass a railroad law before it adjourned ; 
stating that the practice of legislators voting on ques- 
tions in which they were directly interested, was contrary 
to public morals ; stating that one of the necessary meas- 
ures of railroad reform was (a) that the laws which 
made the stocks of railroad corporations personal prop- 
erty, be repealed, and (b) that the law should be so 
amended as to withdraw such stock from speculation 
and to give to it the permanency and certainty of owner- 
ship of the railroads themselves; and demanding that 
railroads be no longer assessed taxes at less than one- 
tenth of their value ; recommending that farmers keep a 
farm expense account, so that the actual cost of produc- 
tion may be ascertained and made public] 

(5) Princeton Convention, June, 1873 - Resolutions. 
Periam, J. The Groundswell, 313, 314. 

Resolved, that the provisions of the constitution of 
1870, of the State of Illinois, in regard to railroads, are, 
equally with the other provisions of the constitution, the 
supreme law of the state, and our legislature should pro- 
vide the necessary legislation to execute such provisions, 
and our courts should sustain and adopt the same. 

RESOLVED, that the charters of the railroads in this 
state are not contracts in the sense that they are para- 
mount to the constitution and laws of this state, and that 



60 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

the provisions of the constitution of the state in regard to 
railroads, and necessary legislation to enforce the same, 
are not repugnant to the constitution of the United States. 

RESOLVED, that the railroads in this state are public 
highways, and their operators common carriers, and the 
General Assembly, as required by the constitution of 
this state, should pass laws establishing reasonable max- 
imum rates of charge for the transportation of passen- 
gers and freight on the different railroads in this state, 
and should also pass laws to correct abuses and to define 
and prevent extortion in the rate of freight and pas- 
senger tariffs on such roads ; and such legislation should 
be sustained and enforced by the judiciary of the state. 

RESOLVED, that we will support no man for office who 
is not in accordance with the sentiments of these resolu- 
tions; and that we recommend to the anti-monopolists 
of this state to nominate such candidates for Supreme 
and Circuit Judges as are pledged to sustain the consti- 
tution, and laws of this state in accordance therewith. 



3 . THE KANSAS FARMERS' CO-OPERATIVE 
ASSOCIATION, 1873 

Periam, J. Tht Grounds%uell, 274-279. The farmers of Kansas were 
actively engaged in agitation and demands for improvement during 
this period. On March 26, 1873, a large convention was held at 
Topeka, at which the Farmers' Cooperative Association of the State 
of Kansas was organized. The following preamble was adopted, 
which, with Article u of the Constitution, will show the purpose of 
the convention. 

PREAMBLE. As a means of obtaining a more perfect 
uniformity of action among the farmers of the state, in 
order that we may secure a more equal division of the 
profits arising from the different vocations of life, of 
diminishing the unreasonable transportation tariff now 
charged by railroad companies, and of breaking down 
monopolies of every character, we, whose names are 
hereto subscribed, do pledge ourselves to sustain the fol- 
lowing constitution and by-laws: . . . 

Article ii. The objects of this association shall be 
the collection of statistics relative to the products of the 
state, their amount, cost, and value; to assist the farmers 
in securing just compensation for their labor; to co-oper- 
ate with similar organizations in other states in procur- 
ing cheap transportation and remunerative prices for 
surplus products, and act generally in the interest of the 
producing class. 

[The following three resolutions also show the atti- 
tude of the delegates:] 

Resolved, that the act relating to the collection of 
statistics and industries, approved March 6, 1873, and 
an act relating to District and County Agricultural So- 
cieties and Farmers' Clubs, approved March 6, 1873, 



62 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

meet with the approval of this convention, so far as they 
go in the accomplishment of the objects sought by this 
convention. 

RESOLVED, that the Farmers' Co-operative Association 
of the State of Kansas co-operate with the State Board 
of Agriculture, and the State organization of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry. . . 

RESOLVED, that it is the sense of this convention that 
the farmers of Kansas, while they are ready to denounce 
in unmeasured terms every monopoly that strikes at their 
interests in the shape of robbery and oppression, are 
equally ready to admit any and all wrongs and errors of 
their own that have brought them into the dilemma 
which all complain of to-day. 

[Various resolutions were submitted and referred to 
a committee, which, subsequently, reported the follow- 
ing:] 

RESOLVED, that organization is the great want of the 
producing classes at the present time, and we recommend 
every farmer in the state to become a member of some 
Farmers' Club, Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, or 
other local organization. 

Resolved, that the taxes assessed and charged upon 
the people, both by national, state, and local govern- 
ments, are oppressive and unjust, and vast sums of money 
are collected far beyond the needs of an economical ad- 
ministration of government. 

RESOLVED, that we respectfully request our senators 
and representatives in Congress to vote for, and secure, 
an amendment to the tariff laws of the United States, so 
that salt and lumber shall be placed on the free list, and 
that there shall be made a material reduction of the 
duty on iron, and that such articles as do not pay the cost 
of collection be also placed on the free list. 



ten] FARMERS* ORGANIZATIONS 63 

RESOLVED, that we demand that the legislature of our 
state shall pass a law limiting railroad freight and fares 
to a just and fair sum, and that unjust discriminations 
against local freights be prohibited. 

RESOLVED, that the act passed by the last legislature, 
exempting bonds, notes, mortgages, and judgments from 
taxation, is unjust, oppressive, and a palpable violation 
of our state constitution, and we call upon all assessors 
and the county boards to see that said securities are taxed 
at their fair value. . . 

[By Mr. Lines, as substitute for resolution on railroad 
freights:] 

That we earnestly request the legislature of our state, 
at its next session, to enact a law regulating freights and 
fares upon our railroads upon a basis of justice ; and that 
we further request our members in Congress to urge the 
favorable action of that body, where the same power 
exists beyond all doubt, to the same end, and, if need be, 
to construct national highways at the expense of the 
government. [Adopted.] 



4 . THE SECOND NATIONAL AGRICULTUR- 
AL CONGRESS, 1873 

Periam, J. The Groundsviell, 335-337. Meanwhile other farmers' organ- 
izations in other states were taking action similar to that in Illinois 
and Kansas. The following resolutions adopted by the Second Na- 
tional Agricultural Congress held at Indianapolis, May 28, 1873, will 
show their attitude. 

[By Committee on the Railway System] Whereas, 
we recognize the railways of the country as an effectual 
means of developing its agricultural resources, and as 
having an interest, common and inseparable, with the 
country through which they pass ; and, whereas, we have 
in times past fostered and aided them by liberal charters 
and concessions, made by public and private parties, 
and still desire to encourage further development of the 
railway system; therefore, 

Resolved, that a fair degree of reciprocity would 
suggest that corporations having a common interest and 
public aid, should, in their turn, endeavor to subserve 
the interest of the country through which they pass, by 
charging fair rates of freights, and by the equitable and 
just treatment of all localities along their lines. 

RESOLVED, that, on the contrary, railroad corporations 
in many instances have been exorbitant in their charges, 
have discriminated unjustly between localities, and have 
failed to respond to the generous grants of powers and 
moneys that have been given them by our national and 
state governments. 

Resolved, that the system adopted and now practiced 
in the building of railroads, viz: the soliciting of stock 
subscriptions from individuals, corporations, and coun- 
ties, and after receiving these subsidies to depress the 



FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 65 

value of said stock by forcing it upon the market and 
depreciating its value to such an extent as to enable a few 
speculators to secure control of the road, thereby depriv- 
ing those who aid in its construction of all voice in its 
management; increasing the cost four or five times above 
the amount it would have cost if those managing it in the 
outset had had the foresight to have the funds on hand 
at the start to build and equip said road; then requiring 
the producer and shipper to pay dividends upon the 
fictitious cost by charging excessive freight and passen- 
ger tariffs — operates most injuriously to the best inter- 
ests of the farming class, and calls loudly for reform 
and restraint by adequate legislation. 

Resolved, that we recommend all farmers to with- 
hold their voices and their aid from railway corpora- 
tions, unless it be fully conceded and agreed that cor- 
porations so aided are subject to regulation by the power 
incorporating them, and will not, after receiving the 
advantages conferred by the public authority, claim the 
immunities of a private corporation. 

RESOLVED, that we indorse and will support the doc- 
trine promulgated by some of our courts, that a railway 
corporation in receiving and exercising the state's right 
of eminent domain, and receiving aid raised by taxation 
from public authorities has thereby accepted and ad- 
mitted itself to be a corporation with a public function, 
and subject to the power from which it has received 
its charter, in the limitation of its rates. 

RESOLVED, that a railway being practically a mon- 
opoly, controlling the transportation of nearly all the 
country through which it passes; and that as competi- 
tion, except at a few points, can not be relied upon to fix 
rates, therefore it becomes the duty of the state to fix 
reasonable maximum rates, affording a fair remunera- 



66 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

tion to the transporter, and without being an onerous 
charge to the producer and consumer. 

Resolved, that, inasmuch as Belgium has succeeded 
in regulating the rates upon railways by government 
lines, we ask an investigation of the proposition to con- 
trol the rates upon existing railways by trunk lines built 
and controlled by the states authorities and run at fixed 
uniform and cheap rates. 

RESOLVED, that the consolidation of parallel lines of 
railway is contrary to public policy, and should be pro- 
hibited by law. 

Resolved, that wherever a railway corporation owns 
or controls a line or lines in two or more states, it is the 
right and duty of the general government to regulate 
the rates of freight and fare upon such lines, under the 
constitutional power to regulate commerce between the 
states. 

RESOLVED, that we commend the thorough organiza- 
tion of the farmers of the country in local, county, and 
state organizations, for the purpose of reforming the 
great abuses and dealing out equal and exact justice to 
all men. 



5. FARMERS' AND PRODUCERS' CONVEN- 
TION, NEW YORK, 1873 

Periam, J. The Groundsv.fll t 320-322. During thi» time meetings were 
also being held in the Eastern States, to which many western dele- 
gates were invited. The second of these was held in New York, 
May 6, 1873, and adopted the resolutions below. Before the New 
York meeting adjourned, a committee with Hon. Josiah Quincy of 
Boston as chairman was appointed to draft an address to the people. 
This was done in November, and a meeting was called for January 
14, 1874, in Washington, when all complaints were brought before 
Congress. This meeting is known as "The American Cheap Trans- 
portation Convention." 

WHEREAS, the productive industries of the United 
States -plantation and farm, mine and factory, com- 
mercial and mercantile -are not only the sources of all 
our national and individual wealth, but also elements on 
which our very national and individual existence de- 
pend; and 

WHEREAS, all national products are fruits of labor 
and capital, and as neither labor nor capital will con- 
tinue actively employed without an equivalent meas- 
urably just; and, 

Whereas, the great national industries are only sus- 
tained and prospered by the interchange of products of 
one section of the country for those of another; and, 

WHEREAS, the existing rates of transportation for the 
varied products of the Union from one part of the coun- 
try to another, and to foreign countries, as well as the 
transit cost of commodities required in exchange, are 
in many instances injurious, and to certain interests ab- 
solutely destructive, arising in part at least from an 
insufficiency of avenues; and, 

Whereas, the great national want of the nation to- 



68 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

day is relief from the present rates of transit upon Amer- 
ican products; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, i. That it is the duty of the hour, and 
the mission of this association, to obtain from Congress, 
and the different state legislatures such legislation as 
may be necessary to control and limit by law, within 
proper constitutional and legitimate limits, rates and 
charges of existing lines of transportation; to increase, 
where practicable, the capacity of our water-ways, and 
to aid such new avenues, both water and rail, as our 
immensely increasing internal commerce demands, so 
that the producer may be justly rewarded for his honest 
toil, the consumers have cheap products, and our almost 
limitless surplus find foreign markets at rates to com- 
pete with the world. 

2. That cheap transportation, both of persons and 
property, is most conducive to free movement of the 
people; that the widest interchange and consumption 
of the produce of the different parts of the Union is 
essential to the welfare and prosperity of the country. 

3. That constant and frequent association of the in- 
habitants of remote parts of the United States is not only 
desirable, but necessary, for the maintenance of a homo- 
geneous and harmonious population within the vast 
area of our territory. 

4. That the different parts of the country also de- 
mand the freest possible interchange of industrial pro- 
ducts of the varied climates and industries of the United 
States, so that breadstuffs, textile fabrics, lumber, iron, 
sugar, and various other products, local in their pro- 
duction but general in their consumption, may all reach 
the consumer at the least practicable cost for transpor- 
tation; and that an arbitrary and unnecessary tax levied 
by the transporter over and above a fair remuneration 



ten] FARMERS* ORGANIZATIONS 69 

for his investment is a burden upon the producer and 
consumer that it is the part of wise statesmanship to 
remove. 

5. That certain leading railway corporations of the 
country, although chartered to subserve the public wel- 
fare, and endowed with the right of eminent domain 
solely for that purpose, have proved themselves prac- 
tically monopolists, and become the tools of avaricious 
and unscrupulous capitalists, to be used to plunder the 
public, enrich themselves, and impoverish the country 
through which they run. 

6. That many of the railway corporations have not 
only disregarded public convenience and prosperity, but 
have oppressed citizens, bribed our legislatures, and 
defied our executives and judges, and stand today the 
most menacing danger to American liberty and to re- 
publican government. 

7. That the present system of railway management 
having failed to meet the just expectations and demands 
of a long-suffering people, it must be radically reformed 
and controlled by the strong hand of the law, both state 
and national, and railway corporations compelled to 
perform their proper functions as servants and not mas- 
ters of the people. 

8. That, to this end, we invoke the aid of all fair- 
minded men in all the states of the Union in excluding 
from the halls of legislation, from our executive offices, 
and from the bench, all railway officials, railway attor- 
neys, or other hirelings who prostitute public office to 
the base uses of private gain. 

9. That, leaving different sections and interests that 
desire cheap transportation to work out the problem in 
such manner as they may deem best, we earnestly invoke 
their careful consideration, their energetic and their res- 



7 o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

olute will in regulating and controlling rates of transpor- 
tation, and in giving remunerative wages to the producer 
and cheap products to the consumer, untaxed by un- 
earned charges for their carriage. 

10. That we invite the people of the various states 
to organize subsidiary associations, state, county, and 
town, to co-operate with the national associations. The 
power to accomplish the purposes desired rests abso- 
lutely with the suffering millions; and relief is within 
their reach and control. United action and the near 
future will give, as certain as its need for all time and 
the good of all, the true solution of the problem of cheap 
transportation. [Adopted unanimously.] 






6. PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 

(a) OUTLINE OF THE ORDER 

Kelley, O. H. Patrons of Husbandry (Philadelphia, 1875), 17-ao. Au- 
guat, 1867. 

William Saunders, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Notwithstanding a large majority of the 
people of this country are directly engaged in agricul- 
ture, I regret to say in my travels north and south, east 
and west, I find there is a great lack of interest on the 
part of farmers -a visible want of energy on their part 
to favor progressive agriculture. Where we find one 
who reads agricultural books and papers, there are ten 
or more who consider "book farming", as they term it, 
nonsense. This average is too small. In one of our 
western states, after making a general investigation, I 
found the circulation of purely agricultural papers was 
but one to every two hundred and thirty inhabitants; and 
libraries of fifty bound volumes were exceptions, yet but 
very few who could not read and write. Their system 
of farming was the same as that handed down by gener- 
ations gone by, with the exception that economy prompt- 
ed them to use reaping and threshing machines. Of the 
science of agriculture, the natural laws that govern the 
growth of plants and kindred subjects of pleasing and 
vital interest to farmers, when once they turn their at- 
tention to them, there was ninety per cent who were total- 
ly ignorant. 

Agricultural editors have worked faithfully for years, 
to induce our rural population to read and think -their 
increasing circulation (that of older papers) indicates 
that they have made some progress, but we see there is 



72 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

something wanted to produce an excitement which, 
when once created, we can throw on fuel and increase 
the flame. 

Agricultural societies have done much good by estab- 
lishing fairs; yet these are generally the work of a few 
right-minded, enthusiastic men, aided oftentimes by as- 
piring politicians. At these fairs the great attractions 
generally are implements and works of art, while the 
products of the soil offer the least attractions, and to 
bring the farmers out in any numbers, it is actually neces- 
sary to introduce, as a prominent feature, horse-races 
and numerous side-shows. 

I think we can revolutionize all this, and I suggest the 
project of organizing an Order to embrace in its mem- 
bership only those persons directly interested in culti- 
vating the soil. I should make it a secret order, with 
several degrees, and signs and passwords. The lectures 
in each degree should be practical, appertaining to agri- 
cultural work, at the same time convey a moral lesson. 
While the Order would aim to advance agriculture to a 
higher rank, by encouraging education, it would at the 
same time naturally embrace the benefits to its members 
guaranteed by Masonry. Every tool used by farmers 
and gardeners could be emblems of the Order in some 
degree, and each convey a practical and moral illustra- 
tion. Being a rural organization, lodge furniture need 
not be extravagant, yet appropriate. 

Of membership, I should advocate both sexes being 
admitted, having separate degrees for the ladies, yet all 
meet in common. Making the expense of each degree 
but one dollar, would place it within the means of all. 
The secrecy would lend an interest and peculiar fascina- 
tion, while the material for manufacturing new degrees 
to keep up an interest, would be inexhaustible; and here 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 73 

I can safely say no order could surpass this in sublimity 
of the degrees that can be introduced. 

My plan of work is this: having a complete, but tem- 
porary organization of an United States lodge, dispensa- 
tions are to be granted to lecturers to organize in several 
counties in each state; these county organizations to 
elect one delegate each to the state organization, and the 
state organization one each to the United States. As 
soon as the majority of the states shall be represented, 
the temporary organization shall be permanently or- 
ganized by the United States delegates. A small fee 
from each membership shall be annually paid to the 
united organization, and this will defray its expenses. 

The grand head of the organizations will be an auxil- 
iary to the department of agriculture; and as soon as 
this shall become a permanent department, with its 
secretary in the Cabinet, it seems to me government can 
aid materially in advancing the agricultural interests of 
the entire country. I should object to any state, or 
United States delegate, holding any government or state 
political appointment, while serving in that capacity, 
and thus keep it free from contamination. I should ad- 
vocate the department sending out agents, men of known 
ability, for the collection of statistical information, who 
should be versed as botanists, horticulturists, entomolo- 
gists, etc., who should deliver free lectures for the or- 
ganizations, and to which the Order should invite the 
public. In this way, by practical lectures properly il- 
lustrated, a vast amount of good could be effected 
through appropriations of Congress, and hardly any 
member of Congress would wish to vote against appro- 
priations that would be called for by the department. 

There is nothing now that binds the farmers together, 
and I think such an Order would, with the most cheer- 



74 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

ful results. Its tendency would be to encourage the cir- 
culation of our agricultural newspapers, which insure 
the co-operation of the editors. It will increase the de- 
mands for fruit trees and nursery products, securing the 
support of horticulturists, etc. We only need to secure 
the approval of our leading agriculturists. If such 
gentlemen as Col. Wilder, Barry, yourself and others, 
besides the editors of the agricultural press, will en- 
dorse the movement, it can possibly be inaugurated by 
the middle of September. 

Trusting these views will meet with your hearty ap- 
proval, I remain your sincere friend, fraternally, 

O. H. Kelley. 

(b) THE FIRST GRANGE CIRCULAR 

Kelley. Patrons of Husbandry, 38-40. Three hundred copies were sent 
out by Kelley in November, 1867. 

A number of gentlemen engaged in agriculture and 
its kindred branches in different states, are now perfect- 
ing a ritual for an Order, to be composed wholly of per- 
sons, male and female, directly interested in agricultural 
pursuits. 

The Order will secure to its members all the advan- 
tages of Masonry, but while that is speculative, this will 
be operative; its main object being to encourage and 
advance education in all branches of agriculture. 

The Order will have its "Lodges," known as "Tem- 
ples of Industry," or similar appellation. The work in 
a "Temple" will be divided into four degrees. 

The ceremonies of passing from one degree to the 
other are made pleasing and instructive. Every tool 
used in agriculture has its appropriate lecture, the aim 
being to instruct practically and morally in every pos- 
sible way, and also add an interest to the most noble of 
all occupations -the cultivation of the soil. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 75 

It is believed that by admitting the young folks of 
both sexes at fourteen or sixteen years of age, it will 
have a tendency to instill in their minds a fondness for 
rural life, and prevent in a great measure so many of 
them flocking to the cities, where all occupations are 
now crowded, and at the same time depriving the coun- 
try of that class of young men so much needed there. 

The ceremonies in the degrees for the ladies are 
slightly different but of the same nature, and intended 
to lighten and render their household duties more pleas- 
ing. 

The whole, it is believed, will do much towards ele- 
vating our occupation, as well as establishing a unity of 
sentiment among the farmers of the country, and materi- 
ally increase the circulation of publications devoted to 
the interests of agriculture, and consequent increase of 
knowledge. 

Politics and religion are not subjects of discussion. 
Private work of the Order will occupy one evening each 
month. Public meetings for lectures and discussions 
are proposed to be held once a week. 

Libraries and museums (the latter to contain among 
other things samples of each year's crop of all cereal 
productions) are considered necessary appendages to 
each Temple. 

It is designed to have at least one Temple in each 
county, with one delegate from each to the State Tem- 
ple: these will send one delegate each to the National 
Temple, which is to be the head of the Order. Persons 
holding office under government cannot be delegates to 
either the State or National Temple. 

Should such an organization meet your approval, and 
you see fit to offer any suggestions to enable the origina- 
tors to make any further improvements, before it is in- 



7 6 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

troduced to the public, the same will be most cordially 
received and duly considered. 

(c) "THE REAL FOUNDATION" 

Kelley. Patrons of Husbandry, 125-130. Grange Circular as revised by 
Kelley and Col. D. A. Robertson at St Paul, Minnesota. "It was on 
this circular we based the real foundation of the Order." 

National Grange, Washington, D.C., September, 1868. 
In response to numerous inquiries in regard to the 
organization and objects of our Order, this circular is 
issued. The Order was organized, after much labor and 
preparation, by a number of distinguished agricultur- 
ists, of various states of the Union, at Washington, in 
December, 1867, and since then has met with most en- 
couraging success, giving assurance that it will soon be- 
come one of the most useful and powerful organizations 
in the United States. Its grand object is not only gen- 
eral improvement in husbandry, but to increase the gen- 
eral happiness, wealth and prosperity of the country. 
It is founded upon the axioms that the products of the 
soil comprise the basis of all wealth ; that individual hap- 
piness depends upon general prosperity, and that the 
wealth of a country depends upon the general intelli- 
gence and mental culture of the producing classes. The 
best mode of securing a diffusion of knowledge, with a 
view to its application for the increase of the products 
of the soil, is, therefore one of the most important ques- 
tions that can be propounded, and we hope to greatly 
facilitate its solution by the results that will follow the 
work of this organization. . . When we reflect upon 
the fact that certain associations have stood the test of 
ages -many centuries -as, for example, the Masonic 
Order, we may well pause and ask : "In what does their 
permanency consist?" We can find but one satisfactory 
answer to this question, and that is in their ritual, secrecy, 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 77 

fraternity, and mutual benefits. If, then, these arc the 
efficient elements of extension, permanency and success, 
why not employ them for the dissemination of useful 
knowledge, and a more general and effective organiza- 
tion of communities engaged in rural pursuits? and this 
we propose, not only for their benefit, but also for the 
increase of national wealth and power. If these are 
available accessories for the permanent organization of 
husbandmen -all other means having failed -why not 
adopt them? . . . 

Women are admitted into our Order, as well as young 
persons of both sexes over the age of sixteen and eighteen 
respectively. In its proceedings a love for rural life 
will be encouraged, the desire for excitement and amuse- 
ment, so prevalent in youth, will be gratified, instead of 
being repressed; not, however, in frivolities, as useless 
for the future as they are for the present, but by direct- 
ing attention to the wonder-workings of nature, and 
leading the mind to enjoy and appreciate that never- 
ending delight which follows useful studies, relating to 
the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. . . 
With regard to the modes of instruction adopted in the 
Order, mention may be made of the reading of essays 
and of discussions, lectures, formation of select libraries, 
circulation of magazines and other publications treating 
directly upon the main subjects desired, namely: those 
inculcating the principles governing our operations in 
the field, orchard and garden. 

The novelty of this organization, and the manner it 
proposes of introducing a system of special education, 
has hitherto prevented the originators from calling pub- 
lic attention to its work, but the great favor with which 
it has been received, prompts to a bolder action, satisfied 
that the noble purposes to which the Order is dedicated, 



7 8 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

will command the respect and serious attention of all. 

We ignore all political or religious discussions in 
the Order; we do not solicit the partonage of any sect, 
association or individual upon any grounds whatever, 
except upon the intrinsic merits of the Order. It needs 
no such patronage, and would not be what it is if it did. 

Its objects, as already indicated, are to advance educa- 
tion, to elevate and dignify the occupation of the farmer, 
and to protect its members against the numerous com- 
binations by which their interests are injuriously af- 
fected. 

There is no association that secures so many advan- 
tages to its members as this. 

The Order of the Patrons of Husbandry will accom- 
plish a thorough and systematic organization among 
farmers and horticulturists throughout the United 
States, and will secure among them intimate social re- 
lations and acquaintance with each other, for the ad- 
vancement and elevation of its pursuits, with an appre- 
ciation and protection of their true interests. By such 
means may be accomplished that which exists through- 
out the country in all other avocations, and among all 
other classes -combined co-operative association for in- 
dividual improvement and common benefit. 

In the meetings of this Order, all but members are ex- 
cluded, and there is in its proceedings a symbolized Rit- 
ual, pleasing, beautiful and appropriate, which is de- 
signed not only to charm the fancy, but to cultivate and 
enlarge the mind, and purify the heart, having, at the 
same time, strict adaptation to rural pursuits. 

It is an Order in which all persons will find innocent 
recreation and valuable instruction, pecuniary profit 
and mutual protection. It is, in truth, a need long felt, 
and now required. 

The secrecy of the Ritual, and proceedings of the 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 79 

Order have been adopted, chiefly, for the purpose of ac- 
complishing desired efficiency, extension and unity, and 
to secure among its members in the internal working of 
the Order -confidence, harmony and security. 

Among other advantages which may be derived from 
the Order, can be mentioned, systematic arrangements 
for procuring and disseminating, in the most expeditious 
manner, information relative to crops, demand and sup- 
ply, prices, markets, and transportation throughout the 
country, and for the establishment of depots for the sale 
of special or general products in the cities; also for the 
purchase and exchange of stock, seeds, and desired va- 
rieties of plants and trees, and for the purpose of pro- 
curing help at home or from abroad, and situations for 
persons seeking employment; also for ascertaining and 
testing the merits of newly invented farming imple- 
ments, and those not in general use, and for detecting 
and exposing those that are unworthy, and for protect- 
ing by all available means, the farming interests from 
fraud and deception of every kind. 

In conclusion, we desire that agricultural societies 
shall keep step with the music of the age, and keep pace 
with improvements in the reaping machine and steam 
engine. In this Order we expect to accomplish these 
results. Every Grange is in intimate relation with its 
neighboring Granges, and these with the State Grange, 
and the State Granges are in unity with the National 
Grange. Valuable information, and benefits enjoyed 
by one, are communicated to all. The old style of 
Farmers' Clubs, like the old sickle and flail, were very 
good in their day, but they are of the past, and are too far 
behind all other enterprise in the progress of civiliza- 
tion. Hence the necessity of this new Order. 

O. H. Kelley, secretary of the National Grange. 



80 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

(d) FROM MANUFACTURER TO FARMER, 1872 

Rural Carolinian, vol. # iv, 36. That the Grange intended actively to 
undertake improvement of the business methods in which farmers 
were interested is clear from the following representative circular. 

[A circular has been issued by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the National Grange P. of H., addressed to 
manufacturers of agricultural and domestic imple- 
ments, Machinery, etc., from which we make the fol- 
lowing extract: -Ed. Carolinian.] 

To enable the members of the Order to purchase im- 
plements and machinery at as low cost as possible, by 
saving the commission usually paid to agents, and the 
profits of the long line of dealers standing between the 
manufacturers and the farmers, the Executive Commit- 
tee of the National Grange desire to publish a list of all 
establishments that will deal directly with State and 
Subordinate Granges. The list will be regarded as 
strictly confidential, and one copy only will be furnished 
to each Grange. 

Large orders can thus be made up by the consolida- 
tion of the orders from Granges in the same state or vi- 
cinity, and special terms for freight, etc., arranged with 
transportation lines, thereby affecting another large 
saving to the purchaser. 

Manufacturers of all articles used by farmers who de- 
sire to avail themselves of this means of disposing of 
their products directly to the consumer for cash, thereby 
avoiding the losses incident to the credit system, or the 
storing of goods in the hands of commission merchants 
and agents, are invited to send their catalogues and 
wholesale price list to, and to correspond with, 

O. H. KELL[E]Y, sec'y of the National 
Grange, Washington, D.C. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 81 

(e) LEGISLATION, NOT POLITICS 

Proceedings of the State Grange of Wisconsin, second annual session, 
1874, p. 31. Although the Grange insisted at all times that it would 
not indulge in political and religious controversies, such resolutions 
as the following will show the attitude of the active members. 

(Confidential.) At a meeting of the Executive 
Committees of the Patrons of Husbandry, for the States 
in the Mississippi Valley, held at Keokuk, Iowa, Oct. 
1 6th, 1873, among other things the following resolution 
was adopted. 

RESOLVED, that in the opinion of this convention, the 
Executive Committee of each state should be charged 
with the special duty of corresponding with their re- 
spective representatives in the National Senate and 
House of Representatives, upon the subject of the 
speedy improvement of the Mississippi River, at its 
mouth, and at such other points upon it, as work may 
have been already commenced by the general govern- 
ment, and upon the speedy improvement of the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers; that the result of such correspond- 
ence be communicated by each such Executive Commit- 
tee to a Central Committee, to be appointed by this con- 
vention. That such Central Committee shall thereupon 
take measures to communicate the combined result of 
such reports, in a condensed form, to each and every 
state and subordinate Grange of the P. of H. throughout 
the United States, with such suggestions as said com- 
mittee shall after due deliberation consider advisable to 
make, including therein a request for the active co-op- 
eration of each Grange, to bring about the consummation 
of this step, towards securing the full realization of 
this great desire and absolute necessity of the people, 
having due regard to uniform action therein; espe- 
cially shall such Central Committee, in making the 



82 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

aforesaid suggestions, advise the Granges throughout 
the Union, to hold to a strict, real and actual accounta- 
bility, their respective U.S. senators and representatives, 
and from time to time take such measures as will in no 
uncertain terms, manifest the determination of the Or- 
der to insist upon prompt and decisive action by our 
national legislature upon the subject under considera- 
tion. 

The central committee appointed, consists of J. H. 
Osborn, of Wisconsin, Ch'n; Spencer Day, of Iowa; 
S. F. Brown, of Michigan ; Wm. Hester, of Mississippi ; 
A. Golder, of Illinois; E. R. Shankland, of Iowa. 

(f) SOUTHERN PROBLEMS 

Proceedings of the Seventh Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, St. Louis, Feb. 4, 1874, pp. 60-63. 

Memorial to the Cotton States. The under- 
signed, representatives of the Cotton States in the Na- 
tional Grange, beg leave to present to the Patrons of 
Husbandry in the cotton-growing section of the Union, 
the following suggestions, which they believe to be jus- 
tified by the present condition of the South. 

During the past seven years, our cotton fields have 
added to the wealth of the world ($2,000,000,000) two 
thousand millions of dollars, and caused prosperity to 
smile upon every one who has handled our crops save 
those who struggled for its production. Annually the 
energies of the cotton planter have been exhausted in at- 
tempting to produce a maximum crop of a single staple, 
whilst quite as frequently he has reduced his means in 
supplying his necessary wants. A system based upon 
such a policy, and producing such results, must be rad- 
ically wrong, and if persisted in, will lead to bankrupt- 
cy and ruin. We propose to inquire into the cause of 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 83 

this evil, and, if possible, present a method of removing 
it. 

Has it been that the supply of cotton has exceeded the 
demand? Statistics do not prove this a fact. Is it that our 
labor his been unreliable and expensive? The same 
labor investment has nowhere yielded a greater market 
value of products. Has Providence inflicted upon us 
agricultural disasters? He has often interposed for our 
benefits. What then has averted our anticipated pros- 
perity? Are we not responsible for our direful condi- 
tion, in that we have neglected too much the growth of 
breadstuffs, and substituted therefor almost exclusively 
the cultivation of cotton? No people can ever become 
prosperous who are not self-sustaining. Our fertile 
soil, exhaustless mineral wealth, abundant water power, 
and genial, salubrious climate avail us nothing if an- 
nually we expend millions for subsistence. It is gener- 
ally conceded that home-grown bread is cheaper than 
purchased supplies ; and the observation of every planter 
is, that those southern farmers who live within them- 
selves are more independent and less encumbered with 
debt than those who have relied solely upon the cotton 
crop. Were it otherwise, it is hazardous for any people 
to rely upon others for a supply of those articles which 
are necessary for their daily consumption. 

The horrors of famine which have more than once 
cursed the people of India, in their efforts to grow cot- 
ton to the exclusion of breadstuffs, would have been re- 
peated in our midst but that we were able to supply our 
necessities from the teeming granaries of the northwest. 
We shrink from the contemplation of what would be 
our condition should disaster deprive us of that resource. 
During the past year, certain portions of Iowa, Minne- 
sota, and Dakota have been invaded by the grasshopper 



84 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

which has swept their fields like a fire, and destroyed 
every vestige of vegetation. Imagine your condition, 
should a similar invasion become general in the north- 
west. Couple with this idea the total failure of a cotton 
crop either from the worms, from drought, or from any 
other unavoidable cause. Improbable as such visita- 
tions may appear, have we the power to prevent them; 
and is it wise to subject ourselves to the possibility of be- 
coming the victims of such calamities? Depend upon 
it, our wisest and safest policy is, as far as practicable, 
to produce at home our necessary supplies. Is there a 
farm in the South upon which this can not be done, and at 
the same time produce an average cotton crop as the net 
result of the farmers' annual labors? We believe there 
is not; and you have only to practice this policy for the 
year 1874, and the harvest-time will proclaim redemp- 
tion to the South, and a return to its wonted prosperity. 

As our Constitution expresses it "the prosperity of a 
nation is in proportion to the value of its productions." 
Then how magnificently prosperous should be the Cot- 
ton States of this Union! Annually four millions 
(4,000,000) of bales of cotton are produced upon 
southern soil. But what proportion of this vast amount 
is retained to indicate our prosperity? One half of it is 
expended for necessary supplies, whilst the remainder 
is divided between labor and taxes. Hence the cost of 
production has succeeded the value of the article pro- 
duced. Shall this policy continue? Extensive cotton 
crops have evinced our unity of purpose, and entailed 
poverty upon us. An equal uniform adhesion to mixed 
husbandry would secure our recuperation. 

Patrons of the South, do you appreciate your priv- 
ileges? Reflect upon your opportunity to exact tribute 
of the world. Cotton is a necessity, and the extent of that 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 85 

necessity can be calculated with exactness. It is equally 
well known what proportion of that necessity must be 
supplied by the Cotton States of America. If three 
million five hundred thousand bales (3,500,000) are 
grown, they will be consumed before another crop can 
be gathered, and a remunerative market price will be 
sustained by the consequent demand. If four millions 
five hundred thousand (4,500,000) bales are grown the 
large marginal excess will control and depress the mar- 
ket. Is it not within the power of our organization to 
control this feature of our condition? Alternatives for 
success are numerous, but we need rely upon the single 
one of cooperating in the determination to subsist at 
home. With this end attained, there is no reason why 
we should not be the happiest, most independent and 
prosperous people on earth. 

D. Wyatt Aiken, S.C., Member Ex. Com. Nat. 
Grange ; W. H. CHAMBERS, Master State Grange, Ala. ; 
A. J. VAUGHAN, Master Mississippi State Grange; 
Ben. F. Wardlaw, Master State Grange, Fla.; JOHN 
T. Jones, Master State Grange, Ark. ; H. W. L. Lewis, 
Master State Grange, La.; G. J. Smith, Master State 
Grange, Ga. ; W. Maxwell, Master State Grange, 
Tenn. ; COLUMBUS Mills, Master State Grange, N.C. 

(g) ANNUAL SESSIONS OF DELEGATES, 18731879 

(t) Sixth Session, Georgetown, D.C., January 8-n, 1873. 

Proceedings of the Sixth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, Washington, D.C., January 8, 1873. This was the 
first session as a delegate body, but the sixth annual session of the 
national organization. It followed the first really active year. Twen- 
ty-three delegates were present The preamble, constitution, and by- 
laws were overhauled, the National Grange was incorporated, and 
committees on transportation and cooperation made reports. Prior to 
1873 the national organization was in financial trouble. By 1874 
their treasury began to fill. By 187$ officers were well paid; large 
donations were made to members who suffered by flood, locusts, etc ; 
and money was loaned and afterward donated to the State Granges. 



86 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

By 1877 rigid economy was preached, and expenses necessarily re- 
duced. The secretary's report in 1873 follows in part 

[5, 6:] During the past year there have been organ- 
ized eight State Granges in the following States: Illi- 
nois (reorganized), Indiana, Wisconsin (reorganized), 
Vermont, South Carolina, Nebraska, Mississippi, and 
Kansas; while Michigan and Missouri are ready to be 
admitted, as well as Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas; 
Oregon will not be far behind. In regard to the stand- 
ing of the states as to working and paying Granges, Iowa 
takes the lead -having seven hundred and fifty-four re- 
corded. South Carolina stands next, having organized 
its State Grange with sixty-two Sub-granges, and has 
now on record one hundred and two Granges, and with 
Mississippi, with sixty-one Granges, are the only States 
where every Grange reports and pays dues prompt- 
ly. . . We now have Sub-granges organized in 
twenty- two states, and three have been established in 
Canada. The total number of Granges is 1,362. [1,105 
organized during the year.] 

[The Preamble, Constitution, and By-laws, as over- 
hauled and adopted, contained the following, pp. 12- 

18:] 

PREAMBLE. Human happiness is the acme of earthly 
ambition. Individual happiness depends upon general 
prosperity. 

The prosperity of a nation is in proportion to the 
value of its productions. 

The soil is the source from whence we derive all that 
constitutes wealth ; without it we would have no agri- 
culture, no manufactures, no commerce. Of all the 
material gifts of the Creator, the various productions of 
the vegetable world are of the first importance. The art 
of agriculture is the parent and precursor of all arts, 
and its products the foundation of all wealth. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 87 

The productions of the earth are subject to the influ- 
ence of natural laws, invariable and indisputable; the 
amount produced will consequently be in proportion to 
the intelligence of the producer, and success will depend 
upon his knowledge of the action of these laws, and the 
proper application of their principles. 

Hence, knowledge is the foundation of happiness. 

The ultimate object of this organization is for mutual 
instruction and protection, to lighten labor by diffusing 
a knowledge of its aims and purposes, expand the mind 
by tracing the beautiful laws the Great Creator has es- 
tablished in the universe, and to enlarge our views of 
creative wisdom and power. 

To those who read aright, history proves that in all 
ages society is fragmentary, and successful results of 
general welfare can be secured only by general effort. 
Unity of action cannot be acquired without discipline, 
and discipline cannot be enforced without significant 
organization; hence we have a ceremony of initiation 
which binds us in mutual fraternity as with a band of 
iron; but although its influence is so powerful, its ap- 
plication is as gentle as that of the silken thread that 
binds a wreath of flowers. 

The Patrons of Husbandry consist of the following: 

Organization -Subordinate Granges 

First Degree: Laborer (man), Maid (woman). 

Second Degree: Cultivator (man), Shepherdess 
(woman). 

Third Degree: Harvester (man), Gleaner (woman). 

Fourth Degree: Husbandman (man), Matron (wo- 
man). 

STATE GRANGE. Fifth Degree: Pomona (Hope). 
Composed of Masters of Subordinate Granges and their 
wives who are Matrons. Past Masters and their wives 



88 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

who are Matrons shall be honorary members and eligi- 
ble to office, but not entitled to vote. 

National Grange. Sixth Degree: Flora (Char- 
ity) . Composed of Masters of State Granges and their 
wives who have taken the degree of Pomona. Past 
masters of State Granges, and their wives who have tak- 
en said degree of Pomona, shall be honorary members 
and eligible to office, but not entitled to vote. 

Seventh Degree: Ceres (Faith). Members of the 
National Grange who have served one year therein may 
become members of this degree upon application and 
election. It shall have charge of the secret work of the 
Order, and shall be a court of impeachment of all offi- 
cers of the National Grange. Members of this degree 
are honorary members of the National Grange, and are 
eligible to office therein, but not entitled to vote. 

Constitution. Article i- Officers. Section i. 
The officers of a Grange, either national, state, or subor- 
dinate, consist of and rank as follows : master, overseer, 
lecturer, steward, assistant steward, chaplain, treasurer, 
secretary, gate-keeper, Ceres, Pomona, Flora, and Lady 
Assistant Steward. It is their duty to see that the laws 
of the Order are carried out. 

Section 2. In the Subordinate Granges they shall be 
chosen annually; in the State Granges once in two years ; 
and in the National Grange once in three years. All 
elections to be by ballot. [Also provides for filling va- 
cancies.] 

Section 3. The Master of the National Grange may 
appoint members of the Order as deputies to organize 
Granges where no State Grange exists. 

Section 4. There shall be an Executive Committee 
of the National Grange, consisting of three members, 
whose terms of office shall be three years, one of whom 
shall be elected each year. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 89 

Section 5. The officers of the respective Granges 
shall be addressed as "Worthy." 

Article ii- Meetings. Section 1. Subordinate 
Granges shall meet once each month, and may hold in- 
termediate meetings as may be deemed necessary for the 
good of the Order. All business meetings are confined 
to the Fourth Degree. 

[Sections 2, 3, State Granges and National Grange 
meet annually.] 

[Articles iii-iv, Laws and Ritual are framed by 
National Grange.] 

Article v- Membership. Any person interested in 
agricultural pursuits, of the age of sixteen years (fe- 
male), and eighteen years (male), duly proposed, elect- 
ed, and complying with the rules and regulations of the 
Order, is entitled to membership and the benefit of the 
degrees taken. Every application must be accompanied 
by the fee of membership. If rejected, the money will 
be refunded. Applications must be certified by mem- 
bers, and balloted for at a subsequent meeting. It shall 
require three negative votes to reject an applicant. 

Article vi-Fees for Membership. [Minimum 
rates: men, five dollars; women, two dollars.] 

Article vii-Dues. [Minimum rate, ten cents a 
month.] 

Article viii - Requirements. Section i. [Re- 
ports, etc., to the National Grange on crops, implements, 
stock.] 

Section 3. If any brothers or sisters of the Order are 
sick, it shall be the duty of the patrons to visit them, and 
see that they are well provided with all things needful. 

Section 4. Any member found guilty of wanton 
cruelty to animals shall be expelled from the Order. 

Section 5. The officers of Subordinate Granges shall 
be on the alert in devising means by which the interests 



9 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

of the whole Order may be advanced; but no plan of 
work shall be adopted by State or Subordinate Granges 
without first submitting it to, and receiving the sanction 
of the National Grange. 

[ARTICLE IX- Charters and Dispensations issue from 
National Grange through State Granges.] 

[Article x- Duties of Officers.] 

[Article xi -Treasurers.] 

Article xii - Restrictions. Religious or political 
questions will not be tolerated as subjects of discussion 
in the work of the Order, and no political or religious 
tests for membership shall be applied. 

Article xiii- Amendments. [Require two-thirds 
vote in National Grange, and ratification by three- 
fourths of State Granges.] 

By Laws -Article 4. Questions of administration 
and jurisprudence arising in and between State Granges, 
and appeals from the action and decision thereof, shall 
be referred to the Master and Executive Committee of 
the National Grange, whose decision shall be respected 
and obeyed until overruled by action of the National 
Grange. 

ARTICLE 9. It shall be the duty of the Executive 
Committee to exercise a general supervision of the af- 
fairs of the Order during the recess of the National 
Grange; to instruct the secretary in regard to printing 
and disbursements, and to place in his hands a contingent 
fund; to decide all questions and appeals referred to 
them by the officers and members of State Granges; and 
to lay before the National Grange at each session a re- 
port of all such questions and appeals, and their deci- 
sions thereon. 

Article 12. Each State Grange shall be entitled to 
send one representative, who shall be a Master thereof, 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 91 

or his proxy, to all meetings of the National Grange. 
He shall receive mileage at the rate of five cents per 
mile both ways, computed by the nearest practicable 
route, to be paid as follows: The master and secretary 
of the National Grange shall give such representative 
an order for the amount on the treasurer of the State 
Grange which he represents, and this order shall be re- 
ceivable by the National Grange in payment of state 
dues. 

ARTICLE 13. Special meetings of the National 
Grange shall be called by the master upon the applica- 
tion of the masters of ten State Granges, one month's 
notice of such meeting being given to all members of the 
National Grange. No alterations or amendments to 
the by-laws or ritual shall be made at any special meet- 
ing. 

(a) Seventh Session, 1874. 

Proceedings of the Seventh Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, St. Louis, Missouri, February 4, 1874. 

[T. R. Allen, master of the State Grange of Missouri, 
welcomed the National Grange, as follows (pages 6-8) :] 

. . . When I pledged you, as a result of a favor- 
able consideration of my motion, that we would have 
one hundred granges in the state by the time this session 
convened, I did it with fear and trembling. . . We 
had nominally at that time nineteen granges in the state, 
really not half that number of live active ones. And, 
now, behold! I have exceeding great pleasure to inform 
you that instead of one hundred we have one thousand 
five hundred live, active working granges. . . The 
organization now exists in nearly every one of the one 
hundred and fourteen counties of our state. . . The 
exhibition I there witnessed [session of 1873] of frater- 
nal sympathy, Christian spirit, harmonious unity of ac- 



92 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

tion, oneness of purpose, entire absence of sectional, 
political, or other prejudices or jealousies among men, 
assembled for the first time from all the extreme sections 
of our country, that had so recently been convulsed and 
torn by the worst passions of our nature, made an im- 
pression on my mind so favorable to our order that it 
gave me courage and strength to labor and to endure 
in a manner and to an extent that I feel sure I never 
could have otherwise done. Since that time I have trav- 
elled not less than fifteen thousand miles within the lim- 
its of our state, in the interests of this noble cause, and 
have everywhere witnessed the same result among our 
people. Everywhere men of the most antagonistic 
feelings, prejudices, jealousies, and even hatred have 
through its influence been brought together, made better 
acquainted with each other instead of enemies. They 
now feel and act toward each other as never before. The 
social improvement and amenities of life are cultivated 
as never before. A taste for reading, habits of thought, 
investigation, and intellectual culture are promoted to 
an extent never thought of or dreamed of before. . . 
[Worthy Master Adams (pages 11-21)]. . . At 
our last annual meeting, there were represented nine 
state granges, having under their jurisdiction about 
thirteen hundred subordinate granges. Today there are 
state granges in thirty-two states and two territories, all 
of which are today present through their chosen repre- 
sentatives, and claim under their jurisdiction nearly 
twelve thousand subordinate granges. . . The causes 
which have led to this great uprising which have ren- 
dered the work of organization possible and even easy 
are few but grave, and mainly of a nature never con- 
templated by the originators of the order. In its incep- 
tion it was intended to be chiefly a social and educational 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 93 

institution, something after the nature of a farmers' 
club, only more comprehensive in its plan, including 
both sexes, and rendered more attractive by a pleasing 
ritual and the subtle charm of secrecy. It was intended 
to bring together, at frequent and stated periods, the 
agricultural population, to interchange views, discuss 
agricultural, literary, and scientific questions, and cul- 
tivate the social amenities of civilized life. In short, it 
was intended to improve the standing of the tillers of the 
soil, mentally, morally, and socially. As such it has been 
and is being a most magnificent success. Though some 
other features, which have been engrafted on the parent 
stock at a later day, have occupied a more prominent 
place in the eye of the public than this, yet it can not be 
denied that none are of equal importance to the per- 
manent welfare of the Order and its members; for, real- 
ly, moral worth, mental power, and social culture lie at 
the foundation of all real progress. There is danger 
that, in grappling with the gigantic questions of the 
hour, we may lose sight of the rock on which we build- 
ed. . . When the first subordinate granges had been 
organized, one of the first and most proper subjects for 
discussion was, how to make two blades of grass grow 
where one grew before. During these discussions, the 
fact soon became prominent that how to sell crops was 
fully as knotty a question as how to grow them. It 
came to the conviction of members, that we received 
sixty cents for a bushel of wheat, while the man who ate 
it paid one dollar and twenty cents for it. We were sell- 
ing corn at twenty cents per bushel, while the consumer 
was paying eighty cents for it. In what we bought, there 
was the same discrepancy between the first cost and what 
we were obliged to pay. For mowers, sewing-machines, 
plows, musical instruments, etc., we were paying from 



94 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

thirty to two hundred per cent above the original cost. 
We asked ourselves whether this amazing difference 
was a necessity, or the result of circumstances over which 
we had control. The solution of this problem soon be- 
came a leading idea in the Order. 

Subordinate granges, county councils, and state 
granges have given this one point more thought and at- 
tention than perhaps any other, and I am happy to know 
that satisfactory progress has been made -millions of 
dollars saved to the members of the Order, and still the 
outlook is, that we are as yet only on the threshold of this 
great work. Almost universally we find manufacturers 
and consumers equally anxious to be relieved of so much 
as is possible of the loss in transit occasioned by a sur- 
plus of middle-men. Most of those manufacturers of 
small agricultural implements have been found ready 
to sell direct to granges at wholesale rates. With the 
manufacturers of reapers and mowers, the case has been 
different, not that they are unwilling to do so from any 
principle or prejudice, but no one state was strong 
enough to show them that they could offer a more certain 
market for their wares than could be obtained through 
their present system of agencies. In such cases as these, 
it is the duty of the national to lend its aid to the state 
granges, or by itself grapple with the difficulty. The 
subject of cooperative stores is one in which subordinate 
granges have manifested much interest, but the want of 
definite information as to the most approved and suc- 
cessful plan of conducting them has prevented their gen- 
eral establishment. I am of the opinion that the Na- 
tional Grange should prepare a careful and elaborate 
plan for such stores, using therefor the abundant ma- 
terials which the experience of the Rochdale and other 
societies afford. . . Transportation of farm products 



ten] 



FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 



95 



to market is also an outgrowth of and properly a part of 
the same question, and a part which has laid firm hold 
on the consciences of our people. . . Rates of freight 
are often exorbitantly high and frequently changed. 
Often a larger bill is charged for a short distance than 
a long one, thus discriminating against places ; and often 
higher rates are charged one individual than another, 
thus discriminating against persons. When we plant a 
crop, we can only guess what it will cost to send it to 
market, for we are the slaves of those whom we cre- 
ated. . . What shall be the remedy? Here lies the 
difficulty, for even in our own ranks there is a Babel of 
opinion. Some advocate new routes east, subsidized by 
government, either rail or canal ; others would have new 
roads made by private enterprise and trust to competi- 
tion. The first of these will require many years before 
they can afford the relief which we want now; and be- 
sides will surely develop into other Credit Mobiliers. 
The second will only add one more link to the chain 
which now binds us hand and foot. I see no solution of 
this question but for Congress to avail itself of its con- 
stitutional right to regulate commerce between the 
states, and for the states themselves to regulate the tar- 
iffs within their own boundaries. . . 

ARTICLE 5 [Constitution]. This, as now worded, 
caused, perhaps, more trouble and vexation than any 
other. I refer to the clause which reads: "Any person 
interested in agricultural pursuits." This clause is ca- 
pable of such varied construction that much confusion 
and misunderstanding has resulted. During the infancy 
of the Order, when members were few, our strength 
puny, and our chief aim simply social and educational, 
there was little danger in construing this clause liberally 
and admitting nearly all who would pay the fee and con- 



96 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

sent to join such a weak and unpopular institution. But 
now all these circumstances are changed. To be a Pa- 
tron of Husbandry is no longer of doubtful propriety, 
but the proudest in the land are knocking at our door. 
The Order has become recognized as one of the great 
powers in the land, and the gates are besieged, from 
ocean to ocean, by hordes of speculators, demagogues, 
small politicians, grain-buyers, cotton-factors, and law- 
yers, who suddenly discover that they are "interested in 
agricultural pursuits;" but only as a hawk is interested 
in the sparrow. . . 

ARTICLE 12 also demands most serious consideration 
to definitely decide what interpretation shall be put 
upon the word "political." I am gratified that our mem- 
bers are substantially a unit in the opinion that the Order 
should not in any sense become a political party. But at 
the same time, there are questions most fundamentally 
affecting our material interests, which can only be 
reached through legislation. It seems imperative, that 
such questions be discussed in the grange. Shall it 
be ruled that such questions were political in the mean- 
ing of the constitution? The questions of transporta- 
tion, taxation, finance, corruption in public places, 
were such as come home to the conscience and pockets 
of our members, and they wish to know whether they 
will be denied the privilege of canvassing them on the 
ground of politics. This body should clearly set forth 
an authoritative interpretation for the guidance of mem- 
bers. 

[Executive Committee (pages 28-32)] Your com- 
mittee have issued three business circulars during the 
year, and have visited various cities and manufacturing 
stations in efforts to effect special arrangements for the 
benefit of the Order. They have also placed themselves 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 97 

in correspondence with presidents and directors of rail- 
road and other transportation companies, and have made 
personal visits to many of them, and in all their negotia- 
tions the utmost harmony has prevailed. Occasionally 
prejudices were encountered, and wrong impressions 
with regard to the aims and objects of the Order had to 
be removed ; but after acquiring a thorough understand- 
ing of our propositions in regard to business transactions, 
satisfactory arrangements were speedily perfected. 

Unfortunately for the Order, the impression prevails 
to some extent that its chief mission is to fight railroads 
and denounce capitalists. It is a work of time to remove 
these erroneous impressions, and to prove that we do 
not wage a meaningless aggressive warfare upon any in- 
terest whatever; but that, on the contrary, all our acts 
and all our efforts, so far as business is concerned, are not 
only for the benefit of producers and consumers, but 
equally for all other interests that tend to bring these 
two parties into speedy and economical contact. . . 

The past experience of your committee induces it to 
suggest for your consideration the propriety of estab- 
lishing a Business Agency in the office of the National 
Grange, to be under the direct and entire control of the 
Executive Committee. Among other duties, this agency 
would publish, at such intervals of time as would be 
deemed best, a complete business directory of the Order. 
This would not only embrace all arrangements made by 
the Executive Committee of the National Grange, but 
also those of all state granges; thus showing at one com- 
prehensive view the entire business facilities of the Or- 
der, a copy to be sent to each subordinate grange as soon 
as published. [Advocates collection of statistics, publi- 
cation of tracts, employment of lecturers.] 

[Membership was interpreted, as follows (page 72)] 



98 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

RESOLVED, that in the sense of the National Grange, the 
expression, "Interested in agricultural pursuits," in arti- 
cle 5 of the constitution, means, "Engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits, and having no interest in conflict with 
our purposes." 

[Committee on Transportation and Cooperation 
(pages 78-80) ] The Order of the Patrons of Husband- 
ry, representing the productive industry of the country, 
finds the means of transportation inadequate to carry on 
its exchanges, while at the same time the cost of trans- 
portation, chiefly on account of the inadequacy of the 
means, is so excessive as to be onerous. The committee 
would therefore respectfully suggest the following reso- 
lutions: 

First: that the Mississippi River be made navigable, 
with a permanent outlet to the gulf, and its channel be 
so improved as to afford a means of transportation for 
the exchanges of those states lying upon its borders, 
commensurate with their demands. 

Second: that Congress, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the constitution, so regulate the internal com- 
merce between the states as to make the tax upon internal 
transportation approximate more justly the actual cost, 
while at the same time in no way threatening or injuring 
the legitimate claims of invested capital, to secure such 
a proportionate share of the wealth produced by industry 
as it is justly entitled to for its services. 

Third: that the proper legislative measures be in- 
stituted to restore our foreign commerce to its former 
condition of efficiency, so that the charge of freight may 
no longer be a direct tax against our productive industry, 
but, as it used to be, an increase of our domestic re- 
sources. 

Fourth: that printed copies of these resolutions be 
furnished the masters of state granges, and they be in- 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 99 

structcd to forward them to the members of Congress 
from their respective states. 

Fifth : while the above resolutions suggest the aid of 
the state in attaining our ends, yet your committee would 
take this occasion to impress upon the members of the 
Order, that taking the matter in their own hands and or- 
ganizing effective cooperation between themselves as 
producers and the transportation companies as legiti- 
mately engaged in a necessary function of the business 
of exchange, is one of the most practical means for pro- 
ducing immediate results. 

Your committee were also enjoined to take into con- 
sideration the subject of business cooperation. Under 
this head, we feel the imperative necessity of some defi- 
nite action, to the end that there may be an exchange of 
products between producers in the different sections of 
country. The cotton and sugar-growing states, the 
manufacturing and mining districts of the Eastern and 
Middle States and the bread and meat-producing states 
of the west, are all united by a common bond of interest, 
an interest which the Order of Patrons will bring to- 
gether and utilize. 

It should be our purpose to arrange a business system 
by which an exchange of products may be made direct 
between the producer and consumer without the inter- 
vention of an unnecessary number of middle men. It 
is of but little satisfaction to our brothers of the south to 
know that corn in Iowa is selling at thirty cents per 
bushel while they pay eighty, or that meat in Illinois is 
four cents per pound, while it costs them eight. It is a 
questionable consolation to the manufacturer of New- 
England to know that in the valley of the Mississippi a 
yard of his cloth will buy three loaves of bread, when 
but one of them ever reaches his family. 

Your committee recognize fully that these differences 



ioo AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

are not caused by a fair and equitable system of trans- 
portation or business needs, but by an unhealthy system 
of watered stock and an unnecessary number of middle 
men, which together eat up too large a share of the 
products of labor. In view of these facts, we respectful- 
ly submit the following resolution : 

Resolved, that the Executive Committee of the Na- 
tional Grange be instructed to give especial attention 
to furnishing Patrons with tools and implements for the 
cultivation of our farms, and all family and farm sup- 
plies, at as low a price as a legitimate business profit will 
permit, and also to make arrangements by which a mu- 
tual exchange of products between different sections of 
the country may be made ; and they are hereby author- 
ized to employ, if in their judgment it may be necessary, 
competent agents to aid them in the work. 

That they be also instructed to devise some safe plan 

for co-operative stores, for the information of members 

of the Order, and transmit the same to the Executive 

Committees of the several state granges. [Adopted.] 

A. B. Smedley, B. F. Wardlaw, 

W. Maxwell, Edward Holland. 

[On account of the many resolutions promulgated by 
State and local granges in all parts of the country, each 
according to the local situation, the following complete 
statement was adopted (pages 56-60).] 

DECLARATION OF PURPOSE OF THE NATIONAL 

GRANGE 

PREAMBLE. Profoundly impressed with the truth 
that the National Grange of the United States should 
definitely proclaim to the world its general objects, we 
hereby unanimously make this Declaration of Purposes 
of the Patrons of Husbandry: 

General Objects, i. United by the strong and 



ten] FARMERS* ORGANIZATIONS 101 

faithful tic of agriculture, wc mutually resolve to labor 
for the good of our Order, our country, and mankind. 

2. We heartily indorse the motto: "In essentials, 
unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity." 

Specific Objects. 3. Wc shall endeavor to advance 
our cause by laboring to accomplish the following ob- 
jects : 

To develop a better and higher manhood and woman- 
hood among ourselves. To enhance the comforts and at- 
tractions of our homes, and strengthen our attachments 
to our pursuits. To foster mutual understanding and 
cooperation. To maintain inviolate our laws, and to 
emulate each other in labor to hasten the good time 
coming. To reduce our expenses, both individual and 
corporate. To buy less and produce more, in order to 
make our farms self-sustaining. To diversify our crops, 
and crop no more than we can cultivate. To condense 
the weight of our exports, selling less in the bushel and 
more on hoof and in fleece; less in lint, and more in 
warp and woof. To systematize our work, and calculate 
intelligently on probabilities. To discountenance the 
credit system, the mortgage system, the fashion system, 
and every other system tending to prodigality and bank- 
ruptcy. 

We propose meeting together, talking together, work- 
ing together, buying together, selling together, and in 
general acting together for our mutual protection and 
advancement, as occasion may require. We shall avoid 
litigation as much as possible by arbitration in the 
Grange. We shall constantly strive to secure entire har- 
mony, good-will, vital brotherhood among ourselves, 
and to make our order perpetual. We shall earnestly 
endeavor to suppress personal, local, sectional, and na- 
tional prejudices, all unhealthy rivalry, all selfish 



102 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

ambition. Faithful adherence to these principles will 
insure our mental, moral, social, and material advance- 
ment. 

Business Relations. 4. For our business interests, 
we desire to bring producers and consumers, farmers 
and manufacturers into the most direct and friendly re- 
lations possible. Hence we must dispense with a sur- 
plus of middlemen, not that we are unfriendly to them, 
but we do not need them. Their surplus and their ex- 
actions diminish our profits. 

We wage no aggressive warfare against any other in- 
terests whatever. On the contrary, all our acts and all 
our efforts, so far as business is concerned, are not only 
for the benefit of the producer and consumer, but also 
for all other interests that tend to bring these two parties 
into speedy and economical contact. Hence we hold 
that transportation companies of every kind are neces- 
sary to our success, that their interests are intimately 
connected with our interests, and harmonious action is 
mutually advantageous, keeping in view the first sen- 
tence in our declaration of principles of action that 
"Individual happiness depends upon general prosper- 
ity." 

We shall, therefore, advocate for every state the in- 
crease in every practicable way, of all facilities for 
transporting cheaply to the seaboard, or between home 
producers and consumers, all the productions of our 
country. We adopt it as our fixed purpose to "open out 
the channels in nature's great arteries that the life-blood 
of commerce may flow freely." 

We are not enemies of railroads, navigable and irri- 
gating canals, nor of any corporation that will advance 
our industrial interests, nor of any laboring classes. 

In our noble Order there is no communism, no agra- 
rianism. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 103 

We arc opposed to such spirit and management of any 
corporation or enterprise as tends to oppress the people 
and rob them of their just profits. We are not enemies 
to capital, but we oppose the tyranny of monopolies. 
We long to see the antagonism between capital and labor 
removed by common consent, and by an enlightened 
statesmanship worthy of the nineteenth century. We 
are opposed to excessive salaries, high rates of interest, 
and exorbitant per cent profits in trade. They greatly 
increase our burdens, and do not bear a proper propor- 
tion to the profits of producers. We desire only self- 
protection and the protection of every true interest of 
our land by legitimate transactions, legitimate trade, 
and legitimate profits. 

Education. We shall advance the cause of educa- 
tion among ourselves and for our children, by all just 
means within our power. We especially advocate for 
our agricultural and industrial colleges that practical 
agriculture, domestic science, and all the arts which 
adorn the home, be taught in their courses of study. 

The Grange not partisan. 5. We emphatically 
and sincerely assert the oft-repeated truth taught in our 
organic law, that the Grange, National, State, or Sub- 
ordinate, is not a political or party organization. No 
Grange, if true to its obligations, can discuss political or 
religious questions, nor call political conventions, nor 
nominate candidates, nor even discuss their merits in its 
meetings. 

Yet the principles we teach underlie all true politics, 
all true statesmanship, and, if properly carried out, will 
tend to purify the whole political atmosphere of our 
country. For we seek the greatest good to the greatest 
number. 

We must always bear in mind that no one, by becoming 
a Patron of Husbandry, gives up that inalienable right 



104 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

and duty which belongs to every American citizen, to 
take a proper interest in the politics of his country. 

On the contrary, it is right for every member to do all 
in his power legitimately to influence for good the action 
of any political party to which he belongs. It is his 
duty to do all he can in his own party to put down 
bribery, corruption, and trickery; to see that none but 
competent, faithful, and honest men, who will unflinch- 
ingly stand by our industrial interests, are nominated 
for all positions of trust; and to have carried out the 
principle which should always characterize every Pa- 
tron, that the office should seek the man, and not the 
man the office. 

We acknowledge the broad principle that difference 
of opinion is no crime, and hold that "progress toward 
truth is made by differences of opinion," while "the 
fault lies in bitterness of controversy." 

We desire a proper equality, equity, and fairness; 
protection for the weak, restraint upon the strong; in 
short, justly distributed burdens and justly distributed 
power. These are American ideas, the very essence of 
American independence, and to advocate the contrary 
is unworthy of the sons and daughters of an American 
republic. 

We cherish the belief that sectionalism is, and of right 
should be, dead and buried with the past. Our work is 
for the present and the future. In our agricultural 
brotherhood and its purposes we shall recognize no 
north, no south, no east, no west. 

It is reserved by every Patron, as the right of a free- 
man, to affiliate with any party that will best carry out 
his principles. 

Outside Co-operation. 6. Ours being peculiarly a 
farmers' institution, we cannot admit all to our ranks. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 105 

Many are excluded by the nature of our organization, 
not because they are professional men, or artisans, or 
laborers, but because they have not a sufficient direct in- 
terest in tilling the soil, or may have some interest in 
conflict with our purposes. But we appeal to all good 
citizens for their cordial cooperation to assist in our 
efforts toward reform, that we may eventually remove 
from our midst the last vestige of tyranny and corrup- 
tion. We hail the general desire for fraternal harmony, 
equitable compromises, and earnest cooperation, as an 
omen of our future success. 

7. It shall be an abiding principle with us to relieve 
any of our oppressed and suffering brotherhood by any 
means at our command. 

Last, but not least, we proclaim it among our pur- 
poses to inculcate a proper appreciation of the abilities 
and sphere of woman, as is indicated by admitting her to 
membership and position in our order. 

Imploring the continued assistance of our Divine 
Master to guide us in our work, we here pledge ourselves 
to faithful and harmonious labor for all future time, to 
return by our united efforts to the wisdom, justice, fra- 
ternity, and political purity of our forefathers. 

[Money was appropriated to assist members in Iowa, 
Minnesota and Dakota who suffered from "grasshopper 
plague;" the organization refused to take up the sub- 
ject of national finance; a report from Canada was sub- 
mitted ; a committee to prepare a platform of principles 
was formed; and Congress was memorialized on the 
patent laws.] 



106 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

(3) Eighth Session, 1875. 

Proceedings of the Eighth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, Charleston, South Carolina, Feb. 3, 1875. 

[Report of Worthy Secretary (page 22) ] The mem- 
bership of the entire Order has been more than doubled 
since our last session. During February we reached the 
highest number of Subordinate Granges organized in 
any month since its foundation, viz. 2,239. During the 
past five months the work of organizing has settled down 
to an average of 392 Granges per month, and the work 
in the Secretary's office has been so systematized that a 
much smaller force of clerks is employed. The largest 
number of Granges organized in any State was 1,324- 
in Kentucky. The whole number organized in the U.S. 
was 11,941; and the number of Deputies employed, 
1,074. ■ • 

[Executive Committee (pages 24-35)] ... In 
pursuance of the plan adopted by your committee to 
make special arrangements with manufacturers and 
business firms for such articles as are in demand by the 
Order, and sending a notification of the same to each 
Grange by means of a confidential circular, it was soon 
made manifest that an injurious publicity was given to 
these circulars. Many of them never reached their des- 
tination, and in all probability fell into other hands than 
those for whom they were intended. . . The re- 
sult could readily be foreseen ; manufacturers were soon 
made aware of the fact that their private arrangements 
had been made public, contrary to express agreement, 
and withdrew from the bargain with feelings of dis- 
trust of the Order in general, and your committee in par- 
ticular. . . Your committee therefore resolved to 
suspend its efforts in this direction until a proper com- 
prehensive plan could be devised and set in motion. . . 

The system of agencies as appointed and controlled 






ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 107 

by Granges, is inefficient and unsatisfactory. A State 
Executive Committee appoint an agent in a distant city, 
and so inform their Subordinate Granges; but for want 
of cash, the efforts of antagonistic interests, lack of con- 
fidence, and probably more than all these, the failure to 
effect combined co-operative action, the agent is not sus- 
tained, and the business progress of the Order suffers 
greatly in consequence. . . The necessity for estab- 
lishing purchasing agencies is imperative. Subordinate 
Granges all over the country demand a full development 
of this branch of our work. But the question arises, how 
can it best be effected? Your committee suggest that 
a purchasing agent should be established by the Na- 
tional Grange in each of the three commercial centres - 
New York, Chicago, and New Orleans. These agents 
should receive competent salaries, and be subject to the 
control and supervision of the National Grange, and act 
as representatives of the Order. Agents for the dispos- 
ing of produce should more properly be under the con- 
trol of the State Granges. 

Statistical Reports. At its last session the General 
Grange adopted the report of the Committee on the 
Good of the Order, recommending a system of statistical 
crop reports, and committed the subject to the Executive 
Committee. Your committee, having carefully delib- 
erated upon a system, issued 16,239 circulars to the 
Subordinate Granges, advising them of the proposed 
project, pointing out its mutual importance and solicit- 
ing their fraternal aid and co-operation. These circu- 
lars also comprised blanks to be filled with approximate 
information as to the area planted in 1873, the acreage of 
1874, the amount and market value of products on hand, 
April 15, 1874, and contained instructions how to re- 
ply to these and other inquiries relative to twenty-five of 



108 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

the leading products of the United States. . . By the 
first of May, 2,865 replies were received, vastly the ma- 
jority of which were accompanied by lengthy epistles, 
containing advice, complaints, suggestions, encourage- 
ment, and caustic criticism. Granges in the extreme 
north charged inconsistency, for asking about the area 
of 1874 when the earth was still deeply frozen; those of 
the extreme south replied that they had nothing on hand 
by the fifteenth of April, and those in the vicinity of 
cities complained that their specialties were ignored. 
These returns were compiled and issued as a report by 
the tenth of May, accompanied by a second blank con- 
taining a list of forty-two marketable products, and a 
separate sheet of minute instructions how to fill up the 
report, with the usual post-paid and addressed return- 
envelope. This blank repeated the inquiries in the for- 
mer blank, with the additional inquiry as to the condition 
of crops on the fifteenth of June, 1874, and each Grange 
was urged not to delay their reply later than the twenty- 
fifth of June, as the information to be disseminated must 
be speedily compiled and promptly issued to be of any 
practical benefit. . . By the first of July, 3,157 returns 
were received and compiled, though many hundreds con- 
tinued to drop in through that month. Very few of these 
reports were concise and satisfactory. . . By the fifth 
of July, the report, with additional sheets of explana- 
tions and instructions, was issued to 19,152 Granges, and 
replies solicited not later than the fifteenth of August. 
The information asked for in this series of blanks per- 
tained more particularly to the condition of crops on the 
fifteenth of August, and the price of lands, whether for- 
est or arable, swamp or prairie, up or low lands. By the 
first of September, 2,907 returns were received and com- 
piled, and a few continued to be received until the first 
of October. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 109 

In this circular Granges had been requested to state, 
as near as practicable, the proportion of the crops grown 
by farmers who were not Patrons within their several 
jurisdictions. Almost invariably the reply was made, 
"We can only tell by examining the assessor's books." 1 1 
had now become evident to your committee that the mass 
of our Order were not yet prepared to appreciate the 
value of correct crop reports. Discouraged by these un- 
successful efforts, which were a heavy expense to the 
National Grange, it determined to vary the method, and 
submit a series of practical questions, which, if properly 
answered, would convey such information as would in- 
dicate whether the organization was of any real benefit 
to the agriculturists of the country. Nineteen thousand, 
three hundred and forty-eight sheets containing these 
questions were issued with the report compiled from the 
returns received by September first, and a request to 
return replies by the twenty-fifth of November. To 
this 3,283 replies were received, compiled, and the re- 
sults mailed to 21,700 Granges. This department is ex- 
pensive but its utility is apparent to all who can appre- 
ciate the value of statistics as furnishing facts that will 
form a basis of action. . . 

Implements and Tools. By resolution your com- 
mittee were instructed "to give especial attention to fur- 
nishing Patrons with tools and implements for the cul- 
tivation of our farms at as low a price as a legitimate 
business profit will permit." In the endeavor to fulfil 
the duties prescribed in this resolution, negotiations 
were opened with manufacturers of farming requisites, 
and with many of them terms of agreement were con- 
cluded; but for reasons already mentioned further ef- 
forts in that direction were abandoned and attention 
specially given to secure rights to manufacture leading 



no AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

implements, which would become the exclusive property 
of the National Grange. . . Following up this line 
of action, the following rights have been secured: the 
Werner harvester, which, in competitive trials, has 
proved to be equal to the best of its kind, and which can 
be had at a cost of $140. A combined riding and walk- 
ing cultivator, of which the Patrons in Kentucky, after 
a trial last summer, say there is no better machine of its 
kind. This is furnished for $25. A superior seeder that 
can be sold for $40. Also, exclusive control of a sulky 
spring- toothed hay rake. Cost, $25. An arrangement 
has been made with the Climax Manufacturing Com- 
pany for a combined self-raking reaper and mower, at 
a cost of $145. Additions to these are in progress, and it 
is hoped that the time is not far distant when the Order 
will control a full list of all machinery required upon the 
farm and plantation. . . 

During the month of July last year a letter was re- 
ceived from Brother Porter of Nebraska, informing 
your committee of the efforts of Patrons in that state to 
manufacture cultivators and headers, and that in conse- 
quence of not having been able to dispose of the whole 
of their manufactures, owing to the lateness of the sea- 
son, they were compelled to ask temporary assistance 
from the National Grange. 

[Donations, ten thousand dollars to sufferers from 
floods in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and suf- 
ferers from locusts in Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kan- 
sas.] 

Co-operative Stores. Your committee having been 
instructed to devise some safe plan of cooperative stores 
for the information of members of the Order, gave 
prompt attention to the investigation of this subject, and 
while the result of its inquiries has not been, perhaps, 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 1 1 1 

sufficiently conclusive to guarantee the safety of a plan, 
it has recently published a tract upon the principles and 
management of cooperative stores, based upon an ex- 
ample that has been in successful operation for several 
years in this country. . . 

[Committee on Good of the Order (page 62)] Your 
Committee also had under their consideration the 
resolution introduced by Bro. Davie, Ky., in relation to 
the extension of patents by the U.S. government, and is 
firmly impressed that unjust and high exactions are 
made upon plain and simple inventions by the prolonged 
continuance of letters patent, and that often the rewards 
of genius and invention are without corresponding bene- 
fits to the public. Thus impressed, your committee re- 
spectfully return the resolutions and ask their adoption, 
and ask to be discharged from the further consideration 
of the same. [Adopted.] 

[Committee on the Executive Committee's report 
(page 70)] . . . Resolved: that the Executive 
Committee, or other agents with whom is entrusted the 
business affairs of the Order shall withhold the name of 
the manufacturer or business house from all circulars 
containing price lists, that may be issued from their sev- 
eral offices; but that price lists containing the name of a 
manufacturer or business house, may be sent to Masters 
of State Granges and their appointed business agents, 
and to no other person. [Adopted.] 

Your committee approve of the suggestions made by 
the Executive Committee on the subject of implements 
and tools, and recommend their adoption. [Adopted.] 

[Committee on Transportation (pages 85, 86) ] Your 
committee . . . express it as the sense of this body 
that the time has fully come when it is the mission, pre- 
rogative, and duty of the government to take such meas- 



112 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

ures as will encourage the productive interests of the 
nation. The products of the forest, field and mine form 
a large portion of the aggregate wealth of the country. 
While the government should neglect no other interest, 
yet we are of the opinion that the productive industries 
have hitherto received too little attention, and we urge 
upon our representatives in Congress, the immediate, im- 
portant and vital necessity of such action on their part 
as will look to providing cheap and rapid means of trans- 
portation between all sections of the country and to the 
markets of the world. There is one measure however 
of such immediate and pressing necessity that your com- 
mittee feel compelled to allude to it, viz. the opening of 
the mouth of the Mississippi River. In view of the fact 
that so large a territory is dependent on this outlet for its 
products, we urge upon our legislators the necessity of 
taking such measures as will open this river to the com- 
merce of the world at the earliest possible moment. 
Adopted. 

The Committee on the Good of the Order reported, 
recommending the general government to extend such 
aid to the work of strengthening and re-building the 
levees of the Mississippi River, as is consistent with na- 
tional prosperity, etc. Adopted. 

[Committee on Resolutions (pages 86-87)] • • • 
Your committee have viewed with great interest the ex- 
pressions of approval and the appeals to Congress to 
forward this great work [Texas Pacific Railroad] em- 
anating from State Granges and Boards of Trade from 
the Pacific to the Atlantic, and are impressed with the 
great obvious benefits which would result to this whole 
nation by the speedy completion of this road. And as 
it is an enterprise too vast to depend alone for its success 
upon private capital, equal justice to all sections of our 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 1 13 

common country requires the aid of the national govern- 
ment to forward this work under proper restrictions and 
safeguards insuring the government against loss, and the 
people against unjust impositions and discriminations. 
Your committee therefore submit the following resolu- 
tion: 

That this National Grange earnestly invites the atten- 
tion of Congress to the necessity of a speedy completion 
of the Texas Pacific Railroad, and asks of that body, rea- 
sonable aid to the company which has inaugurated this 
great national enterprise, under such cautionary restric- 
tions and safeguards as the prudence and wisdom of 
Congress may devise, to guarantee the government 
against loss, and protect the agricultural interests of 
every section of the country against unjust discrimina- 
tions in the price of transportation. Adopted. 

[Committee on Commercial Relations (pages 89- 
90)] Your Committee on Commercial Relations thor- 
oughly realizing the vital importance of a more economi- 
cal commerce both between the western and southeastern 
sections of the Union as well as of a more economical 
system of international commerce between the producers 
of America and the consumers of Europe, than now ex- 
ist via New York and Liverpool, ask to make the fol- 
lowing report: that the House of Representatives' Bill 
No. 3,656, introduced by the Hon. Geo. W. McCrary of 
Iowa, in the 43d Congress, last session, asking that a 
company, to be styled the Eastern and Western Trans- 
portation Company, be incorporated, subject to the laws 
of the several states, in which said corporation shall 
operate its line of road and telegraphic wires, seems to 
lay out a plan and route from which much good may be 
achieved, in reducing not only the distance to deep 
water on the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, but 



ii 4 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

materially the cost of transporting the bulky and heavy 
crops of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys to Euro- 
pean and South American consumers. As the bill grants 
no subsidy or land except a right of way two hundred 
and ten feet wide, and as the measure contemplates doing 
what is so sorely needed by the people of this country 
viz. making the road a public highway and post-road, 
we respectfully recommend that your body commend 
the memorial of the "Eastern and Western Transporta- 
tion Company," praying that the H. R. Bill 3,656 in- 
corporating said company be enacted. This company 
is applying to the several states interested, for concurrent 
acts of incorporation, and for the grant of the necessary 
right of way, and privileges, under proper stipulations. 
We therefore commend to the attention of this body, 
these subsidiary acts, and ask that the local aid necessary 
to secure proper legislation be afforded, by the frater- 
nity residing in the several states directly interested. 
[Yeas and nays demanded; adopted, twenty-one to 
eleven.] 

(4) Ninth Session, 1875 

Proceedings of the Ninth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, Louisville, Kentucky, November 17, 1875. 

[Secretary's Report (pages 16-17)] . . . It [the 
grange] is the leader of modern associations in admitting 
old and young of both sexes. The Masonic Order, con- 
sisting of blue lodges, chapters, commanderies, and other 
branches of its organization, numbers twelve thousand 
nine hundred and thirty bodies on the entire globe; the 
Odd Fellows number seven thousand and fifty-one 
lodges, encampments, etc., giving a total of nineteen 
thousand nine hundred and eighty-one in the whole 
world; and those Orders have existed for centuries; 
while at the outside we have but eight years' growth, 
and have issued twenty-four thousand two hundred and 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 1 1 5 

ninety charters, confined to the United States alone. We 
stand far in the lead of any other association. . . 
During the three years past there have been upward of 
three thousand deputies at work reporting directly to 
our office. . . State secretaries this year report a 
total paying membership of seven hundred and sixty- 
two thousand two hundred and sixty-three, while the in- 
crease of new Granges for the past month has been 
ninety-two. . . How much of the resources of the 
National Grange have been spent during the past three 
years in diffusing knowledge? Are we not losing sight 
of our ultimate object? Co-operation in buying and 
selling seems to absorb the attention to the exclusion of 
every thing else. Ought we not as representatives of 
this grand body of American farmers do more toward 
the education of the people by means of tracts and com- 
petent lectures? 

[Executive Committee (pages 19-22)] . . . We 
find many of our grange agents doing business on the 
usual commission system, differing in nothing from or- 
dinary commission merchants, except perhaps in some 
instances at a slightly less commission; that in general 
there is no co-operation among these agencies, but on 
the contrary the usual jealousy which obtains among 
rivals, which is contrary to the genius of our institution, 
and its consequences very damaging to our Order. 

We submit that the commission system applied to 
our Order is false in theory, unjust to our members (as 
no distinction is made so far as we are informed be- 
tween the members and those not members), and that 
under this system, instead of building up our Order, we 
are building up commission merchants under our aus- 
pices, perhaps to assert their independence of us when- 
ever it may suit their interest or convenience. Where 



n6 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

the agents are receiving a stated salary from the treas- 
urers of the State Granges, we find they are doing more 
and better, and have the confidence of our members to 
a much greater extent. . . 

The disposition among our members to inaugurate 
manufactories and to increase the products of the soil, 
the forest, and the mine, in the different sections of our 
country is well known. The wisdom of such a policy is 
evident. To facilitate the progress of such worthy en- 
terprises we have employed much of our time in visiting 
the machine-works and mill-works of New England and 
other sections of the country, obtaining estimates of the 
cost of machines for such manufactories as we know 
are suited to our people and desired by them, valuable 
statistics in this connection; making terms for mill and 
other machinery, as we have heretofore done for farm- 
ing implements; negotiating with skilled mechanics, 
operative artisans; presenting to capitalists in the east 
information of the great undeveloped resources of the 
west and south, inviting them to at least "come and 
see." . . 

[Following is the first murmur of what is to-day the 
inspiration of the really large farmers' organizations:] 

[Page 54] The Committee on Good of the Order, to 
whom was referred the preamble and resolutions [by 
Montgomery County Grange No. 7, Maryland] urging 
the adoption of such measures as will fix the prices of the 
products of our farms, has well matured the same, and 
are of the unanimous opinion that such action at this 
time would be hasty, as in a large portion of our country 
the crops are mortgaged to others for advances to make 
the crops, and it would be a violation of good faith to 
withhold the crops. Such a state of things indeed is un- 
fortunate-yes, deplorable -but too true; and your com- 
mittee earnestly recommend that in pitching the next 






ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS vrj 

crop our brothers generally should so plant as to enable 
them, if possible, to control their crops. When this is 
done the measure suggested will be wise; and farmers, 
like all others, should have something to do in fixing 
the prices of these products. [Adopted.] 

[Committee on Co-operation (page 141)] RESOLVED, 
that the National Grange recommend that each state 
appoint, through its proper authority, one general busi- 
ness agent, who shall be a member of our Order. Such 
agent shall give such a bond as his State Grange or its 
Executive Committee may deem necessary to cover all 
liabilities, and shall make such terms and negotiations 
for the Patrons of his state as the interests of the Order 
demand, under the direction and supervision of the 
proper authority of his state. Said agent shall exchange 
confidential price-lists with the business agents of other 
states at least once a month, together with a statement 
of the best freight-rates obtainable, as near as prac- 
ticable, and shall buy and sell, or cause to be bought and 
sold, for the Patrons of other states on the same terms as 
for his own. [Adopted.] 

[By Lang, of Texas (page 152)] RESOLVED, that it 
is the sense of the National Grange that a state legisla- 
ture has no power to grant vested rights of an uncondi- 
tional character to individuals or corporations, to em- 
power them to throttle or clog the commercial highways 
of the country, and the people themselves are incapable, 
as a sovereign body, of parting with the right to resume 
concessions of public franchise to private corporations. 
[Adopted.] 

[Page 162] Whereas, all donations by Congress, 
together with the expenses and support of the Federal 
Government of these United States, are made up of the 
contributions of all the people; and 

WHEREAS, the public domain of our common country 



1 1 8 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

is an inalienable heritage in which every American citi- 
zen has an interest; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, that neither money nor lands belonging to 
the people can, in equity or of right, be appropriated by 
Congress to aid private speculations, either of individ- 
uals or corporations, without reserving the right of con- 
trol over the same. 

Resolved, that the Congress of the United States be 
and it is hereby requested to pass a law at the next session 
thereof, affirming the right of the several states to reg- 
ulate the rates of freights and fares on railroads. 
[Adopted.] 

(5) Tenth Session 1876. 

Proceedings of the Tenth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, Chicago, Illinois, November 15 1876. In the effort to 
exclude politics the Grange gradually returned to the original objects 
of a social and educational society. Political questions were taken up 
by the Farmers' Alliance. The Grange also abandoned much of its 
business activities; most of its agencies failed; only a few stores sur- 
vived ; and it did not attempt to regulate prices. 

[Secretary's Report] . . . The tables show as 
follows: Eight hundred and eighty-five new Granges 
have been organized during the past fiscal year, and 
24,800 since the origin of the Order. Of this number 
650 have surrendered their charters. Five hundred and 
fifty have had their charters revoked at the National 
office. Seven thousand are known to be delinquent in 
payment of dues to their respective State Granges for 
one quarter or more. Eight hundred have consolidated 
with other Granges. Leaving 15,800 paying Sub- 
ordinate Granges, and a total paying membership of 
550,000 in the United States. This shows an apparent 
diminution of numbers since last year; but it must be 
remembered we then counted all, whether active or dor- 
mant, paying or delinquent. The Order is without 
doubt stronger than twelve months ago. The useless 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 1 19 

and inactive members have retired, and today we count 
in round numbers 550,000 men and women, a paying 
membership, ready to assist you in whatever good work 
your wisdom may design. 

[By Bro. Davie, Ky. (pages 23-24)] WHEREAS, 
it is universally admitted by all men that agriculture is 
the true basis of individual and national prosperity; 
therefore, its due encouragement should enlist the sym- 
pathies and endeavors of every citizen of every class; 
and, whereas, the agricultural masses compose at least 
one half of the population of the free states of America, 
upon whom ultimately rest the taxes which sustain the 
government; and, whereas, the political affairs of the 
government for a hundred years past have from the very 
nature of things been chiefly in the hands of the pro- 
fessional, manufacturing, and mercantile classes, which 
always have, do now, and will always in future look 
wisely to their special interests, in adjusting govern- 
mental burdens, or securing the tender regard of the 
government towards themselves, and, whereas, it is the 
duty of wise and just legislators to see that the blessings 
and burdens of government are shed or laid with im- 
partial rule upon all classes alike; and, claiming for 
ourselves no more than the happiness, wealth, and gen- 
eral prosperity of every citizen, we seek to share in the 
due and proper encouragement of American agricul- 
ture; therefore, 

RESOLVED, that American agriculturists demand that 
they shall be recognized as a real factor in this govern- 
ment by the establishment of a bureau of agriculture, to 
be presided over by a cabinet officer, who shall organize 
the same upon a plan to be devised by the wisdom of 
Congress, which shall embrace to the fullest the agricul- 
tural interests of 20,000,000 of the people, and whose 



120 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

counsel and advice shall have due weight accordingly to 
the same on matters affecting the agricultural people and 
also our public affairs generally. 

RESOLVED, that we unite as agriculturists in one com- 
mon cause to secure this object from Congress and the 
Chief Executive without regard to political affiliation, 
and that the Executive Committee are hereby instructed 
to send this preamble and resolutions to each member of 
the Congress of the United States, and that each State 
Grange prepare and sign petitions setting forth our de- 
sires for the accomplishment of this object as the very 
highest that can engage our common endeavors; and we 
do hereby earnestly call upon every Grange in the 
United States to give us their assistance, and every 
farmer and planter not a Granger, to give his aid; and 
furthermore, that the Executive Committee shall com- 
municate this preamble and resolutions to every State 
Grange, and solicit the co-operation of every Grange in 
the United States, and that of every farmer and planter 
throughout the land, in such form and manner as to 
them may seem best calculated to attain the object set 
forth herein. [Adopted.] 

[Committee on Education (pages 106-108)] . . . 
What do we see on looking around us? Richly endowed 
ancient colleges for men to learn the use of their minds, 
but not of their bodies -where they may learn to be- 
come lawyers, doctors, ministers, professors of every 
thing in which the use of the hands is ignored, and 
where, moreover, they learn to despise bodily exertion 
and those who "earn their bread by the sweat of the 
brow." The wants of the city have raised commercial 
schools, academies of music and of art. . . Fourteen 
years ago, Congress decided upon and perfected a plan 
for the establishment of an agricultural college in each 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS m 

state. Since that time, some of the states have established 
agricultural colleges as separate and distinct schools, 
while others have united their funds with other schools, 
or universities, and made the agricultural feature more 
or less subordinate to the demands of other branches of 
knowledge. 

More or less success has attended these schools, but it 
is the opinion of your committee that the farmers of our 
country have not taken that interest in those schools, or 
given them that support, which they needed to make 
them serve the important ends for which they were 
established. 

We, therefore, recommend to this National Grange 
that the question of agricultural colleges be fully dis- 
cussed at this meeting, in order that we may learn our 
duty to these schools, and, through the State and Sub- 
ordinate Granges, call the attention of the farmers of 
the country to their importance. 

In connection therewith we offer the following res- 
olutions: 

WHEREAS, the proper education of our children is a 
matter of the greatest consequence to us as citizens; and, 
whereas, the development of the sciences underlying 
agriculture, and the thorough instruction of our people 
in the best practical methods of cultivating, saving, and 
marketing our several foreign products, is of the greatest 
importance to us as farmers; and, whereas, the Congress 
of the United States did, in the year 1862, make a dona- 
tion of lands for the founding of colleges for instruction 
in the science and in the practice of agriculture; there- 
fore, 

RESOLVED, that this Grange, the national head of the 
great organization of farmers, do appoint a standing 
committee of three members, to be composed of the 



122 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Worthy Master and two members, to be called a Com- 
mittee on Education, whose duty it shall be to inquire 
into the use made of the donations of Congress, above 
named, in the several states, to inquire what colleges 
have been established under the said act, what donations 
have been made to said colleges other than the donations 
of Congress, and what success they have attained in the 
prosecution of the work proposed to them in the law 
creating them, and, in general, to look over the whole 
ground of agricultural education and to report to this 
body, at its next session, what has been done and what 
ought to be done. 

RESOLVED, that the several State Granges be requested 
to appoint committees to consider these matters in their 
own states and to co-operate with the committee of this 
body proposed by these resolutions. . . [Adopted.] 

[By Ryland] RESOLVED, that it is the sense of the 
National Grange, representing the great farming class 
in the United States, that the agricultural colleges ought 
to be under the exclusive control of the farmers of the 
country, and that it is evident from the experience of the 
past that these colleges ought to be, as far as possible, 
separate and distinct schools, where science, as applied 
to agriculture, may be taught to farmers' children, fit- 
ting them for the high calling of farmers. [Adopted.] 

[Executive Committee (pages 109-111)] . . . 
During the past year in some sections lukewarmness has 
prevailed; in others, irregularities from an improper 
appreciation of the scope and philosophy of our Order 
have crept into our ranks, and discouraged rather than 
encouraged our members; but in many sections of the 
Union the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry is estab- 
lished upon a basis so permanent and practical that your 
committee are warranted in giving hopeful assurance of 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 123 

our future. . . Your committee have had published 
and distributed several thousand copies of the co-opera- 
tive rules adopted at the last session of the National 
Grange, and recommend that additional thousands be 
printed for gratuitous distribution among the Subordi- 
nate Granges. . . There is at present no system of 
co-operation at all in practice by our Order. State 
Agents are appointed, and as soon as their business shows 
expansion they yearn for an immense capital wherewith 
to control the markets. Stores are established upon a 
purely joint stock basis, and at once they are or claim to 
be "co-operative." This is all irregular, and it is mere 
haphazard if either the agents or the stores are success- 
ful. 

[Committee on Cooperation (pages 152-154)] . . . 
Your Committee on Co-operation have had under con- 
sideration the following petitions referred to them on 
the subject of establishing Wool and Tobacco De- 
pots. . . Your committee instruct me to report: that 
while it would afford us the greatest pleasure to be able 
to recommend a plan that the National Grange could 
adopt that would meet the wishes of our brethren and 
give them all desired relief, as yet we are not able to see 
a practical solution of the important subjects under our 
present system. We learn from our Bro. Blanton, of 
Virginia, that the Patrons of that state have a Tobacco 
Warehouse at Richmond under their own control, man- 
aged solely by Patrons of thei r own selection, under thei r 
own regulations, and where all Patrons who choose may 
send their tobacco- without regard to state lines-and that 
this arrangement is eminently satisfactory to all parties. 
Even the inspectors are members of our Order; rates arc 
fixed by Executive Committee of State Grange; tobacco 
sold by Grange Agent; fees for inspection, sixty-five 



124 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

cents per hogshead; for packages under five hundred 
pounds, thirty-seven and one-half cents; storage per 
hogshead, one dollar, outage, fifty cents, paid by pur- 
chaser; drayage, twenty cents per package ; commissions 
for selling, two per cent. State Grange Hall in same 
building; Secretary's and Business Manager's Office, ex- 
hibition rooms for agricultural implements, also in 
same building. This only lacks one thing of being a 
model of perfection -that of applying the true co-opera- 
tive principle. We suggest that the Patrons contiguous 
to other important tobacco centers take measures to 
adopt the same plan, but on the co-operative principle of 
dividing net profits among the customers of the estab- 
lishment. We know of no reason why those Patrons in- 
terested in the wool product should not adopt the same 
plan, or, what would be better, the same plan on the co- 
operative principle. [Approved.] 

[Pages 159-160] The Committee on the Good of the 
Order have had under consideration the preamble and 
resolutions offered by Bro. Osborn, of Wis., to wit: 

WHEREAS, there are certain objects which are regard- 
ed by the members of this Order as essential to their ma- 
terial interests, among which are the following, to wit: 

1 st. A Department of Agriculture in the National 
Government, the head of which should be a member of 
the Cabinet. 

2d. The enactment of laws providing for a reduction 
of the legal rate of interest on money. 

3d. The enactment of laws providing for the improve- 
ment of natural water-channels. 

4th. For the improvement of our patent laws. 

5th. For the security of depositors in banks. 

6th. For equality of taxation. 

7th. For equitable regulations controlling railroad 
management. And 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 125 

WHEREAS, such objects can not be attained unless fa- 
vorable legislation be had from our National Congress. 
And 

WHEREAS, to secure such especial attention from the 
lawful representatives of the people it has become neces- 
sary that earnest demands be made upon them by their 
constituents. Therefore be it 

RESOLVED, that, in order to secure practical results 
in the direction indicated, the following course of action, 
intended to develop the latent power of our Order for 
such purposes, be recommended by this body, to wit: 

Forms of petition to Congress for any purpose, or 
purposes, he may select, shall, from time to time, be 
drawn up by the Master of this National Grange, and 
a copy thereof sent by him to the Master of each State 
Grange, who, thereupon, will see that copies thereof be 
circulated through the Granges of his state and returned 
to him for the purpose of being forwarded, with the re- 
spectful request for attention, to the Senators and Rep- 
resentatives of the people of that state in the National 
Congress. 

That subsequent thereto, and repeatedly, and as often 
as the Master of the National Grange shall deem bene- 
ficial, he will draw up a form of circular letter, to be ad- 
dressed to the United States Senators and members of 
Congress, requesting a report of progress in the desired 
legislation, and urging the necessity of action; such 
form of circular letter to be sent to the Master of each 
State Grange throughout the country, with the request 
that, upon a certain day fixed by him (the Master of 
the National Grange), copies thereof be forwarded to 
the Senators and Representatives in Congress from his 
state; and, furthermore, that we, through our Subor- 
dinate, County, and State Granges, urge prompt recogni- 
tion of our demands, by either favorable or unfavorable 



126 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

responses to our petitions, on the part of our public rep- 
resentatives. 

And would report that the first section thereof, in re- 
lation to the establishment of a Department of Agricul- 
ture, has already been reported on by your committee and 
wisely acted on by the Grange, and recommend that the 
remainder of the resolutions do pass. [Adopted.] 

(6) Eleventh Session, 1877. 

Proceedings of the Eleventh Session of the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 21, 1877. 

[Executive Committee (page 17)] During the past 
fiscal year your Committee have had an opportunity of 
examining, and have made much inquiry and investiga- 
tion into the system of agencies adopted by the several 
states, and are warranted in their judgment in advising 
the discontinuance of any one now in existence. Honest 
competition is what we want, but not as commission- 
houses. There have been more failures than successes 
with our Grange agencies, and how long the successful 
few are able to maintain themselves is unknown to those 
who patronize them. Were they established upon the 
principles embodied in the rules promulgated two years 
ago by the National Grange, every customer would pos- 
sess some tangible evidence of their efficiency, and to that 
extent would their permanency and solvency be beyond 
question. Your committee would recommend to the 
National Grange that they use every effort to encourage 
among Patrons the establishment of retail and wholesale 
stores upon the strictest principles of co-operation, and 
discourage the building up of commissioned or salaried 
agencies. . . 

[Secretary's Report (page 36)] While it was very 
agreeable to see our Order spread rapidly, and every ef- 
fort was encouraged to make it the largest society that 
ever existed on this continent, and it still holds that rank, 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 127 

yet wc must acknowledge there was a premature growth. 
Deputies had not been properly schooled, and their work 
was hastily performed. A ready speaker had but to de- 
liver one address, and he immediately at the same meet- 
ing organized a Grange. The next evening he instituted 
another in an adjoining town, and so on. Sometimes two 
to four applications received at my office have borne the 
same date. We all know that such work must be im- 
perfect. . . Deputies were allowed full liberty, and 
in their speeches made promises as to what the Order 
would do, totally unwarranted. Now it becomes our 
duty to do all we can legitimately to reduce our num- 
bers, by consolidation, revoking of charters, and solicit- 
ing the surrender of the feeble ones, until we can get in 
each state a suitable number of good, solid Granges, and 
commence work fresh on a solid and permanent founda- 
tion. 

[By Bro. Chambers of Alabama (page 69] The Na- 
tional Grange, representing as it does the agricultural 
sentiment of every part of the United States, without in- 
tending to infringe that feature of its organic law which 
forbids the discussion within its fold of any questions of 
party politics, believes it to be not only its privilege, but 
its duty to give expression to the universal voice of its 
membership in condemnation of all such legislation, 
either on the part of the general or state governments, as 
tends to the injury of the great productive industries of 
the country. In this spirit, and with no purpose to take 
part in the partizan politics of the country, we do hereby 
declare our disapprobation of the law demonetizing sil- 
ver, and committing the government arbitrarily to any 
fixed day in the future for resumption of specie pay- 
ments; and do therefore hereby express our sympathy 
with the efforts now being made in the Congress of the 



128 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

United States for the repeal of these obnoxious meas- 
ures. [Referred to the Committee on Resolutions, rec- 
ommended for indefinite postponement, but the Grange 
rejected the recommendation, by yeas 18, nays 30; and 
adopted the declaration offered by Chambers by votes 
of 34 to 9 on the previous question and 30 to 14 on the 
main question.] 

[Resolutions adopted: patent laws; memorializing 
Congress on deepening the Gulf ports, on postal treaties 
with Mexico and South American States, and on De- 
partment of Agriculture ; favoring ship canal connect- 
ing Lake Erie and Lake Michigan.] 

(7) Twelfth Session, 1878. 

Proceedings of the Twelfth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, Richmond, Virginia, November 20, 1878. 

[By Bro. Darden of Mississippi (pages 71, 72) ] We, 
the members of the National Grange, desiring to define 
the precise objects of the Order of Patrons of Husband- 
ry, and place them before the membership of the Order 
throughout the Union, do hereby set forth the following 
propositions with our distinct declaration of purpose re- 
lating thereto. 

The industry upon which our Order is based, is agri- 
culture- the most important of all industries -the foun- 
dation and support of all others -the true basis of all 
our national prosperity. We have observed the condi- 
tion of our people, and viewed with alarm the encroach- 
ments upon their natural rights. While agriculture is 
the chief source of wealth, and therefore deserving at 
least equal recognition with other avocations, it is de- 
prived of its just rewards, and oppressed by methods of 
law. It is made to bear grievous burdens not its own. 
It is compelled to pay taxes which an equitable distribu- 
tion would place elsewhere. It is forced, by wicked com- 
binations, to submit to hurtful discriminations against 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 129 

its products, both in transportation and in the marts of 
sale. Its votaries have been and are now denied that 
consideration in public affairs to which the magnitude 
and the importance of their calling entitle them. 

The laws of the nation and of the several states are so 
framed as to divert from our great industry the rewards 
which are the incentives to toil, and our earnest remon- 
strance against their injustice spurned. 

In view of these truths, we are bound, in defence of 
our manhood, to assert our rights, and we therefore de- 
clare our unalterable purpose to emancipate agriculture 
from the burdens unjustly heaped upon it; and the 
means by which we shall seek to secure the desirable 
ends- 

ist. We shall strive earnestly within and without our 
Order to extend the benefits of education, which shall 
comprise knowledge of public affairs and the methods 
of self-government. 

2d. We shall demand, by our ballots, admission in the 
legislatures of the several states, and in both houses of the 
National Congress, for representatives of agriculture, 
chosen directly from its votaries, as the only means of 
relief. 

3d. We shall accord to other industries all the rights, 
privileges and immunities which we claim for our own, 
and join with their representatives in earnest endeavors 
to impress upon the governments of states and nation 
habits of wise economy and frugality as essential to the 
thrift and prosperity of all the people. 

4th. We shall give constant care and attention to the 
public schools, in which the youth of the nation are deep- 
ly interested, limiting expenditures therefor only by 
their usefulness, striving always for that higher and 
practical enlightenment which should become the dis- 



i 3 o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

tinguishing feature of a free people. [Amended by 
striking out "by our ballots," and adopted (pages 107- 

108).] 

[Committee on Transportation (pages 96-98)] . . . 
The only possible action within the reach of agricultural 
producers, so long as they are represented by other 
classes in the law-making bodies of this country, state 
and national, is the right of petition. The American 
farmers, if organized, could, by a system of co-operative 
action, attain their full share of influence, and shape the 
legislation of this country; whenever they will sever 
their relation with the political party organizations that 
have heretofore dominated them, and send men from 
their own ranks or avocation, agriculture will be re- 
lieved from an unjust and oppressive share of the ex- 
penditures of the government, and the American farmer 
will command the influence which he, in common with 
other laborers, is entitled to wield. 

The right of petition is left us, and, however humili- 
ating, we are forced to avail ourselves of it for the pres- 
ent. The accompanying memorial to the legislatures of 
the several states represented in the National Grange, 
is applicable to and should be sent to the National Legis- 
lature. We recommend the memorial be printed and 
forwarded to the State Grange of the several states, to 
be by these bodies forwarded to county and subordinate 
Granges, with a view to general signature by members 
of our Order, and then have them forwarded to the im- 
mediate representatives in the Legislative and Congres- 
sional districts. 

The Honorable Senate and House of Represent- 
atives of our States and National Legislatures: The 
undersigned respectfully represent that the inland ave- 
nues of transportation and travel arc under the control 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 131 

of corporations authorized by the legislatures of the 
states, and are under the management of men who have 
combined, as we believe, in an unlawful manner to dis- 
criminate in rates of freight to an extent that is injurious 
if not destructive of the internal commerce between the 
states. . . 

This power to injure or destroy the labor of one class 
of people, or one locality or section of the country, to 
build up individual wealth must come to an end. All 
classes engaged in the labor of producing are joined in 
this memorial and respectfully ask of our legislatures 
and the Congress of the United States to enact general 
laws, prohibiting unjust discrimination and to regulate 
the rates of freight and passage by any corporation en- 
gaged in transportation of the products of labor as the 
most effectual way to protect internal commerce. 

On motion, the recommendation was concurred in. 

[By Brother Lang, Texas (page 118)] Resolved, 
by the National Grange in session assembled, that it is 
contrary to the laws and purposes of the Order of Pa- 
trons of Husbandry, for a Grange, either subordinate, 
state, or national, to call political conventions, nominate 
candidates for political office, or discuss their merits. 
[Adopted.] 

[Reports and communications were received on the 
depressed state of the order. Resolutions adopted: de- 
partment of agriculture; system of quarantine; making 
manufacturers and sellers, not innocent purchasers, re- 
sponsible for infringements of patent rights; instruction 
in public schools on insect-eating birds and humane treat- 
ment of animals; agricultural instruction in common 
schools; against "casting their ballots" for candidates 
"addicted to the habitual or even moderate use of intoxi- 



1 32 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

eating drinks," twenty-eight to eleven on roll call; 
against tax on tobacco.] 

(8) Thirteenth Session, 1879. 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Session of the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry, Canandaigua, New York, November io 5 1879. 

[Executive Committee (page 22)] . . . The 
present condition of the Order is neither surprising nor 
discouraging -it is simply the result of natural laws. 
The membership is composed of non-associative ma- 
terial. The farmer's vocation of itself tends to isolation, 
which has become part of his very life, and from which 
this generation will never fully recover. . . 

[Committee on Transportation (pages 121 -122)] . . . 
The partial relief given us by the national and state 
legislatures, is accepted with thanks, as the result of 
petition. There is, however, no substantial relief to 
the over-burdened farmers of America, in any action 
thus far conceded by the legislative authorities of our 
government. Thirteen years' experience and associa- 
tion in the Grange has satisfied the American farmers, 
whom we represent, that their grievances will never be 
removed until farmers are elected as representatives to 
the law-making bodies of our states, and to the national 
legislatures, in such numbers as will constitute those 
bodies with a fair share of our people. . . To this 
end we recommend farmers to make such alliance, when- 
ever representatives to the state legislatures or to the 
national legislature are to be chosen, as will enable 
them by their votes to elect from their own number an 
even handed, fair share of representatives. Acting to- 
gether to accomplish this grand purpose is no violation 
of their obligation as members of our Order. The as- 
sumption of this constitutional right is but the assertion 
of our manhood, and we cannot longer be dominated 
by party associations which deny us our equality, or sup- 






ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 133 

port a partizan press that ignores the association of 
American farmers. [Adopted (page 145.)] 

V. E. Piollet, Wm. G. Wayne, A. R. Shipley, 
A. P. Forsyth, Wm. W. Lang, Committee. 

[Pages 123-125] Your Special Committee, raised 
"to take into consideration the state and condition of 
American agriculture, and to report such measures and 
policies as in their judgment will tend to afford relief 
from the weights, hindrances and difficulties that may 
beset it, and to suggest such methods as will restore to 
American farmers greater prosperity and promote their 
political and material welfare," have given the subject 
such consideration as opportunity and circumstances al- 
lowed, and present the following report. . . American 
farming is growing less profitable and less encouraging. 

In a country possessingso many facilities of cheap pro- 
duction this discouraging aspect of agriculture must be 
and is the result of other than natural causes. The an- 
nual additions of wealth under the enlightened system 
of agriculture are enormous, but from the unequal di- 
visions of the profits of labor and the unjust discrimina- 
tions made against it, the enlistments of property show 
that the farmers of the United States are not prospering. 
While it is rapidly extinguishing all debts and restoring 
an equilibrium to the currency of the country, its vo- 
taries are deprived of a just share of the rewards of their 
toil. Capital concentrates to make corners and form 
rings to fix prices. Transportation companies are al- 
lowed to make and unmake prices at will by their unjust 
and discriminating tariffs and freights. Subsidies and 
tariffs are created to protect other industries to the preju- 
dice of agriculture. Commerce is shackled. American 
productions are denied the markets of the world through 
partial and restrictive laws. Agricultural property is 



i 3 4 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

made to bear an unequal and undue proportion of taxa- 
tion to afford exemptions and privileges to other in- 
dustries. Monopolies are permitted to assume power 
and control and exercise prerogatives and privileges 
justly belonging to sovereignty. Encouraged by legisla- 
tion and stimulated by power, they have grown dictato- 
rial and imperious in their demands, unrelenting in their 
exactions, and cruel and unmerciful in their impositions. 
Society has become extravagant and is now a heedless 
spendthrift of the painful earnings of labor. Govern- 
ment has become proud and autocratic, while her toiling 
laborers are humiliated in their poverty. States are 
lavish and prodigal with the people's money. Cities 
and towns grow rich at the expense and impoverishment 
of the country. Laws are ingeniously formulated to 
make justice tardy and thus tend to encourage crime and 
disorder. In view of the well-established fact that the 
productive industries must bear the burdens of society, 
chief among which is agriculture, the natural nursing 
mother of all the occupations, trades, and professions of 
our people, it is found that it is over-taxed and over- 
burdened with unnecessary, unjust, unequal, and fla- 
grant impositions, that a just sense of right would trans- 
fer to where they justly belong. The farmers of Ameri- 
ca have on all occasions shown themselves to be a pa- 
tient and enduring people, and further submission to 
wrong and injustice will be a sacrifice of manhood and 
exhibition of cowardice. Stirred with a just sense of 
right and supported by the integrity of our purpose, the 
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, in the 
name and interests of the farmers of the United States, 
sternly demand - 

ist. That the Department of Agriculture shall be 
made an Executive Department, and the Commissioner 
a Cabinet officer. 



ten] FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 135 

2d. That the Agricultural Department shall be sus- 
tained and supported by annual appropriations com- 
mensurate with the importance of the great and per- 
manent industry it represents. 

3d. That commercial treaties shall be made with all 
foreign countries, giving to American products equal 
and unrestricted intercourse with the markets of the 
world. 

4th. That governments be administered in a cheaper 
and simpler manner, consonant with the conditions of 
the people. 

5th. That a more rigid economy in the expenditures 
of public moneys be re-established. 

6th. That the laws shall be plain and simple, to the 
end that justice shall be speedy, crime punished, and 
good government maintained. 

7th. That the creation or allowing of monopolies to 
exist is in violation of the spirit and genius of free re- 
publican government. 

8th. That the tariffs of freight and fare over railroads 
and all transportation companies shall be regulated, and 
all unjust discriminations inhibited by law. 

9th. That taxation shall be equal and uniform, and 
all values made to contribute their just proportion to the 
support of the government. 

10th. That the revenue laws of the United States shall 
be so adjusted as to bear equally upon all classes of 
property, to the end that agriculture shall be relieved of 
the disproportion of burdens it bears. 

nth. That the patent laws of the United States be so 
revised that innocent purchasers of patent rights shall 
be protected, and fraudulent venders alone held re- 
sponsible for infringements of rights and violations of 
law. 

1 2th. That a system of elementary agricultural edu- 






136 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

cation shall be adopted in the common schools of the 
country. 

13th. That we are entitled to and should have a fair 
representation in the legislative halls of the country, 
chosen from the ranks of the farmers. 

Emphatically asserting our unalterable determination 
to support and maintain these principles, we demand 
that they shall be incorporated in the laws of the coun- 
try for the protection of American agriculture, and in- 
voke the aid of the farmers of the United States in their 
support, regardless of party affiliations and party man- 
dates. To follow the dictation of partizan influences 
whilst our earnings are spirited away, and our families 
beggared, is a degradation and sacrifice that cannot 
longer be endured. 

With manly dignity we boldly declare our rights and 

interests, and with unwavering devotion will maintain 

and defend them on all occasions, and this warning is 

defiantly thrown to the world. [Adopted (page 145).] 

W. W. Lang, V. E. Piollet, D. T. Chase, 

T. H. Harwell, A. B. Franklin, Committee. 



FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 



[Sources easily available have been omitted 
from this list] 






GUIDE TO LIBRARIES AND ABBREVIA- 
TIONS 



Adelbert 

Am. Antiq. Soc. 

Amherst 
Boston Ath. 
Boston Pub. 
Bowdoin 
Brooklyn Pub. 
Brown 
Buffalo Pub. 
Carnegie, Atlanta 
Carnegie, Pittsburgh 
Charleston Coll. 
Charleston L.S. 
Chicago H.S. 
Chicago Pub. 
Chicago Theol. 

Cin'ti Pub. 
Clvld. Pub. 
Columbia 
Detroit Pub. 
Essex Inst. 
Kvanston Pub. 
F.L. Phila. 
Ga. Hist. 
Harvard 
Howard 
I.H.S. 
Inc. 
Iowa U. 



Adelbert College Library, Cleveland, O. 
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 

Mass. 
Amherst College Library, Amherst, Mass. 
Boston Athenaeum, Boston 
Boston Public Library, Boston 
Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me. 
Brooklyn Public Library, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Brown University Library, Providence, R.I. 
Buffalo Public Library, Buffalo, N.Y. 
Carnegie Library, Atlanta, Ga. 
Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Charleston College Library, Charleston, S.C. 
Charleston Library Society, Charleston, S.C. 
Chicago Historical Society, Chicago 
Chicago Public Library, Chicago 
Hammond Library, Chicago Theological 

Seminary 
Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, O. 
Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland, O. 
Columbia University, New York City 
Detroit Public Library, Detroit, Mich. 
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 
Evanston Free Public Library, Evanston, 111. 
Free Library of Philadelphia 
Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Ga. 
Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 
Howard Memorial Library, New Orleans, La. 
Illinois Historical Society, Springfield, III. 
Incomplete 
Iowa State University', Iowa City, Iowa 



140 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 



[Vol. 



J.C. 

J.C.B. 

K.H.S. 

L.C. 

Lib. Co. of Phila. 

L.S. Jr. 

Lynn Pub. 
Mass. State 
Md. State 
Mer. N.Y. 
Mer. Phila. 
Mpls. Pub. 
N.C. State 
Newberry 
N.O. Archives 

N.Y.H.S. 
N.Y. Pub. 
N.Y. State 
Oberlin 
O.H.S. 
Pa. H.S. 
Pratt 
Princeton 
Providence Ath. 
San Fr. Pub. 

Seligman 

Springfield C.L. 
U. of C. 
U. of Ga. 
U. of I. 
U. of M. 

U. of P. 



John Crerar Library, Chicago, 111. 

John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R.I. 

Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, Kans. 

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 

Library Company of Philadelphia 

Leland Stanford Jr. University, Palo Alto, 
Cal. 

Lynn Public Library, Lynn, Mass. 

Massachusetts State Library, Boston 

Maryland State Library, Annapolis, Md. 

Mercantile Library, New York 

Mercantile Library, Philadelphia 

Minneapolis Public Library, Minneapolis 

North Carolina State Library, Raleigh 

Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

New Orleans Archives, City Hall, New Or- 
leans, La. 

New York Historical Society, New York 

New York Public Library, New York 

New York State Library, Albany 

Oberlin College Library, Oberlin, O. 

Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N.Y. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Md. 

Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J. 

Providence Athenaeum, Providence, R.I. 

San Francisco Public Library, San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Library of Professor E. R. A. Seligman, Co- 
lumbia University, New York 

City Library Association, Springfield, Mass. 

University of Chicago Library, Chicago, 111. 

University of Georgia Library, Athens, Ga. 

University of Illinois Library, Urbana, 111. 

University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 



ten] 



FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 



»4i 



U. of T. University of Tennessee Library, Knox vi lie, 

Tenn. 
U. of W. University of Wisconsin Library, Madison, 

Wis. 
Va. State Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va. 

W.H.S. Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wis. 

Worcester Pub. Worcester Free Public Library, Worcester, 

Mass. 
Work. Inst. Workingman's Institute, New Harmony, Ind. 

W.R.H.S. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleve 1 - 

land, O. 
Yale Yale University Library, New Haven, Ct 



NEWSPAPERS 

American Sentinel (Philadelphia): L.C., Nov., 1829-June, 1849, 
inc.; Pa. H.S., 1 818-1834, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1824- 1838, inc. 

American Workman (Boston) : Boston Pub., April 24, 1869- Aug. 24, 
1872, inc.; W.H.S., scattered nos. 

Athenian, The (Athens, Ga.) : U. of Ga. 

Athens [Ga.] Gazette: U. of Ga. 

[Atlanta, Ga.] Daily Intelligencer, The: Carnegie, Atlanta; L.C., 
June 19, 1863-Dec. 28, 1867, inc. 

Augusta [Ga.] Chronicle: L.C., May 9, 1801-date, inc.; Am. Antiq. 
Soc., 1792-1818, inc.; Harvard, 1795-1797, inc.; U. of Ga. 

Augusta [Ga.] Constitutionalist: L.C., July 27, 1824-July 21, 1875, 
inc.; U. of Ga. 

Awl, The (Lynn, Mass.) : Lynn Pub., complete file. 

Baltimore [Md.] Republican and Commercial Advertiser : Am. Antiq. 
Soc., 1799-1898, inc.; L.C., May 28, 1829-May 17, 1841 ; New- 
berry, 1 864-1 865. 

Banner of the Constitution (Washington, New York, Philadelphia) : 
Pa. H.S.; N.Y. Pub., Harvard, Cornell, N.Y.H.S., Boston Pub., 
Yale, complete files; L.C., Dec. 5, 1829-Dec. 3, 1832, inc.; Bos- 
ton Ath., 1829-1831; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1830-1831. 

Baton Rouge [La.] Gazette: L.C., July 17, 1824-Nov. 24, 1827, inc. 

Baton Rouge [La.] Republic: L.C., Apr., 1822- Aug., 1823, inc. 

Boston Chronicle: N.Y.H.S., Essex Inst., Boston Pub., Am. Antiq. 
Soc., Boston Ath., Harvard, complete files; L.C., Dec., 1767-June, 
1770, inc.; N.Y. Pub., Dec, 1767-Dec., 1869, inc.; Yale, Dec., 
1767-Oct., 1769, inc.; W.H.S., Dec, 1767-June, 1770, inc.; 
K.H.S., 1 767-1 768. 

Boston Columbian Centinel: Am. Antiq. Soc, 1784- 183 2; Boston 
Ath., 1784-1839, inc.; N.Y. Pub., April 7, 1784- Jan., 1838, inc.; 
Essex Inst., 1790-1829, inc.; Bowdoin, June 22, 1791-March 24, 
1819; Lynn Pub., 1792-1826, inc.; N.Y. State, 1793-1832, inc.; 
Pa. H.S., 1791-1828, inc.; W.H.S., 1790-1829, inc.; L.C., March 
24, 1784-Dec 29, 1830, inc.; Harvard, 1790-1840, inc.; Cornell, 



FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 1 43 

1793-1829, inc.; Boston Pub., March 31, 1784- Dec., 1832; Chi- 
cago H.S., Feb. 22, 1794-Dcc. 30, 1 81 8. 

Boston Commonwealth, The: Boston Pub., Jan. 1, 1854-Dec. 28, 
1895; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1851 -1 888; Boston Ath., 1851 -1884, inc.; 
Essex Inst., 1851-1883, inc.; L.C., 1851-1879, inc.; Harvard, 
1851-1866; W.H.S., 1862-1886; N.Y. Pub., 1863-1871, inc. 

Boston Courier, The: L.C., July, 1795-Feb., 1876, inc.; Boston Ath., 
1824-1899, inc.; Harvard, 1825-1870, inc.; Boston Pub., March, 
1824-Dec., 1864, inc. ;W.H.S., July, 1855-June, 1864, inc.; N.Y. 
Pub., Jan. 2, 1832-June 10, 1843, inc.; L.C., Aug. 2, 1841-Dec. 
29, 1859, inc.; Yale, March 12, 1829-Junc 10, 1840, inc.; 
N.Y.H.S., 1825-1839, inc.; Newberry, 1854-1858, inc.; Essex 
Inst., 183 1- 1 854, inc. 

Boston Daily Advertiser, The: Am. Antiq. Soc., 1796-date; Har- 
vard, almost complete; Boston Ath., 1796-1909, inc.; N.Y.H.S., 
Oct. 7, 1796-Nov. 30, 1831, inc.; Essex Inst., 181 3-1904, inc.; 
Chicago H.S., June 12, 1813-1879, inc.; Yale, Sept. 7, 1814-1896, 
inc.; Boston Pub., March 31, 1813-date, inc.; W.H.S., Oct., 1813- 
Dec., 1879, inc.; L.C., March 3, 1813-Jan. 3, 1854, »nc- 

Boston Investigator, The: K.H.S., 1859-1904, inc.; Chicago H.S., 
1795-1817; Boston Pub., 1837-1880, inc.; Worcester Pub., April 
27, 1859-April 3, 1889; N.Y.H.S., Oct. 22, 185 1 -July 6, 1870; 
N.Y. Pub., 1866-1877, inc.; W.H.S., March, 1872-Oct., 1880, 
inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1870-1877, inc.; Boston Ath., 1870-1871. 

[Boston] Daily Evening Voice: Harvard and Boston Ath., complete 
files; Boston Pub., Oct., 1866-Oct., 1867. 

Buffalo [N.Y.] Emporium, The: Buffalo Pub. 

Carolina Centinel (Newbern, N.C.) : L.C., March 21, 1818-Oct. 7, 
1837, inc.; Harvard, 18 19-1 824, inc. 

Charleston [S.C.] City Gazette: Am. Antiq. Soc., 1788-1830, inc.; 
L.C., Sept. 9, 1791-Dec. 31, 1832, inc.; W.H.S., 1791-1804, inc.; 
N.Y. Pub., Jan. 3, 1789-Jan. 1, 1803, inc.; Harvard, 1791-1801, 
inc. 

Charleston [S.C.] Evening Gazette: Charleston L.S. 

Charleston [S.C.] Mercury: L.C., March I, 1822-Dec. 31, 1867; 
Harvard, 1822-1865, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1825-1863, inc.; 
Boston Pub., April 10, 1848- Aug. 31, 1864, inc.; Charleston L.S. ; 
Pa. H.S., 1 860- 1 863; Princeton, July 1, 1822-Dec. 31, 1823; Lynn 
Pub., 1856-1861, inc.; U. of C, Dec. 6, 1860-Jan. 24, 1865, inc.; 
Yale, Sept. 25, i860- May 16, 1861 ; Boston Ath., 1857-1863, inc.; 



i 4 4 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

U.S. War Dep't Library, Washington, D.C., Dec. 19, 1863-Jan. 

11, 1865. 
Charleston [S.C.] Morning Post and Daily Advertiser: Charleston 

L.S. 
Charleston [S.C] Observer: Charleston L.S. 
Chestertown [Md.] Telegraph: L.C., April II, 1828-Feb. 14, 1834, 

inc. 
Cooperator, The (Utica, N.Y.) : O.H.S., Apr. 3, 1832-April 20, 

1833 ; Am. Antiq. Soc, 1832, inc. 
Democratic Press, The (Philadelphia) : L.C., May, 1807-Nov., 1829, 

inc.; Pa. H.S., 1807-1829, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1807-1828, inc.; 

N.Y. Pub., Sept. 28, 1807-May, 1827, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 

1813-1828, inc.; Mer. Phila., inc.; Boston Ath., 1813; Harvard, 

1 807- 1 808, inc. 
Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Texas) : L.C., 

May 2, 1837-Aug. 21, i860, inc. 
Elkton [Md.] Press: L.C., Feb. 14, 1824- Aug. 6, 1831, inc. 
Farmers' Gazette, The (Sparta, Ga.) : Harvard, 1 803-1 807, inc. 
Federal Union, The ( Milledgeville, Ga.) : U. of Ga.; L.C., Jan. 3, 

1 843- July 17, 1866, inc. 
Freeman's Journal, The (Philadelphia) : F. L. Phila., April 15, 

1781-1827, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1781-1825, inc.; L.C., April, 

1781-Nov., 1825, inc.; N.Y. Pub., 1781-1819, inc.; Pa. H.S., 1781- 

1812, inc.; Boston Pub., April 25, 1781-Nov. 23, 1791, inc.; 

Harvard, 1781-1807, inc.; Boston Ath., 1 781-1782; N.Y.H.S., 

April 25, 1 786- Dec. 26, 1787, inc. 
Georgia Courier, The (Augusta, Ga.) : U. of Ga.; L.C., Aug. 20, 

1827-Oct. 4, 1833, very inc. 
Georgia Express, The (Athens, Ga.) : U. of Ga. 
Georgia Gazette, The (Savannah) : Am. Antiq. Soc., 17 66- 1802, inc.; 

L.C., July 27, 1774-Feb. 21, 1799, inc.; Harvard, 1 791-1802, inc.; 

Ga. Hist.; Yale, May 28-Sept. 3, 1766, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 

1 793-1 796, 33 nos. 
Georgia Journal, The (Milledgeville, Ga.) : Am. Antiq. Soc., 1793- 

1830, inc.; U. of Ga. ; L.C., Jan. 12, 1819-Dec. 30, 1845, inc.; 

Harvard, 1811-1813, inc. 
Georgia Journal and Independent Federal Register (Savannah, Ga.) : 

U. of Ga. 
Harbinger, The (New York, Boston) : Seligman and L.C., complete 

files; Providence Ath., 1845-1849; Boston Ath., 1845-1848; Buf- 



ten] FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 145 

falo Pub., 1845-1847; J.C., 1845*1849; Harvard, June 14, 1845- 
Feb. 10, 1849; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1845-1848; Yale, June 14, 1845- 
Apr. 29, 1848, inc.; N.Y.H.S., Dec., 1846-Jan., 1849, inc.; Brook- 
lyn Pub., June, 1845-Ma.v, 1847; N.Y. Pub., Dec. 13, 1845-Oct. 
30, 1847, > n c-." Syracuse Public Library, Syracuse, N.Y., 1845- 
1847; Worcester Pub., June 14, 1845-June 13, 1846, inc.; Bow- 
doin, 1846-1847; Boston Pub., 1845-1847. 

Herald of the New Moral World. The (New York) : W.H.S., com- 
plete; Seligman; N.Y. Pub., 1841, inc. 

Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot (Boston) : W.H.S., 1809- 
1839, inc.; Chicago H.S., 1795-1820; Boston Pub., June 4, 1817- 
May 23, 1840, inc.; L.C., June 2, 1817-May 4, 1839, inc.; 
N.Y.H.S., Oct. 26, 1819-Dec. 28, 1839, inc.; Essex Inst., 1817- 
1834, i»Ci Harvard, 1817-1829, inc.; Chicago H.S., 181 7-1820; 
Boston Ath., 1824-1830, inc.; Yale, Aug. 20, 1828-March 6, 1830, 
inc. 

Independent Chronicle and Universal Advertiser (Boston) : W.H.S., 
Oct., 1777-1839, inc.; Harvard, 1776-1819, inc.; Essex Inst., 1776- 
1817, inc.; L.C., Oct. 3, 1776-May 29, 1817, inc.; N.Y.H.S., 
1777-1809, inc.; Yale, April 3, 1777-Dec. 28, 1809, inc.; N.Y. 
State, 1776-1807, inc.; N.Y. Pub., Sept. 19, 1776-Dec., 1802, inc.; 
Boston Pub., Nov. 7, 1776-Dec. 31, 1801, inc.; Pa. H.S., 1776- 
1797, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1795-1796, inc. 

Kentucky Gazette and General Advertiser (Lexington): Public Li- 
brary, Lexington, Kentucky, complete; Harvard, 1796-1813, inc.; 
L.C., March I, 1788-Nov. 27, 1841, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1795- 
1796, 2onos.; W.H.S., Nov., 1787-Nov., 1788, and 1812-1814, inc. 

Kentucky Reporter (Lexington): Am. Antiq. Soc., 1808- 1830, inc.; 
L.C., May 14, 1808-July 27, 1832, inc.; W.H.S., 1813-1814 ; 
N.Y. Pub., 1821-1825, inc. 

Knoxville [Tenn.] Register: U. of T.; L.C., Feb. 3, 18 18- Nov. 30, 
1864, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., scattered nos. 

Labor Standard (Paterson, N.J.) : N.Y. Pub., 1878-1895, inc.; 
W.H.S., scattered nos. 

LaFourche Gazette, The (Donaldson, La.): L.C., Jan. 8, 1826- 
July 2, 1 83 1, inc. 

Liberator, The (Boston) : Boston Pub., Cornell, N.Y. Pub., Pa. H.S., 
Am. Antiq. Soc., Boston Ath., L.C., Lib. Co. of Phila., complete 
files; Harvard, few numbers lacking; W.H.S., 1831-1865, inc.; 
Essex Inst., 1 831- 1865, inc.; Oberlin, 183 1-1863, inc.; Newberry, 



146 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

1833-1865, inc.; U. of C, 1835-1865, inc.; Buffalo Pub., 1839- 
1865, inc.; Lynn Pub., 1839-1865, inc.; Worcester Pub., 1839- 
1865, inc.; U. of I., 1840-1865, inc.; L.S. Jr., 18501865, inc. 

Louisiana Gazette (New Orleans) : N.O. Archives; L.C., April 25, 
1822-Dec. 7, 1826, inc. 

Louisiana Journal (St. Francisville, La.) : L.C., Feb. 5, 1824-June 
21, 1828, inc. 

Lynchburg [Va.] Virginian: L.C., Sept. 3, 1822-June 30, 1865, inc.; 
W.H.S., 1873-1880, inc. 

[Madison, Wis.] Daily Argus and Democrat: W.H.S., July, 1852- 
June, 1859, inc. 

Man, The (Boston): N.Y.H.S., Nos. 1-74, complete; N.Y., Pub. 
Feb. 18, 1834-March 30, 1835, inc.; L.C.; Work. Inst., 1834; 
Seligman, nos. 1-15. 

Mechanics' Free Press (Philadelphia): Pa. H.S., April 21, 1828- 
April 23, 1831; Mer. Phila., April 12, 1828-Dec. 25, 1830; Lib. 
Co. of Phila., 1830. 

Mechanics' Gazette (New York) : N.Y.H.S., April 26, 1823-June 
4, 1823, inc. 

Mechanic's Mirror (Albany) : N.Y. State, Nov., 1846-April, 1847, 
13 nos.; N.Y.H.S., Jan.- Nov., 1846; Columbia, vol. i, inc.; Selig- 
man, 1846; L.C., April -Nov., 1846. 

Memphis [Tenn.] Daily Avalanche, The: L.C., Jan. 12, 1856-Nov. 
8, 1890, inc. 

Milwaukee Daily Sentinel and Gazette: W.H.S., 1838-date, inc.; 
L.C., March 11, 1850-date, inc.; Newberry, 1863-1865, inc. 

Missouri Democrat, The (St. Louis) : St. Louis Public Library; L.C., 
Oct. 13, 1852-May 19, 1875, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc, March 19, 
1859-June 4, 1875, inc.; Boston Ath., 1863-1873. 

Moniteur de la Louisiane (New Orleans) : N.O. Archives. 

National Anti-Slavery Standard, The (New York) : W.H.S., 1841- 
1854, inc. 

National Gazette, The (Philadelphia) : Am. Antiq. Soc, 1791-1838; 
Harvard, 1791-1823, inc.; N.Y. Pub., Aug., 1792-Aug., 1835, 
inc.; L.C., April 5, 1820-May 28, 1839, inc.; N.Y. State, 1823- 
1841 ; Pa. H.S., 1820-1835; Boston Ath., 18201841; Springfield 
C.L., 1826-1831 ; Princeton, 1832-1835; Boston Pub., April 5, 
1825-Dec. 31, 1830, inc.; Yale, Oct. 3, 1791-Sept. 14, 1893, inc.; 
Lib. Co. of Phila., 1 791-1793, inc.; Va. State, inc. 






ten] FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 147 

National Laborer, The (Philadelphia) : L.C., March 26, 1836-March 

18, 1837. 
National Trades' Union (New York) : Private Library of Ely Moore, 

Lawrence, Kansas. 
New MoraJ World, The (New Harmony, Ind.) : Work. Inst.; Sclig- 

man. 
New Orleans Bee, The: Office of paper; N.O. Archives; Am. Antiq. 

Soc., April 2, 1862-Aug. 12, 1863, inc.; L.C., March 5, 1836-date, 

inc.; W.H.S., May-Dec., 1862, scattered not. 

Orleans Commercial Advertiser, The: N.O. Archives; L.C., 

June 11, 1805-May 1, 1822, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., June 28, 1805- 

April 28, 1818, inc.; W.H.S., April-August, 1820. 
New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, The: N.O. Archives; L.C., June 

1, 1833-Oct. 7, 1871, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., Aug. 10, 1835-Dec. 

31, 1851, inc.; Boston Ath., 1869. 
New Orleans Commercial Times, The: N.O. Archives. 
New Orleans Picayune, The: N.O. Archives; Howard; Am. Antiq. 

Soc., Dec. 21, 1840-July 22, 1886, inc.; L.C., June 20, 1842-date, 

I inc.; Chicago Pub., Jan., 1841-Nov., 1855, inc.; K.H.S., 1841- 
1846; Lynn Pub., 1840-1844; Harvard, 1849-1862, inc.; Boston 
Pub., July, 1841-July, 1843, inc.; W.H.S., 1862, inc.; Boston 
Ath., 1869. 
ew York Daily Sentinel and Working Man's Advocate: W.R.H.S.; 
N.Y. Pub., inc.; L.C., 1830, scattered nos. 
ew York Daily Tribune, The: Brooklyn Pub.; N.Y. Pub., 1841- 
date, inc.; N.Y. State, 1842-date, inc.; Boston Ath., 1844-date, 
inc.; Yale, 1845-date, inc.; K.H.S., 1850-date, inc.; Boston Pub., 
1850-date, inc.; Oberlin, 1 851 -date; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1 841- 1898; 
Cornell, 1848-1903; and other incomplete files. 
New York Evening Post: N.Y. Pub., 1801-date; L.C., Nov. 16, 1801- 
date, inc.; Boston Ath., 1802-date, inc.; N.Y.H.S., 1801-1866, 
inc. ; N.Y. State, 1810-date, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1805-1898, inc.; 
Newberry, 1817-1894, inc.; Harvard, 1795-1868, inc.; U. of M., 
1852-date, inc.; Yale, Aug. 7, 1858-Sept. 21, 1881, inc.; Provi- 
dence Ath., 1804-1806; Chicago H.S., 1813-1814, inc.; Lib. Co. of 
Phila., 1829-1830. 
Nov York Herald: Pa. H.S., 1802-date; Brooklyn Pub.; L.C., May 
6, 1837-Oct. 30, 1886, inc.; Springfield C.L., 1858- 1896; Chi- 
cago H.S., 1802-1866, inc.; Princeton, 1861-date; Am. Antiq. 



148 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Soc, 1837-1885, inc.; W.H.S., Oct., 1841-1871, inc.; Cornell, 
1804-1815; N.Y. Pub., 1841-1847, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1841- 
1844; Providence Ath., 1859-1862; Harvard, 1851-1858, inc.; 
Boston Ath., 1838-1839, 1846-1847. 

New York Journal of Commerce: N.Y. Pub., 1827-date, inc.; Am. 
Antiq. Soc., 1829-1894, inc.; Boston Ath., 1831-1870, inc.; L.C., 
Aug. 2, 1828-Oct. 8, 1856, inc.; L.C., 1833- 1860; Harvard, 1831- 
1855, inc.; Boston Pub., April 1, 1850-Dec. 31, 1872, inc.; N.Y. 
State, 1860-1863; N.Y.H.S., Sept., 1861-Dec., 1864. 

[New York] Morning Courier and Enquirer: N.Y. Pub., Sept. 11, 
1827-April 16, 1861, inc.; L.C., May 25, 1829-June 29, 1861, 
inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc, 1833-1860, inc.; New York Society Li- 
brary, New York, 1837-1846, inc.; Yale, Jan. 1, 1833-Dec. 29, 
1840, inc.; Buffalo Pub., Jan., 1830-Aug., 1832; Harvard, 1856- 

1857. 
New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, The: Brooklyn Pub.; N.Y. Pub., 

1845-1884, inc.; Chicago Theol., 1847-1868; Chicago Pub., 1846- 

1853; Detroit Pub., 1850-1877, inc.; Cornell, 1851-1862; U. of 

C, i853-i86o;W.H.S., 1 850- 185 5, inc. ; and other incomplete files. 
New York State Mechanic: N.Y.H.S., 1841-1843; Am. Antiq. Soc., 

1842-1843; N.Y. State, 1842-1843; L.C., Nov. 20, 1841-Nov. 

12, 1842. 
New York Weekly Tribune, The: Brooklyn Pub. ; N.Y. Pub., 1844- 

1904; Chicago Pub., 1841-1860; Mpls. Pub., 1844-1886, inc.; 

W.H.S., 1842-1863, inc.; Detroit Pub., 1841-1852, inc.; Cornell, 

1841-1850; U. of C, 1849-1852, inc.; Chicago Theol., 1842-1862; 

Yale, 1841-1847; Md. State, 1846-1853, inc.; Chicago H.S., 1842- 

1862; Harvard, 1849-1859, inc. 
Pennsylvania^ The (Philadelphia) : L.C., Jan. 1, 1833-March 30, 

1861, inc.; F.L. Phila., July, 1832-1859, inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 

July, 1832- June, 1859, inc.; L.C., Jan. 1, 1833-May 1, 1859, inc.; 

Pa. H.S., 1833-1861; Carnegie, Pittsburgh, Nov. 13, 1846-Dec. 

30, 1850, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1853-1855. 
People's Paper, The (Cincinnati) : N.Y.H.S., Aug., 1842-March, 

1844; W.H.S., Nov., 1843-Feb., 1845, inc. 
Phalanx or Journal of Social Science, The (New York) : Boston 

Pub., 1843-1845; Yale, Oct. 5, 1843-May 28, 1845; L.C., Oct. 

5, 1843-May 28, 1845; Seligman; J.C., vol. 1, nos. 1-23; N.Y. 

Pub., 1843. 



i] FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 149 

Pittsburgh Daily Commercial Journal: L.C., Oct. 9, 1845-May 29, 
1853, inc.; Carnegie, Pittsburgh, April 23, 1846-April 30, 1849. 

[Pittsburgh] Morning Post: Carnegie, Pittsburgh, 1842-date; L.C., 
March 7, 1845-date, inc. 

'oulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia): W.H.S., com- 
plete, except 1828; L.C., 1800-1839, inc.; Pa. H.S., 1800-date, 
inc.; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1771-1839; N.Y.H.S., Oct. 2, 1800-July 
5, 1827. inc.; U. of P., inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1806-1839, inc.; 
Harvard, 1800-1808, inc.; Boston Ath., 1 801-1808, inc.; Carnegie, 
Pittsburgh, June-Dec., 1819. 
Winter, The (New York): J.C., 1859-1875, inc.; K.H.S., May, 
1858-July, 1863; W.H.S., 1859-1863, scattered nos.; N.Y. Pub., 
1858 and 1866; Cin'ti Pub., 1858; San Fr. Pub., vols. 2, 3, 5. 

Public Ledger, The (Philadelphia): Lib. Co. of Phila., 1836-date, 
inc.; L.C., March 25, 1836-1898, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1842- 
1905, inc.; N.Y. Pub., 1836-1907, inc.; K.H.S., 1879-1902; New- 
berry, 1863-1864, inc.; Pa. H.S., vol. 1, no. 1 to March 2, 1837; 
Carnegie, Pittsburgh. 

Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate (Philadelphia): 

1836; Seligman, 19 nos. 
'aleigh [N.C.] Register: Am. Antiq. Soc., 1800-1867, inc.; L.C., 
Feb. 10, 1801-Dcc. 18, 1846, inc.; State Library of North Caro- 
lina, Raleigh, inc.; Harvard, 1805-1806, inc. 
'ed River Republican, The (Alexandria, La.) : L.C., Jan. 30, 1847- 

Oct. 29, 1853- 

Register of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia): W.H.S., Princeton; L.S. 
Jr., Chicago H.S., Carnegie, Pittsburgh, U. of C, L.C., Lib. Co. 
of Phila., N.Y. Pub., complete files; Boston Ath., inc.; Chicago 
Theol., 1 828-1 832. 

Richmond [Va.] Enquirer: Va. State, 1804-1877, inc.; L.C., May 
12, 1804-Jan. 10, 1867, inc.; N.Y. Pub., 1804-1865, inc.; Yale, 
Sept., 1824-Dec., 1873, inc.; W.H.S., 1818-1865, inc.; Boston 
Pub., Jan. 13, 1828-June 1, 1864, inc. ; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1 804-1844, 
inc.; N.Y.H.S., Jan. 6, 1820-Dec. 9, 1864, inc.; Boston Ath., 
1817-1876, inc.; N.Y. State, 1861-1863; Harvard, 1804-1808, 
1856-1865, inc. 

Royal Gazette (Kingston, Jamaica): Charleston L.S. ; Bowdoin, 
July, 1824-June, 1830; Lib. Co. of Phila., June, 1802-Dec., 1805; 
N.Y.H.S., Sept. 23, 1780-Dec. 3, 1791, inc. 



150 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Rural Carolinian (Charleston, S.C.) : Carnegie, Pittsburgh, 1869- 
1873, inc.; N.Y. Pub., Oct., 1869-May, 1873; L.C., Oct., 1869- 
Sept., 1874; J.C., Oct., 1872-March, 1873. 

Savannah [Ga.] Republican: U. of Ga.; Ga. Hist.; Am. Antiq. Soc, 
1802-1868, inc.; L.C., June 18, 1816-Dec. 31, 1872, inc.; Boston 
Ath., 1863-1895; Princeton, 1860-1865; N.Y.H.S., Aug. 8, 1861- 
Jan. 13, 1865; N.Y. Pub., June 5, 1862-May 17, 1865, inc.; 
Harvard, 1867-1868, inc.; Boston Pub., Jan. 3-April 26, 1865, inc. 

South Carolina State Gazette (Charleston, S.C): Charleston L.S. ; 
Am. Antiq. Soc., 1740-1800, inc.; Harvard, 1792-1802, inc.; Bos- 
ton Pub., July 1, 1 794- June 30, 1801 ; Lib. Co. of Phila., 1795- 
1796, inc.; W.H.S., scattered nos. 

Southern Banner (Athens, Ga.) : Am. Antiq. Soc, 1855-1868, inc.; 
U. of Ga. 

Southern Watchman (Athens, Ga.) : U. of Ga. 

Spirit of Seventy-Six, The (Frankfort, Ky.): W.H.S., March-Aug., 
1826; I.H.S., March 10-Aug. 4, 1826; Harvard, nos. 1-18, 1826. 

Spirit of the Age (New York): N.Y.H.S., July 7, 1849-Apr. 27, 
1850; L.C., July 7, 1849-Apr. 27, 1850; W.H.S., vols. 1-2, 1850; 
L.C., July 7, 1849-Apr. 27, 1850; J.C., July 7, 1849-March 30, 
1850; Seligman. 

Springfield [Mass.] Republican: Springfield C.L., Sept., 1824-date, 
inc.; Yale, Sept., 1824-Dec, 1873, inc.; L.C., Nov. 2, 1825-July 
7, 1871, inc.; N.Y. Pub., Oct., 1847-Dec, 1907, inc.; Newberry, 
1853-1879; Boston Ath., 1863-1895; Worcester Pub., 1866-date; 
Am. Antiq. Soc, 1853-1881 ; W.H.S., 1861-1904, inc. 

Tennessee Gazette and Mero District Advertiser (Nashville) : L.C., 
Jan. 7, 1801-May 1, 1805; Harvard, 1805-1806, inc. 

Tennessee Herald (Shelbyville) : L.C., Dec 19, 1817-Dec 18, 1819, 
inc. 

Tennessee Weekly Chronicle (Clarksville) : L.C., Feb. 18, 1818- 
June 7, 1819. 

Texian Advocate (Victoria, Texas) : L.C., Jan. 20, 1848-Nov. 8, 
1 85 1, inc. 

True Workingman, The (Lynn, Mass.) : Lynn Pub., Oct. 22, 1845- 
Feb. 7, 1846. 

Virginia Gazette, The (Williamsburg, Va.) : Va. State, 1767-1809, 
inc.; N.Y. Pub., Feb. 9, 1751-Nov. 1, 1776, inc.; W.H.S., 1775- 
1780, inc.; Pa. H.S., 1 770-1 776; Yale, March-Oct., 1776, inc.; 
L.C., Sept. 5, 1766-Dec 9, 1780, inc. 



ten] FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED i 51 

Voice of Industry (Fitchburg, Mass.): Boston Pub., May 29, 1845- 

Aug. 9. 1847. 
Volks Tribun (New York) : W.H.S. and L.C., complete file*. 
[Washington, D.C.] Daily Morning Chronicle: L.C., Nov. 3, 1862- 

Jan. 22, 1877 ; Am. Antiq. Soc., June 16, 1864-May 12, 1872, inc.; 

Yale, Nov. I, 1865-Feb. 29, 1872; Carnegie, Pittsburgh, Nov. II, 

1867-Sept. 5, 1870. 
Washingtonian (Washington, D.C.): L.C., June 7-Sept. 27, 1845. 
Winchester [Va.] Gazette: Am. Antiq. Soc., 1787-1819, inc.; L.C., 

6 scattered nos. 
r inya\v Intelligencer (Georgetown, S.C.) : L.C., Jan. 13, 1819-Oct. 

6, 1832, inc.; Am. Antiq. Soc., 1819-1831, inc. 
Working Man's Advocate (New York): L.C., Oct., 1829-March. 

1845, inc. ; Seligman ; N.Y. Pub., 1830-1846, inc.; N.Y.H.S., 1830- 

1832, 6 nos.; Work. Inst., Oct. 31, 1829-Aug. 14, 1830; K.H.S., 

March 30, 1844-Sept. 23, 1848, inc. 
Workingman's Advocate (Chicago) : W.H.S., nearly complete; N.Y. 

Pub., 1 864-1877, inc. 
Working Man's Gazette, The (Woodstock, Vt.): N.Y.H.S., Dec. 

n, 1830-Nov. 3, 1832, inc.; Vermont State Library, Montpelier, 

1830-1831. 
Young America (New York) : N.Y. Pub., March 23, 1845-March 21, 

1846; N.Y. State, Jan.-June, 1856; K.H.S., Apr. 29-Sept. 23, 

1848, inc. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS 

Address delivered by Robert McFarlane before the Mechanics in the 
Broadway Tabernacle, June 10, 1847 (New York, 1847): Col- 
umbia ; Seligman. 

Address of the National Labor Congress to the Workingmen of the 
United States (Chicago, 1867): Boston Pub.; Seligman; W.H.S. 

Allston, R. F. W. Essay on Sea Coast Crops (Charleston, 1854) : 
Boston Ath. ; Essex Inst. ; L.C. ; W.H.S. 

Annual Report of the Minister of Agriculture of the Province of 
Canada, 1865 : N.Y. Pub. ; Essex Inst. ; Lib. Co. of Phila. ; Har- 
vard, N.Y.H.S.; N.Y. State; W.H.S. 

Ball, Charles, Narrative of Life of (Pittsburgh, 1854) : Chicago Pub.; 
Springfield C.L.; Cornell; Detroit Pub.; Pratt; N.Y. Pub.; Lib. 
Co. of Phila.; L.C; Newberry; U. of C; W.H.S. 



152 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Berrian, Hobart. Origin and Rise of the Workingmen's Party 

(Washington, n.d.) : W.H.S. ; Boston Ath.; Harvard. 
[Burn, James Dawson] Three Years among the Working Classes 
of the United States during the War (London, 1863): Boston 
Ath.; Boston Pub.; Brooklyn Pub.; Buffalo Pub.; Springfield 
C.L.; Detroit Pub.; Pratt; Harvard; L.C.; Newberry; N.Y.H.S.; 
N.Y. State ; Princeton ; U. of I. 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, Seventh Annual 
Report of, 1864- 1865: N.Y. Pub.; Brooklyn Pub.; Buffalo Pub.; 
Columbia ; Essex Inst. ; Harvard ; L.C. 
Finch, John, Rise and Progress of the General Trades' Union of the 
City of New York, and its Vicinity, 1833: Boston Pub.; L.C; 
Providence Ath. 
International Workingman's Association, Report of the Fourth An- 
nual Congress, 1869, English version: N.Y. Pub.; Boston Pub.; 
J.C.; W.H.S. 
Handbook to Lowell, 1848: Amherst; Brooklyn Pub.; Cornell; Es- 
sex Inst.; Harvard; N.Y.H.S.; N.Y. State. 
Hellier, Thomas. The Vain Prodigal Life and Tragical Penitent 
Death of (London, 1680) : J.C.B.; N.Y. Pub.; U. of Ga.; Va. 
State. 
Kelley, O.H. Origin and Progress of the Order of the Patrons of 
Husbandry in the United States (Philadelphia, 1875): Chicago 
Pub.; Harvard; L.C; N.Y. State; Oberlin; U. of M.; W.H.S.; 
Yale. 
Labor Conspiracy Cases: 

1806. Trial of the Boot and Shoemakers of Philadelphia, on an 
Indictment for a Combination and Conspiracy to raise their 
Wages : Am. Antiq. Soc. ; N.Y. Pub. ; Columbia ; Iowa U. ; Lib. 
Co. of Phila. ; L.C ; N.Y.H.S. ; N.Y. State ; Pa. H.S. ; U. of C ; 
U.S. Supreme Court Library, Washington, D.C 
1 8 10. Trial of the Journeymen Cordwainers of the city of New 
York for a Conspiracy to raise their Wages . . . (New 
York, 1 8 10) : N.Y. Pub.; Boston Pub.; Boston Ath.; Harvard; 
N.Y. State; N.Y.H.S.; Pa. H.S.; Providence [R.I.] Public 
Library; Seligman; U. of P. 
1 816. Report of the Trial of the Journeymen Cordwainers, of 
the Borough of Pittsburgh, 1816: Law Institute, New York; 
Law Library, City Hall, Philadelphia. 
1824. Buffalo Tailors: in Buffalo Emporium. 



ten] FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 1 53 

1827. Trial of Twenty- four Journeymen Tailors, charged with 
conspiracy (Philadelphia, 1827): Boston Pub.; Lib. Co. of 
Phila.; L.C; N.Y. Pub.; N.Y.H.S.; New York State Uw 
Library, Albany; Pa. H.S. ; Seligman; University of Pennsyl- 
vania Law Library, Philadelphia. 

1836. Trial of Jonathan H. Cooper, Kenneth Defries, Frederick 
Brush, Robert B. Lawton, Klisha Babcock. . . Journeymen 
Shoemakers of the City of Hudson. . . Hudson. . . 
1 836 : L.C. ; New York State Law Library ( Mss. ) . 

1836. Philadelphia Plasterers: Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

1836. Report of the case of the Thompson ville Carpet Manufac- 
turing Company versus William Taylor, Edward Gorham, and 
Thomas Norton, charged with a conspiracy for being concerned 
in a Strike for Higher Wages. . . (Hartford, 1836): Bar 
Association, New York ; L.C. ; N.Y. H.S. ; New York State Law 
Library. 
Lucas, Eliza, Journal and Letters of (Wormsloe, 1850): Harvard; 

N.Y. Pub.;L.C; W.H.S. 
Machinists and Blacksmiths, Proceedings of the International Union, 

1861: W.H.S. 
Masquerier, Lewis. Sociology; or the Reconstruction of Society, 

Government, and Property (New York, 1877): Adelbert; N.Y. 

Pub. ; Boston Ath. ; Boston Pub. ; Brooklyn Pub. ; Columbia ; Lib. 

Co. of Phila. ; L.C. ; Mer. N.Y. ; N.Y.H.S. ; N.Y. State ; Seligman. 
Memorial of the Citizens of Charleston to the Senate and the House 

of Representatives of the State of South Carolina (Charleston, 

1822) : Charleston Coll.; N.Y. Pub. ; Seligman. 
Mooney, Peter. Nine Years in America (Dublin, 1850) : L.C. 
National Labor Union, Proceedings of Second Session (Philadelphia, 

1868) : N.Y. Pub.; Seligman; W.H.S. 
Patrons of Husbandry: 

Proceedings of the Sixth Session of the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry [1873]: L.C; W.H.S. 

Proceedings of the Seventh Session of the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry (St. Louis, 1874) : Detroit Pub.; J.C.; 
L.C.; N.Y. State; W.H.S. 

Proceedings of the Eighth Session, etc. (Charleston, 1875) : De- 
troit Pub.; J.C.; N.Y.H.S.; W.H.S. 

Proceedings of the Ninth Session, etc. (Louisville, Ky., 1875): 
Detroit Pub.; J.C.; L.C; N.Y. State; W.H.S. 



154 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Vol. 

Proceedings of the Tenth Session, etc. (Chicago, 1876) : Detroit 

Pub. ; J.C. ; L.C. ; N.Y. State ; U. of M. ; W.H.S. 
Proceedings of the Eleventh Session, etc. (Cincinnati, 1877) : De- 
troit Pub.; J.C; L.C; N.Y. State; U. of M.; W.H.S. 
Proceedings of the Twelfth Session, etc. (Richmond, Va., 1878) : 

Detroit Pub. ; J.C. 5 L.C ; N.Y. State; U. of M. ; W.H.S. 
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Session, etc. ( Canandaigua, N.Y., 
1879): Detroit Pub.; J.C; L.C; N.Y. State; U. of M.; 
W.H.S. 
Proceedings of the State Grange of Wisconsin, second annual ses- 
sion (1872): W.H.S. 

Periam, J. The Groundswell (Cincinnati, 1874) : Boston Ath. ; Chi- 
cago Pub.; Detroit Pub.; J.C; Mpls. Pub.; N.Y.H.S.; U. of M.; 
W.H.S. 

Plantation Diary of the late Mr. Valcour Aime. . . (New Or- 
leans, 1878) : Howard. 

Practical Rules for the management and medical treatment of Negro 
Slaves in the Sugar Colonies, by a Professional Planter (London, 
1803): N.Y. Pub.; Boston Ath.; Charleston L.S.; Lib. Co. of 
Phila.; L.C; N.Y.H.S. 

Romans, Bernard. Concise Natural History of East and West Flor- 
ida (New York, 1876) : Am. Antiq. Soc. ; N.Y. Pub. ; Boston Ath. ; 
Harvard; J.C.B.; Lib. Co. of Phila.; L.C; Md. State; N.Y. 
State; Pa. H.S. (2 copies) ; U. of W. 

Ruffin, Edmund. Report of the Agricultural Survey of South Caro- 
lina (Columbia, S.C, 1843): N.Y. Pub.; Charleston L.S.; Chi- 
cago Pub.; Harvard; J.C; L.C; N.Y. State. 

Seabrook, Whitemarsh B. Memoir on Cotton, 1844 (Charleston) : 
Boston Pub.; Charleston L.S. ; Harvard; Princeton; N.Y. State. 

Skidmore, Thomas. The Rights of Man to Property: being a prop- 
osition to make it equal among the adults of the present generation 
(New York, 1829): N.Y. Pub.; Columbia; L.C; Lynn Pub.; 
N.Y.H.S.; Seligman; W.H.S. 

Steward, Ira. A reduction of Hours an Increase of Wages (Boston, 
1865), Boston Pub.; Seligman; W.H.S. 

Steward, Ira, James C Baker, Chester R. Merrill. Systematic Labor 
Reform Movement (Boston, 1863) : Seligman; W.H.S.; and one 
copy is among the manuscripts willed by Ira Steward to Miss Ma- 
rietta Marshall, of Nantucket, Massachusetts. 



ten] 



FINDING LIST OF SOURCES QUOTED 



155 



Tour of Virginia, A. (n.d. [circa 1808]): Boston Pub.; Columbia; 

Harvard; Lib. Co. of Phila.; N.Y.H.S.; Va, State. 
Turner, J. A. The Cotton Planter's Manual (New York, 1857): 

Cornell; Franklin Institute, Philadelphia; Lib. Co. of Phila.; L.C.; 

J.C. J Mer. N.Y. ; N.Y.H.S. ; U. of I. ; University of Texas, Austin. 
Weston, P.C.J. Documents connected with the History of South 

Carolina (London, 1856): Boston Ath. ; Boston Pub.; Columbia; 

Harvard; J.C.B.; N.Y. Pub.; L.C.; N.Y.H.S.; N.Y. State; Va. 

State; W.H.S. 



INDEX 



INDEX 

Abbot, Herman, factory operative, VIII, 139 

Abdy, E. S., Journal of a Residence in the United States, II, 348 

Abel, George, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Abel, Isaac, member of Trades' Union Convention of District of 

Columbia, VI, 124 
Abell, Levi, author Boston Circular, VI, 43, 99 
Abernathy, William, defendant, trial of New York Cordwainers, 

III, 252 
Abingdon [Ga.] Democrat, II, 162 
Abolition: Mexico, II, 250-251; relation to land reform, VII, 

351-363; see also Liberty League 
Absenteeism, I, 81 

Accident, I, 134, 140, 142, 144, 156-165, 175, 318, 319 
Ackerman, A. D., cordwainer, VI, 318, 321 
Adair, George, delegate to New York Protective Union, VIII, 

307 
Adam, George, land reformer, VIII, 27, 287 
Adams, — , Worthy Master of Patrons of Husbandry, X, 92 
Adams, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Convention, 

V, 225, 276 
Adams, John, witness, Thompsonville Carpet Manufacturing Com- 
pany vs. William Taylor, et at., IV, Supp., 29-38, 39. 46, 49. 54. 
59. 65, 67, 69, 72, 75, 76, 90, 96, 107, 108, 109, 122; VI, 168, 
169, 170, 172. 173 
Adams, John, president, VII, 160 
Adams, John Quincy, VII, 160 
Adams, Phillip, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 267, 

269, 275 
Adams, Hon. S. P., VIII, 139, 140, 295 
Adams, St. Lawrence, master cordwainer, III, 105 



160 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Adams 

Adams, Wirt, member Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 83 

Addington, Joseph, silversmith, VIII, 288 

Address delivered by Robert MacFarlane before the Mechanics of 
New York, VIII, 251-262 

Advertisements: apprentices wanted, II, 348-349; auction, I, 251- 
252, 255; carding, II, 329-330; carpenters warned, VI, 78; cot- 
ton factories, II, 326-327; dyeing, II, 328; emigrant company, 
II, 176; employment wanted, II, 272-273; gunsmith, II, 350- 
351; immigrant labor, II, 177-178; iron work for sale, II, 304- 
312 ; laborers wanted, II, 348 ; land agents, II, 239-240, 258-260, 
260-262, 263-267 ; live stock for sale, I, 255 ; merchant, II, 278 ; 
millwright, II, 351-352; overseers wanted, I, 323-324; painter 
and glazier, II, 353 ; plantations for rent, I, 246-251 ; plantations 
for sale, I, 245-246, 251-254; posting, VII, 71-72; runaways - 
apprentices, I, 352; convict servants, I, 346-347, 352; indentured 
servants, I, 353-354J redemptioners, I, 347"348, 374 J Hi 327- 
328; slaves, II, 81-84, 85-90, 92-93, 95-98; "riding bass" 
wanted, I, 133; ship carpenters and caulkers wanted, VI, 86; 
shoemakers, II, 349; slave emancipated, II, 142; slave labor for 
hire, II, 47 ; slave labor wanted to hire, II, 348 ; slaves for sale, 

I, 253, 307; II, 52, 57, 58; slaves wanted, II, 55; stone cutters 
wanted, V, 255; tailor's, II, 353; tailor wanted, II, 349; team- 
sters wanted, II, 347-348; Texas lands, II, 257-258; weavers 
wanted, II, 347; wood cutters wanted, II, 348; woolen mills, 

II, 334-335 

African Company, II, 29 

Ager, R. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228, 240 
Agrarianism: character, VIII, 31; demand for mechanics' lien, V, 
153 ; evils of monopoly, V, 44-45, 151 ; "Fanny Wright Ticket," 
V, 142; Friend of Equal Rights, VII, 143; hostility to auction 
system, V, 150, 152-153; hostility to banks, V, 150-152; land 
limitation, V, 45 ; memorial to Congress, V, 43-45 ; natural right 
to soil, V, 43, 147, 149; objections, VIII, 32-34, 35, 36-37, 38, 
39-40; opposition, V, 154-156; VIII, 53-58; periods, IX, 46-47; 
philosophy - Henry George, IX, 46, 47 ; Thomas Skidmore, 
V, 141; plan for perpetual leases, V, 45; political action -re- 
port of committee of fifty, V, 149-154; "The Original Working 
Men," V, 142; public land -equal distribution, V, 149, 150, 



Algar] INDEX 161 

151 ; importance to labor, V, 35-36; policy of National Trade*' 
Union, VI, 207-208; relation to national debt, V, 44; relation 
to strikes, V, 46-47; source of doctrine, VIII, 29; taxation, V, 
153; Workingmen's Party endorse, V, 141- 142; repudiate, V, 
142; see also Land, Land reform, Skid more (Thomas) 

Agriculture: Bureau demanded, X, 124; college demanded, VIII, 
320-321, 325; cost of opening farm, VII, 77-78; distribution of 
farms, I, 93; floods and droughts, I, 317, 319, 320; frontier, 
II, 170, 191-192, 195, 214, 251-252; hours of labor, V, 33; 
lands reclaimed, I, 88; machinery, VII, 303, footnote', mowers, 
IV, 61, footnote; opportunity in south, I, 82, 86; stock-raising, I, 
246; II, 253-254; VII, 66; transportation, VII, 53; Wateree 
Agricultural Society, I, 290; see also Corn, Cotton, Farmers. 
Indigo, New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and 
Other Workingmen, Patrons of Husbandry, Plantation, Rice. 
Slave labor, Sugar, Tobacco, etc. 

Aiken, D. Wyatt, in Patrons of Husbandry, X, 85 

Aime, Valcour, diary, I, 214-230 

Aimes, Charles, master cordwainer, III, 256, 362, 370 

Alabama: black lands, I, 89; cotton manufacture, II, 330-332; 
Mobile, I, 84; plantation system, I, 89 

Albany Evening Journal, V, 314 

Albright, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
289 

Alden, Caleb H., cordwainer, VIII, 236 

Aldrich, Ed., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

Aldrich, Morton A., acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Alexander, Dr. Adam, planter, I, 150 

Alexander, James, master cordwainer, III, 105; IV, Supp., 31, 32, 
65, 69, 70, 72, 74, 90 

Alexander, Robert, cordwainer, IV, Supp., 94 

Alexander estate, plantation records, I, 150-165 

Alford, William, juror, Thompsonville Manufacturing Company 
vs. William Taylor, et al., IV, Supp., 16, 115 

Alfred, Jacob J: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
132, 134, 141; delegate, IX, 127; eight-hour policy, IX, 134- 
135, 141 ; political policy, IX, 137; vice president, IX, 129 

Algar, George, master shoemaker, IV, 279 



1 62 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Allaben 

Allaben, J. C, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Allen, Daniel, defendant, New York Journeymen Cordwainers' 

trial, III, 252 
Allen, George W., land reformer, VIII, 26, 93, 105, 124, 126 
Allen, Job B., witness, case Thompsonville weavers, IV, Supp., 47, 

56,78 
Allen, John, association ist, VII, 188, 189, 277; VIII, 263 
Allen, John, Jr., president W. T. Company, IX, 106 
Allen, Joseph, treasurer United Workers of America, IX, 378 
Allen, Hon. S. C, V, 187 

Allen, T. R., Master State Grange of Missouri, X, 91 
Allibone, William, merchant, III, 61 
Ailing, T. F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Allston, R. F. W., I, 259, footnote; Essay on Sea Coast Crops, I, 

271-275 
Allwright, William, shoemaker, VIII, 341 
Almy, Thomas, land reformer, VIII, 26, 91, 93 
Alphonso, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Alsop, George, letter, I, 342 
Alvord, A., boarding-house keeper, VII, 139, 140 
Alvord, Rev. J. W., IX, 252 

Amalgamated Trades' Convention, see Trades' Assemblies 
America, Letters from, see Eddis (William) 
American Bureau of Industrial Research: I, 23; catalogues, I, 28; 

collaborators, I, 22; III, 17; newspapers, I, 22-24; organization, 

I, 21 ; pamphlets, I, 25; transcripts, I, 26 
American Emigrant Company, see Immigration 
American Federation of Labor, V, 32; IX, 51 
American Historical Review, cited, I, 374 
American Protective Union, VIII, 215 
American Reporter and Intending Emigrant's Guide, The, IX, 

77 
American Sentinel, The, cited, II, 159; V, 78 
American Shoemakers: III, 19; see also Commons (John R.) 
"American System," see Factory system 
American Workman, cited, IX, 243-247 



Arbour) 



INDKX 



»°3 



Amies, Thomas, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Anarchism: in International Workingmcn's Association, IX, 44, 

45; Josiah Warren, V, 78; theory, IX, 38- w 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, X, 33 

Anderson, Charles R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 
Anderson, J. Patton, member Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 84 
Anderson, James, pattern-maker, IV, Supp., 37, 59-62, 72 
Anderson, James B., secretary, New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 219, 220, 236, 239, 241 
Anderson, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 68 
Anderson, Thomas, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

Anderson, William, cordwainer, IV, 35, 38 

Andrews, Cornelius B., juror, trial Thompsonvillc Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 16, 59 

Andrews, John B., editor Documentary History of American In- 
dustrial Society, I, 22, 23 ; III, 17 ; IX, 19-51 

Andrews, Martin H., printer, VI, 347 

Andrews, Stephen Pearl: The Science of Society, V, 79, footnote; 
Speech before Labor Reform League, VIII, 126 

Angell, William P., State Prison inspector, VIII, 323 

Anthon, — , counsel, Deitz vs. Tate, V, 69 

Anthony, Susan B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 
198, 205, 207, 216, 227, 231 

Anti-rent Association, VIII, 48 

Applegate, Aaron, juror, trial of Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

Applegarth, R., member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 341 

Apples: abundance, VII, 49; price, VII, 49 

Apprenticeship: abuses, V, 70-72; IX, 154-155; advertisements for, 

II, 348-349; authority of masters, V, 68; cordwainers, III, 70; 

VIII, 233; Deitz VS. Tate, V, 67-69; hatters, V, 71 ; VI, 167; 

legal aspects, V, 67-69; negroes, II, 251; paupers, I, 340; 

planters', I, 324; policy of National Labor Union, IX, 154-155; 

runaway apprentices, I, 340, 352; V, 69-70; shoemakers, V, 69; 

supplanting journeymen, V, 170; whip and cane makers, V, 69-70 
Arbeiter Union, IX, 227 
Arbour, James H., cordwainer, VI, 317, 320 



1 64 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Arbuckle 

Arbuckle, Peter, witness, case Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

IOO-IOI 

Arbuthnot, William, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 318, 324» 325 
Arch-Deacon, George, delegate to New York City Industrial 

Congress, VIII, 303 
Arends, H., land reformer, VII, 310 
Argus, The, cited, VIII, 48 
Arkansas, settlement, I, 87 
Arkansas Gazette, The, cited, II, 84, 250 
Arkwright, Sir Richard, inventor, I, 38 
Armistead, S., letter, II, 295-296 

Armitage, Joshua, juror, trial Pittsburg Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Armour, John, mechanic, II, 369 
Armstrong, — , spinner, IV, Supp., 71 
Armstrong, David, cooper, VI, 90 
Armstrong, Thomas A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

137, 168, 170 
Arnold, Jonathan E., land reformer, VIII, 54, 58 
Arnold, Samuel, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

16 
Arpent, definition, I, 216 
Artisans, see Indentured servants, Mechanics 
Ash, John T., carpenter, VI, 337 
Ash, Michael W., VI, 44 

Ashfield, John, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362, 363 
Ashmun, Hon. George, IX, 75 
Ashton, James, Jr., member of Mechanics' Union, V, 94, 123; 

VIII, 28 
Ashworth, — , V, 137 
Ashworth, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 

129, 132, 136, 137, Hi 
Asper, Michael, mechanic, II, 369 
Aspinall, — , defendant, trial Baltimore weavers, IV, 269; V, 386 
Aspinall, William, weaver, VI, 342 
Assize of Bread: II, 343, 344; see also Bakers 
Association: American Union of A ssociationists -Boston Union, 

VIII, 327 ; constitution, VII, 203-204; officers, VII, 205 ; unions 






Augusta] INDEX 1 65 

affiliated, VII, 205-206; convention of 1844 -call, VII, 188; 
committees, VII, 188, 189, 200-201; delegates, VII, 188; Eng- 
lish socialists, VII, 201-202; officers, VII, 188; proceedings, 
VII, 189-202; convention of 1845 -ca\\, VII, 200; reforms pro- 
posed -child training, VII, 193-194; co-operation, VII, 194- 
J95t *97; education, VII, 195-196; individual freedom, VII, 
194; land monopoly, VII, 343; marriage, VII, 196; religious, 
VII, 193, 196; relation to other reforms - abolition, VII, 207- 
211, 211-216, 216-218, 218-219, 219-221, 221-222; communism, 
VII, 222-223, 223-225, 225-231, 244-249; French Revolution, 
VII, 237-239 ; labor movement, VII, 231-232, 232-233, 233-234, 
234-237; land reform, VII, 319, 325, 327, 327-331. 33i-34<>; 
miscellaneous - advantage to labor, VII, 149; causes of failure, 
VII, 282-284 >' contrasted with Fourierism, VII, 198 ; cooperation, 
VII, 234-237; objects, VII, 199-200; official organ, VII, 201; 
see also Cooperation, Fourierism, Owenism. 

Aston, Justice — , opinion, III, 238 

Aston, John, Jr., V, 123 

Athenian, The, cited, I, 266, 334 

Athens Gazette, The, cited, II, 301 

Athens Southern Banner, The, cited, II, 71 

Atkinson, A. G., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 119, 121, 126 

Atlanta American, The, cited, II, 312 

Atlanta and Her Builders, see Martin (T. H.) 

Atlanta Daily Intelligencer, The, cited, II, 54, 72, 75, 159, 312, 

354 
Atlantic Monthly, The, cited, I, 254, 256 
Atwell, John B., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 265, 289 
Auction: advertisement, I, 255; evils, V, 152, 161-162; VII, 105- 

106, 106-108; opposition, V, 141 
Auctioneers, profits, V, 152 

Augur, Daniel C, cordwainer, VI, 317, 320, 321, 325 
Augusta Chronicle, The, cited, I, 252; II, 143, 196, 298, 344, 345, 

348, 349, 376 
Augusta Constitutionalist, The, cited, II, 159, 167 
Augusta Courier, The, cited, II, 358 



1 66 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Aurn. 

Aurnhammer, A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Aurniss, Ephraim, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 219 
Aurora, The, criticism, III, 67 
Austin, Hon. J. T., V, 60 
Australasia, land monopoly, IX, 49 
Autobiography of Gideon Lincecum, cited, II, 185 
Averett, Hon. Thomas H., VIII, 72-73 
Avery, John, factory agent, VII, 136, 138 
Avery, Lorin F., witness, case Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

40-42 
Awl, The: cited, VIII, 82, 99-106, 232-236; established, VIII, 

221 
Ayers, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 194 
Axley, James, I, 352 

Babcock, — , VIII, 122 

Babcock, B., VI, 169 

Babcock, Elisha, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277, 

283, 285 
Bacon, price, II, 194 

Badgely, Hiram, master cordwainer, IV, 53, 54, 55 
Bagley, Sarah G., factory operative, VIII, 107, 108, 109, no, 

136, 138 
Bailey, C. A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

339, 340 
Bailey, Evan, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 337 
Bailey, K. Arthur: Amalgamated Trades' Convention — address, 
VIII, 342 ; delegate, VIII, 338; New York City Industrial Con- 
gress-address, VIII, 303-305; delegate, VIII, 288; president, 

VIII, 286-287, 290, 302 

Bailey, Wallace, defendant, William Taylor vs. the Thompsonville 

Manufacturing Company, IV, Supp., 127 
Bailey, William, delegate to International Industrial Assembly, 

IX, 120 

Bailie, William, Josiah Warren, V, 79, footnote 
Bailley, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 107 



Baltimore] 



INDEX 



167 



Haillir. David, delegate Co Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 338 

Baily, — , VIII, 61 

Bain, John, \\ raver, IV, Supp., 83, 86 

Baird, Robert, defendant, trial New York Journeymen Cord- 
wainers, III, 252 

Baker, F. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 

Baker, Frederick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 

Baker, James C, blacksmith, IX, 282 

Baker, John H., delegare to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 180, 
181, 183 

Baker, Thomas, defendant, trial New York Journeymen Cord- 
wainers, III, 252; VIII, 301 

Baker, William, VI, 318, 321 

Bakers: Assize of Bread, II, 343-344 J hours, V, 304, 305; pros- 
ecutions, III, 16; strike, II, 343-344; V, 304-305, 307-308; 
Sunday work, V, 327; wages, V, 305-306; see also Trade unions 

Bakery: plantation, I, 191; public, II, 344 

Bakunin, Michael, IX, 33 

Balch, Rev. — , VIII, 26 

Balch, A. L., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

177 
Baldwin, Edward B., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 
Baldwin, Henry, counsel, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17, 

26, 71-73 
Baldwin, Joseph, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Baldwin, Rosevelt, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 170, 172 
Baldwin, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 130, 136 
Baldwin, William H., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 144, 158 
Baley, Stephen, insurance agent, VIII, 169 
Ball, Thomas, carpenter, II, 371 

Ballard, Daniel, Jr., delegate to Trades' Union of Boston, VI, 86 
Ballendine, John, importer foreign labor, II, 178 
Ballou, Adin, editor The Practical Christian, I, 25 
Baltimore, Lord, I, 282 
Baltimore American, The, V, 314 



1 68 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [B.alti. 

Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser, cited, VI, 74, 

IOO-III 
Banker, Benjamin, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 174 
Bankhead, Robert, delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 113 
Banks, Alderman, judge, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315, 325 

Banks, David, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Banks, Theodore H., member International Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, IX, 359, 366 

Banks: attitude of workingmen, V, 30, 31, 204; bills of credit, V, 
152; dependence of merchant-capitalist, VII, 102-104; effect on 
labor, VII, 103-104; evils, V, 152, 162; VII, 102-104; Mutual 
Savings Institution, VII, 97-98, 99; small bills, V, 31; "wild 
cat," V, 33; see also National Labor Union, financial policy 

Bannan, E., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316 

Banner, The, VIII, 59 

Banner of the Constitution, The, cited, IV, 269-272 

Bannon, Stewart, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 338 

Barbadoes: capture, I, 79; congestion, I, 80; emigration, I, 80; 
expedition against Jamaica, I, 79; industry, I, 79; sugar making, 

I, 79 
Barbaroux, E., foundry owner, IX, 97 
Barbecue, II, 280 , 

Bard, Allen, carpenter, VI, 337 
Bargain, kinds, III, 44-46 
Barker, Alderman, judge, case Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 118, 119 

Barker, Edward, delegate to Union Trade Society of Baltimore, 

VI, 108 
Barnes, Jonathan, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 245 

Barnes, Underl, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

62-66, 219 
Barnett, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 
Barr, William V., land reformer, VIII, 289, 291, 300 



Bnttj , 



INDEX 



169 



Barrels, see Coopers, Manufactures 

Barrington, E., secretary, Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 349 

Barrow, George, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 225 
Barry, — , X, 74 

Barthel, William, associationist, VIII, 303 
Bartlett, J. P., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 14s. 

146 
Barton, Chr[istopher?], cordwainer, IV, 26 
Bartrani, John, botanist, I, 267 
BarwiVk, Standi, letters, I, 312, 313 
Bass, Samuel, carpenter, II, 371 
Bass, William, petition, II, 163 

Basset, Samuel S., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 187 
Bassett, James, carpenter, VIII, 287, 301 
Bassong, James M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Bastian, A., delegate to Philadelphia General Trades' Union, V, 

375 
Bates, Levi, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

101, 107, 113, 119, 128, 132 
Bates, Stephen, associationist, VII, 273 
Baton Rouge Gazette, The, cited, I, 299; II, 79, 142, 277 
Baton Rouge Republic, The, cited, I, 83, 84, 120 
Batory, Ignatius, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 215, 

219, 220, 230 
Batson, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 357 
Baush, George, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

100, 133 
Bayous: Choupic, II, 241 ; St. John, II, 241 
Beach, William, defendant, trial New York Journeymen Cord- 

wainers, III, 252 
Beacon, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Bean, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 129-130 
Beattie, Robert, land reformer, VII, 305 
Beatty, James, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 104, 107, 108, 113, 116, 128, 168 
Beatty, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 



170 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Beatty 

Beatty, Robert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

215, 219, 221, 223, 305, 308 
Bechtel, Jacob, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Beck, — , manufacturer, VIII, 227 

Becker, Johann Phillip, see Brief e und Auszuge aus Brief en 
Beckford, William, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, VI, 91 
Beckmeir, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 

Bedford, John, master cordwainer, III, 67, 99-103, 105, 130 

Bedford, Thomas, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 199 

Bedgar, — , cordwainer, IV, 41, 42 

Beecher, Henry Ward, IX, 75 

Beef, price, II, 253, 309, 3H 

Beem, William, member Illinois State Farmers' Association, X, 48 

Beeny, Henry: address on free land, VII, 308; resolutions, VI, 

68, 69; VII, 308-310 
Beers, Francis, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 176, 327 
Beers, James B., printer, VI, 352 
Beers, Jerome, cordwainer, VI, 317 
Bees, hunting, II, 77 
Beesly, Edward S., The International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 44, footnote 

Beler, Samuel, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 

28, 34, 49 
Belknap, Thomas, banker, IX, 75 

Bell, Aaron P., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 
Bell, J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Bell, William, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 162, 163 
Bellamy, Edward S., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 214 
Bellows, John, master carpenter, VI, 81 
Beman, Walter S., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Benevolent Society of Social Reformers, VIII, 288 
Benevolent societies, see various trades 
Benjamin, Lucius, III, 362 
Benjamin, R. W., member Illinois State Farmers' Association, X, 

51 



Bigler] 



INDEX 



171 



Brnnrt, Andrew M., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V. 277 

Brnnrt, Barnes, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
220, 248, 254, 260, 262, 264, 266, 318 

Bennet, Benjamin, mechanic, II, 369 

Bennett, Anthony, witnrss, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 67, 
8889 

Bennington, B., land reformer, VIII, 26 

Benny, James, letter, II, 316-317 

Benson, Alderman — . IV, 315, 325 

Benson, Judge — , IV, 315 

Benson, Egbert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 270, 274 

Benton, Thomas, III, 256 

Benton, Thomas H., Thirty Years' Review, IX, 162 

Benton, William, master shoemaker, III, 256 

Beresford, Richard, planter, I, 324 

Berger, Ferdinand, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Bermuda Islands: negro plot, II, 1 17 ; see also Negroes 

Berrian, Major — , II, 70 

Bcrrian, Hobart, Origin and Rise of the Workingmen's Party, V, 

157 
Berry, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Bethea, G. N., letter, I, 315 
Beuerman, — , treasurer Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress, VIII, 

333 
Beverly, Robert, planter, II, 23023 1, 233 
Bibliographie generate des Cartularies Francois, etc., see Stein 

(Henri) 
Bibliography: association, VII, 151 ; labor movement, V, 39; land 

reform, VII, 287; plantation, I, 105-107 
Bickley, Elizabeth, voluntary slave, II, 162 
Biderman, Peter, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 127, 153 
Bienneville, II, 241 
Bigler, E. F., delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 

120 



172 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Bills 

Bills of credit: V, 152; see also Banks 

Bingham, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Bingham, Oramel: cordwainers' convention — commitee member, 
VI, 316, 320, 324, 325; delegate, VI, 317; New York General 
Trades' Union — amendments presented, V, 228 ; committee 
member, V, 220, 231, 236, 241, 243, 249, 251, 254, 255, 257, 
279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 290, 294, 296, 297, 299; communication 
from cordwainers, V, 256; delegate, V, 277 

Binns, — , master tailor, IV, 114, 121, 141 

Binns, John P., VI, 44 

Birbeck, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 94 

Bishop, Col. William N., II, 296-298 

Blachley, Jarvis, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

147, 157 
Black, Alexander, ship carpenter, VI, 86 
Black, Andrew, weaver, IV, Supp., 57 
Black, George, weaver, IV, Supp., 31, 44, 65, 67, 69, 90, 95, 107, 

108, 109, 122 
Black, William, planter, I, 354 

Black, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Blacker, Peter I., clerk, VIII, 274 
Blackiston, Presly, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Blackledge, Richard, sheriff, II, 89 
Blacklist, IV, Supp., 37 
Blacksmiths: advertisements, II, 348-349, 359; frontier demand, 

II, 174; prison labor, V, 231; strike, V, 244; wages, VII, 47; 

see also Machinists and Blacksmiths 
Blackstone, William, quoted, III, 260, 274 
Blades, William P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 

137 

Blair, Thomas, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Blair, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 97-99 
Blake, Ambrose, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Blake, John, delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 120 
Blake, Robert B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 132 
Blanc, Louis, L' organization du travail, IX, 33, 35 



Boltcl 



INDIA 



173 



Blanchard, F M delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Blanvelt, Isaac, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Blast Furnaces: II, 312; see also Smelting furnaces 
Bliss, William B., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 256, 294 
Block and Pump Makers, see Trade unions 
Blockhouse, II, 232 
Bloom, David, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Bloomer, Elisha, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V,2 3 i 
Blunt, John M., juror, trial Hudson shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 
Blunt, N. B., attorney, IV, 317, 325, 326, 332 
Boardman, William, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 16 
Bodder, Dr. L. D., VI, 44 
Bogert, Henry, defendant, trial New York Journeymen Cord- 

wainers, III, 252 
Boggart [Bogart, Boggit?], William G., delegate to Albany 

Trades' Union, VI, 174, 197, 199, 201, 229, 238, 239, 243, 250, 

263, 316,330,331 
Boggs, David, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Boggs, William, hatter, VI, 161, 237, 244, 256, 258 
Boggus, William K., delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 1 13 
Bohlen, John, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 
Bohn, J. W., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Boileau, Etienne, I, 20 
Boiler makers, see Trade unions 

Bolan, J. R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 137, 168 
Bolingbroke, Henry, A Voyage to the Demerary, II, 49 
Bolinger, Frederick, II, 371 
Bolles, Samuel, editor, IX, 75 
Bolsom [Bolson, Balsom, Balson, Balston?], D.D., delegate to 

National Labor Union, IX, 127, 129, 134, 136, 137 
Bolte, F., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

44, footnote, 366, 373, 378 



i 74 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Bolton 

Bolton, Sir Richard, III, 353, footnote 

Bonamy, A., blacksmith, II, 359 

Bond, Gilman, see Rand 

Bond, William, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 126, 127, 129, 133, 134, 138 
Boner, John, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 107, no, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 128, 
136, 141, 157, 158, 159, 207 

Bonner, John Y., planter, II, 87 

Bonner, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 219, 305 

Bonsall, Benjamin S., VI, 44 

Bookbinders: advice to immigrants, VII, 66; strike, V, 327-328; 

VI, 124-125; see also Trades unions 
Booking shops, VII, 87 

Boone, Daniel, II, 220, 222, 225 

Boot and shoe workers, see Shoemakers 

Borden, Charles, VIII, 91 

Borland, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 34, 40 

Borst, Charles, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Boss: defined, III, 43, and footnote; origin of term, III, 43 
Boston Chronicle, The, cited, I, 348, 372-373; II, 273; V, 186 
Boston Chronotype, The, quoted, VIII, 281-285 
Boston Commonwealth, cited, IX, 84-86 
Boston Courier, cited, V, 187, 188, 189; VI, 47 
Boston Daily Advertiser and Patriot, cited, V, 187 
Boston Daily Bee, quoted, VIII, 95-99 
[Boston] Daily Evening Voice, cited, IX, 126, 302-305 
Boston Eight Hour League, see Hours of labor 
Boston Investigator, cited, IX, 86-88 
Boston Labor Reform Association, IX, 277, 284; see Labor reform 

associations 
Boston Laborer, VIII, 221 
Boston Palladium, V, 314 

Boston Protective Union, quoted, VIII, 326, 327 
Botsford, J., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 
Botume, J., Jr., associationist, VII, 205 



Bradley] INDEX 175 

Bounty, wolfscalps, II, 288 

Kourlcr, James A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 198 

Bouvier, J., city recorder, Philadelphia, IV, 335 

Bovay, Alvan E: biography, VII, 37 ; National convention of Land 
Reformers -call for, VIII, 23-25; delegate, VIII, 26, 27; dele- 
gate to New England Workingmcn's Association, VIII, 91; 
delegate to World's Convention of Association ists, VIII, 181- 
182 ; father of Republican Party, VII, 36-37 

Bowen, Benjamin, ship carpenter, VI, 86, 91 

Bowie, John H : delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 197, 198 ; 
New York General Trades' Union - address before mass meeting, 

V, 318; address on prison labor, V, 230; committee member, V, 
215, 219, 220, 221, 223, 234, 237, 238, 240, 241, 275, 305, 308; 
communication concerning bakers, V, 305-306; delegate, V, 234, 
250; on parliamentary order, V, 233; secretary, V, 195, 219 

Bowie, Roswell C, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 

274 
Bowles, John, carpenter, II, 371 
Boyce, Benjamin B., VI, 44 
Boyce, Robert, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 

Boycott: farmers' plan, X, 52; hatters, VI, IOO 

Boyd, Nathaniel B., witness, trial Thompson ville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 58-59 

Boyd, Thomas W. S., delegate Trade Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 119, 127, 135 

Boyd, William A., delegate Union Trade Society of Baltimore, 

VI, 108 

Boyle, Charles, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 352 
Boyle, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 40, 65, 94 
Boynton, P., association ist, VII, 276 
Bradbury, Thomas, weaver, IV, Supp., 44 
Bradford, A. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Bradford, Nehemiah, III, 252 
Bradford, Vincent L., VI, 44 
Bradley, J. W., factory operative, VIII, 201 
Bradlcv, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 



1 76 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Bradley 

Bradley, Wyllys, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

16 
Bradshaw, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 164 
Bradshaw, William, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 158 
Brady, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Brady, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 271, 274 

Brahan, John, land agent, II, 267 

Brandon, Mrs. C. G., II, 201 

Brandt, John F., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 145 

Brandy, price, II, 314 

Branson, Newyear, letter, I, 130-131 

Braubach, John G., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 287, 288, 301 

Bray, Thomas, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Brazie, Henry, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 170 

Breach of peace, II, 287 

Breithaupt, Col. — , manufacturer, II, 332 

Brelshford, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 

Brennan, John B., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Brewer, John, carpenter, II, 371 

Brewster, William H., delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, 

VI, 91 

Brian, Thomas B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 
Bricklayers: conspiracy, IX, 200; demand, I, 340; redemptioner, I, 

347; strike, IX, 220; wages, II, 47; VII, 48; see also Trade 

unions 
Brickmakers, VIII, 219 . 

Bridge, James, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, VI, 91 
Bridges, William M., I, 208 
Brief e und Ausz'uge aus Brief en von Joh. Phil. Becker, Jos. Dietz- 

gen, Friedrich Engles, Karl Marx u. a. an F. A. Sorge, und 

andere, IX, 44, footnote 
Briggs, Clinton, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 
Briggs, William, planter, II, 328 
Bright, James, land agent, II, 267 
Brightly, — , Nisi Prius Cases, III, 116; IV, 202 






Brown | 



INDl X 



177 



Brinkcrhoff, Christian, cordwaincr, VI, 318 

Hrinkerhoff, Jacob J., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Brintnall, Samuel, ship carpenter, VI, 86 

Dane, Albert: Associationists' Convention -committeeman, VII, 
189, 200; delegate, VII, 188; delegate to European Associations, 

VII. 200; Fourierism, VII, 28, 337; Industrial Congress -ad- 
dress, VIII, no, 112; committee member, VIII, 107; delegate, 

VIII, 26; resolutions, VIII, 103-105, 109; industrial evils cited, 
VIII, 103-104; letter, VII, 241, 245; New York Industrial 
Legislature, delegate, VIII, 316; publications, VII, 148; VIII, 
82; vice president World's Convention, VII, 182; rejection of 
Owenism, VII, 182 

Bristol, Herman D., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 261, 262, 267, 281, 283, 284, 293; VI, 228, 230 

Britain, Benjamin, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 

British Cotton Supply Association, IX, 191 

Britton, James, master cordwainer, III, 370-371 

Brodill, William, juror, trial New York Journeymen Cordwainers, 
111,362 

Broker, I, 307 

Bromberger, John, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319, 326 

Brook Farm, see Fourierism, Ripley (George) 

Brooker, Stephen, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
Brooks, Hon. A. L., VIII, 151, 152, 153 
Brooks, H. T., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316 
Brotherhood of the Union, VIII, 285, 288, 294 
Brouet, A. D., carpenter, IX, 375 
Broughton, Aaron, land reformer, VIII, 48 
Brower, H. E., coachmaker, VI, 143 

Brown, Albert H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Brown, Calvin, associationist, VII, 205 
Brown, David Paul, attorney, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 

Tailors, IV, 101, 102, 117, 123-124, lis, 126, 128, 130, 132, 

133, 134. 135, 136, 137. 140, 141. 151, 155. 156, 199-230, 340 



178 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Brown 

Brown, George B., delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 108 

Brown, Hiram, land reformer, VIII, 44, 48 

Brown, Hugh, deposition, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

89 
Brown, Isaiah, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 
Brown, J. M., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 317, 321, 322, 323, 330 
Brown, James S., VIII, 54, 56, 58, 105 
Brown, John, planter, I, 374; II, 87 
Brown, John, treasurer, New York General Trades' Union, V, 

219, 221, 248, 254, 264; VI, 197, 199, 238, 253 
Brown, John L., printer, VI, 347 
Brown, John W., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 3 i8 
Brown, Lewis S., letter, II, 252 

Brown, Malachi W., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 158 
Brown, Martin J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287 

Brown, Morgan, planter, II, 46 

Brown, N. W., delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 1 10 

Brown, Peter P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228, 240 

Brown, S. F., member Michigan Grange, X, 82 

Brown, Solyman, associationist, VII, 188, 200 

Brown, Thomas M., delegate to New England Workingmen's 

Association, VIII, no 
Brown, William, deposition, case Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 107 
Browne, A. A., attorney, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 265 
Browne, P. A., attorney, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 265 
Browning, John W: National Labor Union, committee member, 

IX, 261 ; delegate, IX, 257; secretary, IX, 269 

Browning, Samuel, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 

252 
Bruff, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67, 69 
Brundige, C. V. N., insurance agent, VIII, 169 
Brunson, Isaac, planter, II, 79 

Brush, Frederick, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277 
Brushmakers, see Trade unions 



Burden ) 



INDKX 



179 



Bryan, Christopher, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Conv 

VIII, 337 
Bryant, David, land reformer, VIII, 28, 114 
Bryson, Hugh, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Bucella diglutienda, III, 337, footnote 
Buchanan, — , Canadian emigrant agent, VII, 69 
Buchanan, Peter, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 145 
Biichcr, K., Die Entstehung der Volksxvirtschaft, cited, III, 23 
Buck, Solon J., Agricultural Organization in Illinois, X, 39, 

footnote 
Buckheister, Charles, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Buckingham, Gov. — , IX, 75 
Buckingham, J. S., Slave States of America, II, 357 
Buckley, James, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 
Buckridge, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 36, 40, 53, 73 
Buffalo, slaughter, II, 229 
Buffalo Emporium, The, cited, IV, 93 
Buffum, Arnold, land reformer, VIII, 26, 27, 94 
Buffum, Israel, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, Mass., VI, 

91 

Buffum, J. N., address on labor reform, VIII, 126 

Building trades, methods of masters, V, 23-24; see also Carpenters, 

Masons 
Bulger, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

340 
Bull, Judge — IV, 277 
Buller, Judge — , III, 195 

Bundel, Michael, cordwainer, VI, 318, 320, 321, 324, 325 
Bunker, — , delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 237 
Bunting, Dr. — , VI, 44 

Burbeck, H., delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, VI, 90 
Burch, Remigus, delegate to Union Trades' Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 129, 1 30 
Burd, Andrew, planter, I, 347 
Burden, — , tailor ( ?), IV, no, in, 121, 159 
Bureau of Labor, see National Labor Union 
Burgen, — , V, 134 



180 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Burgess 

Burgess, Edmund, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

Burgess, George W., whip and cane maker, V, 70 

Burke, William, carpenter, II, 371 

Burkey [Berkey?], William A., delegate to National Labor Union, 

IX, 170, 175 

Burleigh, Alexander, delegate to International Industrial Assembly, 

IX, 120 
Burn, James Dawson, Three Years among the Working Classes in 

The United States during the War, IX, 55-66 
Burnham, Arthur, VIII, 263 
Burns, George, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 

28, 34 
Burns, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Burnside, William, carpenter, II, 371 
Burnsides, John, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 

28, 34, 40, 49 
Burr, C. C, land reformer, VIII, 28 
Burr, E. D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 194 
Burrage, William, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, Mass., 

VI, 90 
Burritt, Elihu, land reformer, VIII, 21 
Burritt, Elijah H., criminal, II, 150 
Burrows, Sir William, Reports, cited, III, 284 
Burton, Rev. — , VIII, 126 
Burton, Joshua, V, 330 
Burtt, A., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress, VIII, 

333 
Burtt, Selah H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301, 332 
Bury, William, delegate to Union Trade Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 135 
Buschman, — , tailor, VIII, 308 
Bussey, Joshua, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315,319,326 
Butcher, Robert, Sr., V, 318 
Butler, Judge — , IV, 277 
Butler, Gen. Benjamin F., IX, 232 



Calvert] 



INDKX 



IS. 



Butler, Robert H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 

239, 240 
Butler, Thomas O., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 299, 300 
"Butt-enders," VIII, 43 
Butter, price, II, 314; VII, 53 
Butterfield, J., associationist, VII, 205 
Buttcrsley, Robert, V, 281 
Button, Edward, alderman, VIII, 53, 54, 56 
Button and fringemakers, see Trade unions 
Butts, William D., delegate to General Convention of Trades, 

Boston, VI, 90 
Byrd, William, planter, I, 374; II, 258-260 
Byrne, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 164 
Byron, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 



Cabinet-makers: auction system, VII, 105-108; hours, VII, 105; 

wages, VII, 106-107; scc a l so Trade unions 
Cable, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, V, 261 
Cadys, Robert, weaver, IV, Supp., 43, 45-46 
Caffrey, John M., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 
Cahawba [Ala.] Press, II, 84 

Cain, Elisha, letters, I, 191-192, 3H-3I5. 33<>336; II, 39, 85 
Calder, James, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 

Caldwell, Edwin, delegate to Trades' Union, Baltimore, VI, 113 

Caldwell, S. D., agent New York and Erie Railway, IX, 106 

Caldwell, William, delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, 
VI, 108 

Calendar of State Papers, America and West Indies, cited, II, 1 60 

Calhoun, John C, VII, 160 

California: homestead law, IX, 47; land monopoly, IX, 47; me- 
chanics' lien, IX, 201 

Calkins, Thomas, weaver, IV, Supp., 48 

Callaghan, George, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 85-86 

Calvert, Benedict Leonard, letter, I, 282-283 



1 82 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Camblin 

Camblin [Camblen?], delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 260 

Camden Society, I, 20 

Cameron, Andrew C: Address to Workingmen, IX, 141-168; 
National Labor Union - admission of Susan B. Anthony, IX, 
231 ; committee member, IX, 130, 134, 136, 140, 175, 204, 205; 
delegate, IX, 127, 169, 196, 230, 258, 270, 272, 273; delegate 
to the International Workingmen's Association, IX, 241, 263, 
334. 336, 337. 338; reports from Europe, IX, 34J-350; interview 
with President Johnson, IX, 140-141 ; memorial to William H. 
Sylvis, IX, 231-232; offices held — corresponding representative, 
IX, 194; treasurer, IX, 271; vice-president at large, IX, 129; 
policies - apprenticeship, IX, 154-155; convict labor, IX, 206; 
co-operation, IX, 148-152; distribution of wealth, IX, 177, 179; 
eight-hour day, IX, 134-135, 136, 144-148, 185; female labor, 
IX, 156-160, 206; finance, IX, 1 77-181, 206, 209, 213; immi- 
gration, IX, 339; labor politics, IX, 137, 164-167, 175, 183, 
204, 265; land, IX, 160-164, 181; race question, IX, 158-160; 
strikes, IX, 131-132, 155-156; trade unionism, IX, 130-131, 
152-154; woman suffrage, IX, 198 

Cameron, Gilbert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 233, 235 

Cameron, Hugh, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228, 257, 
258, 272 

Cameron, James, III, 62 

Cameron, William: delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144; 
committee member, 145, 155, 230, 235, 237, 238, 240, 241, 244, 
248, 255, 263 

Camion, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
338 

Camp-meeting, II, 284-286 

Campbell, — , deposition, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 266 

Campbell, A. B., associationist, VII, 278-280 

Campbell, Alexander: delegate to National Labor Reform Party 
convention, IX, 272 ; National Labor Union, committee member, 
IX, 261; delegate, IX, 170, 196, 230, 258; The True Green- 
back, IX, 34, footnote 

Campbell, B. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 



Carolina] 



INDEX 



i»3 



Campbell, Ira A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Campbell, J. O., IX, 97 
Campbell, John, notary, II, 98 

Campbell, John, delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 1 15, 1 18, 
127 

Campbell, John D., witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tail- 
ors, IV, 100, 131, 165 

Campbell, Parker, attorney, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17, 

*6, 73-77 

Campbell, William H., deposition on child labor, V, 66; VI, 257 

Campion, Moore, master cabinet maker, VII, 108 

Canada, lands, VII, 69 

Canal diggers, demand for, II, 347, 348; Irish, II, 182 

Candidus, W., land reformer, VIII, 28 

Caney, John: corduainers' convention - committee member, VI, 
327; delegate, VI, 318; president, VI, 317, 330; resolutions, VI, 
326 ; Philadelphia General Trades' Union - committee member, 
V, 385; resolutions, V, 356, 374, 481; treasurer, V, 349, 378, 
388 ; president of cordwainers' society, VI, 30, 38 

Cannon, A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 

Cannon, Thomas B., tailor, IV, 140 

Capers, William, letters, I, 320-321, 337, 338; II, 32, 33, 94 

Capital, "good will," IX, 21 

Carey, Henry C, IX, 75 

Carey, Mathew, Select Excerpta, cited, V, 67 

Cargill, David, juror, trial New York Journeymen Cordwainers, 
III, 362, 363 

Carl, Conrad, member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 359, 366 

Carle, James, factory operative, VIII, 134 

Carlton, Charles W., association ist, VII, 245 

Carlton, Frank T., Economic Influences upon Educational Progress 

in the United States, V, 27, 28 
Carmichael, Hiram, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 

145, 146, 148, 149, I5L 152, 154. 157 
Carnes, William, cordwainer, VI, 317, 330 
Carolina Centinel, The, cited, II, 87, 90, 92 



1 84 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Carpen. 

Carpenter, Richard, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 256, 277 
Carpenter, Thomas, III, 252 

Carpenters: Bloomingdale union, VIII, 287; contract, II, 275; 
convention, VI, 312; convict labor, V, 54; cost of living, VI, 
55; demand on frontier, I, 340; II, 174-175; grievances, VI, 
54-57. 78; hours of labor, V, 80-83, 252; incorporation, II, 371- 
372; international union, IX, 373-375; masters' hostility to 
union, VI, 50-54, 76-77; national convention, VI, 193; negro, 
II, 38; strike, V, 75, 83-84, 203, 208, 276, 279, 328; VI, 50-57, 
73. 76-77, 78, 79-81; VIII, 314; strike resolutions of masters, 

VI, 76-77, 79-8i; unemployment, VI, 55; wages, II, 30, 174, 
275; V, 203, 205; VI, 50, 78, 86; see also Trade unions, Cabi- 
net-makers 

Carr, Hon. — , VI, 140, 144 

Carr, Isaac, negro trader, II, 47 

Carr, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Carr, Matthew, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Carr, Thomas, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 100, 130-131 
Carran, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 174 
Carrol, Patrick, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 358, 

359 
Carroll, B. R., Historical Collections of South Carolina, II, 174- 

176 
Carter, Hon. — , VIII, 151 ; X, 50 
Carter, Landon, Diary, I, 300, 324, 326; II, 33"34 
Carter, Robert, plantation records, I, 130-13 1, 300, 324-325, 326- 

328; II, 3H 
Cartmen : society, VIII, 302 ; wages, VII, 48 
Cartularies, French, I, 27 

Cary, Hon. Samuel F., IX, 205, 232, 259, footnote 
Casey, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Casham, James, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316, 317, 320, 324 
Cashman, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126 



( hambm] INDEX 185 

Cassainc, Matthias, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 

Cassedy, David [Daniel?], defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cord- 
wainers, IV, 18, 34, 51, 54 

Caswell, — , professor, IX, 75 

Catawba River, II, 310, 311 

hrrs. William: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
136; corresponding representative, IX, 194; delegate, IX, 129, 
169; on negro labor, IX, 187; on political action, IX, 137; vice 
president, IX, 129 

Catlett, John, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Cattle: care, I, no; scientific feeding, VII, 303, footnote 

Caulkers: demoralization of union, IX, 199; negro, IX, 158 

Cavan, James M., delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 

Cavis, A. T: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 197, 230; im- 
migration policy, IX, 221 ; on admission of Mrs. Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton, IX, 198; on statistical census, IX, 240-241; political 
policy, IX, 204; protective policy, IX, 221 ; vice president, IX, 
242 

Central labor union: definition, V, 21 ; see also Trades' Assemblies 

Ceresco, Wisconsin, see Fourierism, phalanx 

Chace, Benjamin T., member Fall River Mechanics' Association, 
VIII, 91 

Chadbourne, Seth, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, VI, 91 

Chaffee, Samuel, IV, Supp., 57-58 

Chairmakers, letter to New York General Trades' Union, V, 233- 

234 
Chalmer, Thomas D., delegate to New England Workingmen's 

Association, VIII, HO 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, Seventh Annual 

Report, 1864-1865, cited, IX, 74-76 
Chamberlain, Edwin M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

272 
Chamberlain, F., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 
Chamberlain, Lewis J., witness, trial .Twenty-four Journeymen 

Tailors, IV, 100, 107, no, 115, 119, 120-124, '45. 146, 148, 

1 >9. 205, 210-212 
Chambers, — , delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 127 



1 86 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Chamb. 

Chambers, James M., Essay on the Treatment and Cultivation of 
Cotton, I, 276-280 

Chambers, Richard A., delegate to New York City Industrial 
Congress, VIII, 302 

Chambers, W. H., Master State Grange, Alabama, X, 85 

Chambers, William, Things as they are in America, cited, II, 71 

Champetry, IV, 79 

Champion, Samuel, land reformer, VIII, 28 

Chandler, D. H., land reformer, VIII, 53, 55, 58 

Chandler, Hon. Joseph R., speech, VIII, 65-66 

Channing, W. S., associationist, VII, 205 

Channing, William H: addresses association, VII, 189-201; hours 
of labor, VIII, 83, 112; labor reform, VIII, 126; aids co-opera- 
tive store, VIII, 282 ; director American Union of Association- 
ists, VII, 205; father Brook Farm, VII, 148; land reform con- 
vention, VIII, 25; letter, VII, 241, 245 

Chapman, Hon. R. A., IX, 75 

Charcoal, manufacture, II, 306 

Charleston City Gazette, The, cited, I, 251, 252; II, 57, 58, 70, 

176, 343, 347, 354 
Charleston Evening Gazette, The, cited, II, 117, 351 
Charleston Mercury, The, cited, II, 176 

Charleston Morning Post and Daily Advertiser, The, cited, II, 343 
Charleston News, The, cited, II, 341 
Charleston Observer, The, cited, II, 90 
Charlevoix, F., II, 248 
Charters, see Monopoly 
Chase, D. T., X, 136 

Chase, Phillip, delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 114 
Chase, Hon. Salmon P., IX, 75 
Chase, W: associationist, VII, 206, 273, 282, footnote; letter, 282- 

284 
Chatahoochie River, II, 268 
Chatfield, Hiel, II, 370, footnote 
Chatham Society, I, 20 
Cheese, price, II, 314 
Cherokees, see Indians 
Chew, Joseph, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 35 



Clark] 



INDEX 



I8 7 



Child labor: attitude of trades unions, VI, 209; competition of, 
V, 35; cotton mills, II, 331 ; V, 61, 63-65, 197; education, V, 
58, 59. 6a, 198, 334 : VI, 221 ; factory operatives, V, 57-66. 195- 
199. 333 ; hours of labor, V, 59, 60,61,64-65,66, 196-197 ; VIII, 
318; Massachusetts, V, 57-61; New Jersey, V, 63-66, 258; 
Pennsylvania, V, 61-63, 332-333? strike, V, 63, 65, 66; wages, 
V, 64, 65 

Childs, B. G., association isr, VII, 245, 248 

Chitty, — , Criminal Law, cited, IV, 160, 293 

Cholera: outbreaks, I, 141, 217, 218, 3 1 5-3 18; victims, I, 318 

Christler, Jacob, III, 62 

Christy, Robert, master cordwaincrs, III, 105 

Chronopress printers, see Printers 

Church, A., association ist, VII, 276 

Church of Humanity, VIII, 288, 294, 296 

Churchwell, William L., delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 318 

Cigarmakers: conspiracy, IX, 200; convention, VIII, 343-346; 
prison labor, V, 54; trade agreement, VIII, 343-346; union, 
New York City, VIII, 288, 301 ; wages, VIII, 345 

Cincinnati Times, The, cited, II, 143 

City Centrals, see Trades' Assemblies 

Claflin, Tennessee, editor, IX, 352 

Clapp, Henry, delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, no, 114, 119 

Clapp, J. W., member Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 83 

Clapp, William S., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 303 

Clark, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 

Clark, Abraham, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 

Clark, C. C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 132, 137 

Clark, Cornelius, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V,28 9 

Clark, Darius, State Prison inspector, VIII, 323 

Clark, George, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 

Clark, Hon. George R., VIII, 151, 288 

Clark, Isaac F., delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 



188 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Clark 

Clark, Jacob, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Clark, Jeremiah W., V, 221, 236, 247 
Clark, John, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 ; VIII, 

147 

Clark, Dr. John B., I, 21, 33-53 

Clark, Nathaniel, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Clark, Olive J., factory operative, VIII, 137, 138, 147 

Clark, S. F., overseer, I, 126 

Clark, Samuel W., petition, VIII, 133, 141 

Clark, Seth T., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 219, 269 

Clark, W. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 214, 
231 

Clarke, — , delegate to Union Trade Convention of District of 
Columbia, VI, 129 

Clarke, George P., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 321, 326 

Clarke, James, mechanic, II, 369 

Clarke, Joseph L., associationist, VII, 205 

Clarke, Peter H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Clarkson, G. G., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 224 

Clarridge, Lloyd, delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, 

VI, 108 

Clay, Hon. Cassius M., VIII, 26 

Clay, Henry, VII, 160 

Claypoole, David C, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 

Clayton, — , weaver, VI, 180 

Clayton, Samuel, weaver, IV, Supp., 54 

Clayton, Stephen, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Cleeton [Clayton?], Samuel, weaver, IV, Supp., 100 

Clement, C, associationist, VII, 187 

Clephane, James, printer, VI, 347, 350, 352, 353 

Cline, Isaac, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 132 

Clinton, Hon. DeWitt, III, 252, 261 

Clinton, Henry, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 183 

Clopper, F. C, tailor, I, 375 



Collins] INDEX 189 

Closed shop, cordwaincrs, III, 70, 73, 94, 95 

Cluer, J. C, delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 115, 116, 

117 
Coach painters, see Trade unions 
Coal: price, II, 313; Virginia, II, 179-180 
Cobb, Howell, plantation correspondence, I, 167-173, 174-182 
Cobb, Mrs. Howell, plantation correspondence, I, 173-174, 175, 

182; 11,38 
Coddington, Edward, delegate to New England Industrial League, 

VIII, 326, 327 
Codfish, price, V, 137 
Codwise, David, attorney, III, 363 
Coffee, John, land agent, II, 267 
Coffin, Allen, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258, 259, 

260, 265, 269 
Coffin, Charles H., treasurer New Bedford Association, VII, 205 
"Coffin handbill," V, 206, 317-318 
Coggins, Paschal, associationist, VII, 205; VIII, 28 
Cogswell, L. D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 134 
Cogswell, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 

258, 261, 265, 270 
Coke, Sir Edward, III, 186; IV, 80 
Colburn, C. Walter, printer, VII, 131 ; VIII, 303 
Colden, — , attorney ( ?), Ill, 359, 361, 374-375 
Cole, David R., runaway apprentice, V, 69 
Cole, John, mechanic, II, 369 
Cole, William P., master hatter, VI, 107 
Coles, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 93 
Colgrove, J. E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Coll, P. M., clerk, II, 164 

Collection de Documents inedits sur I'histoire de France, I, 20 
Collier, Benjamin, carpenter, II, 371 
Colliers: advice to immigrants, VII, 65; return to England, VII, 

50 
Colliff, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Collins, Edward, associationist, VII, 245 



190 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Collins 

Collins, Henry W., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Collins, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257, 265 

Collins, John A., associationist, VII, 181 ; VIII, 26, III, 112 

Collins, Peter, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 358, 384 

Colman, David, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
86 

Colony, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Coltman, Robert, delegate to Union Trade Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 138 

Columbian Centinel, cited, V, 192; VI, 76-81 

Columbus Argus, The, cited, II, 254 

Colvin, — , delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress, VIII, 

333 

Comb-makers: V, 351 ; see also Trade unions 

Combe, Dr. Andrew, VIII, 165 

Combinations: definition, IV, Supp., 111; legality, IV, 254; V, 
294; see also Conspiracy, Trade unions 

Commercial, The, VIII, 59 

Commercial Advertiser, The, quoted, VIII, 32-38 

Commerford, John: address, VI, 183, 221-223; land policy, VI, 
240; New England Workingmen's Association, delegate, VIII, 
91 ; New York General Trades' Union, committee member, V, 
223, 231, 233, 236, 239, 240, 242, 243, 246, 249, 251, 253, 257, 
264, 265, 274, 278, 281, 284, 293, 295, 296, 299; delegate of 
chairmakers and gilders, V, 275 ; delegate to Philadelphia, V, 265 ; 
orator, V, 250, 251; president, V, 262; New York City In- 
dustrial Congress delegate, VIII, 288, 302; National Trades' 
Union, committee member, VI, 199, 200, 231, 237, 239, 246, 
251, 263, 269, 270, 272, 275, 276, 298, 299; delegate, VI, 196, 
197, 265; resolutions, VI, 199-200, 255-256; secretary, VI, 204, 
228; treasurer, V, 252, 266 

Commons, Clara, acknowledgments to, III, 17 

Commons, John R: American Shoemakers, III, 119; director Am- 
erican Bureau of Industrial Research, I, 22, 23 ; editor-in-chief 
Documentary History of American Industrial Society, III, 15-17, 
19-58; V, 19-37, 75-79, I4I-I45, 185-187, 203-207, 325-328; 



Connolly] INDEX 191 

VI, 73-75. I9I-I93, 3"-3i3; VII, 19-44. 147-150, 182; VIII, 
21-33, 81-84, 213-216; IX, 19-51, 277-278, 351-352; Races and 
Immigrants, IX, 46, footnote 

Communism, see Association, Fourierism. Land reform, Owenism 
Community System, see Association, Fourierism 
Company store : II, 306 ; see also Store order system 
Competition : cause, VI, 295 ; affected by railroads, V, 32 ; associa- 
tionist's view, VIII, 103; child labor, V, 35; cordwainers, V, 
29-30; VIII, 234-236; effect, VII, 49, 56, 59; extension of com- 
petitive area, V, 33; VII, ioo-ioi ; increase, VI, 106; VII, 301 ; 
VIII, 272; negro labor, II, 360-368; VII, 60-61; planter and 
farmer, I, 89, 93; printers, VI, 343-346; relation to labor 
movement, V, 25 ; shoemakers, VI, 29-30; view of Robert Owen, 

VII, 164; women, V, 35; IX, 156; see also Convict labor 
Comstock, John O., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 146, 

152 

Comstock, Nathan, Jr., delegate to associationists* convention, VII, 
188 

Comyons [Cummings?], James, witness, Commonwealth vs. Pul- 
lis, III, 67, 89 

Conde, Jacob, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Confectioners, see Trade unions 

Congar, William, delegate to National Cordwainers' convention, 
VI, 318, 325 

Congdon, William, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 165, 
168, 170, 172 

Con goes, see Negroes 

Congressional Globe, cited, VIII, 22, 62-64, 65-78; IX, 259, foot- 
note 

Conlan, Arthur, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 289 

Connecticut Courant, cited, V, 109 

Connell, William, cordwainer, VI, 317 

Connolly, A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Connolly, Edward, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Connolly, Richard, cordwainer, VI, 317 



i 9 2 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Connor 

Connor, John, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
3i,32,53»65,69, 72-74,90 

Connor, Simon, mechanic, III, 368 

Conrad, J., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 68 

Conservation of natural resources, IX, 47-48 

Conspiracy: advice regarding, II, 116, 117; cordwainers, III, 69, 
102; criminality, III, 135; definition, III, 69, 141, 210; IV, 
24-25, 77, 160, 199, 200, 318, 321; IV, Supp., no; evils, IV, 
81 ; illegality, IV, 292, 337; kinds, IV, 335; law, III, 243, 246; 
IX, 232, 238; negro, I, 100-101 ; II, 99-118, 128, 150, 248-249; 
New York decision, IV, 320; proof, IV, Supp., 114; prosecu- 
tions, III, 187 ; tailors, V, 315 ; see also Conspiracy trials 

Conspiracy trials: I, 26; American cases cited - bricklayers, 
IX, 200; cigarmakers, IX, 200; Collins vs. Commonwealth, 
IV, 233; Commonwealth vs. John Carlisle, IV, 162, 232; Com- 
monwealth vs. Johnson, IV, 76; Commonwealth vs. Morrow, 
IV, 202; Journeymen Cordwainers of Hudson, V, 375; Lam- 
bert, IV, 300; Maryland vs. Powley, III, 249-250; New 
York Cordwainers, IV, 77, 78, 94, 162, 177, 178; New York 
tailors, IV, 307, 310; Ontario county shoemakers, IV, 310, 
318, 320; People vs. Fisher, IV, 289, 307; People vs. Mel- 
vin, IV, 205 ; Philadelphia cordwainers, IV, 63, 77, 256 ; Pitts- 
burg cordwainers, IV, 161; Raybold and Frostevant, IX, 200; 
slander, III, 131, footnote; Baltimore weavers, IV, 269-272; 
attorneys, IV, 272 ; indictment, IV, 269 ; verdict, IV, 272 

British cases cited - Arthur vs. commissioners of sewers of 
Yorkshire, III, 190; confederacy, IV, 59; Hart vs. Aldridge, III, 
221; Journeymen Tailors of Cambridge, IV, 294; King vs. 
Cope, III, 321 ; King vs. Delaval, III, 321 ; King vs. Eccles, III, 
315, 333, 334, 335 ; King vs. Harris, III, 315 ; King vs. Home, 
III, 334; King vs. James Harris, III, 194; King vs. "journeymen 
taylors of Cambridge," III, 192, 325, 333; King vs. Kemberty 
and North, IV, 57 ; King vs. Mason, III, 335 ; King vs. Smith 
and others, III, 194; King vs. Sterling and others, IV, 57 ; King 
vs. Waddington, III, 315: Priddle's Case, III, 246; Regina VS. 
Best, IV, 233; Rex vs. Alderman Sterling, III, 285, 326; Rex 
vs. Bake, III, 239; Rex vs. Bate, III, 147 ; Rex vs. Bathurst, III, 
238 ; Rex vs. Crisp, III, 292 ; Rex vs. Elizabeth Salmon, III, 147, 



Constitution] INDKX 193 

237 ; Rex rx.Gask, III, 239 ; R« vs. Hammond, III, 376 ; Rex.w. 
Hide, III, 239; Rex vs. Jopson, III, 239; Rex vs. Kimberly, III, 
285, 316; Rex vs. Locker, III, 376; Rex vs. Mawbey, III, 376; 
Rex vs. Rispal, III, 376; Rex vs. Salter, III, 376; Rex vs. Smith, 
III. 292 ; Rex vs. Storr, III, 147; The Tubwomen vs. The Brew- 
ers of London, III, 286 

Reports of coses - Buffalo tailors, IV, 93-95; Chambers- 
burg Shoemakers, IV, 273; Commonwealth vs. Moore, IV, 99- 
264; Cordwainers of Baltimore, III, 249; Cordwainers of New 
York -III, 251-385; charge to jury, III, 382-385; indictment, 

III, 252-256; summary, III, 361-362; verdict, III, 385; Cord- 
wainers of Philadelphia - attorneys, III, 61; indictment, III, 
62-67; j«ry. HI, 62; verdict, III, 236; Felix Campbell vs. 
Thomas O'Daniel, IV, 265; Geneva shoemakers, III, 116; 
Hudson shoemakers - address of district attorney, IV, 309; 
charge to jury, IV, 310-312; indictment, IV, 277-279; judges, 

IV, 277; jury, IV, 279; verdict, IV, 312; Kennedy vs. Treillou, 
IV, 265-268; People or. Cooper, IV, 272-312; People vs. Faulk- 
ner, IV, 315-333; People vs. Mclvin, III, 251; Philadelphia 
plasterers - IV, 335-34* ; charge to jury, IV, 335-338; indict- 
ment, IV, 338; verdict, IV, 341; Philadelphia spinners -IV, 
265-268; address of judge, IV, 267-268; attorneys, IV, 265; 
Philadelphia tailors - agreement, IV, 253 ; recorder's charge, 
IV, 247; verdict, IV, 264; Thompsonville Carpet weavers - 
IV, 314; attorneys, IV, Supp., 115; judge, IV, Supp., 16; jury, 
IV, Supp., 16; verdict, IV, Supp., 114; Thompsonville Carpet 
Manufacturing Company vs. William Taylor, IV, 314; William 
Taylor vs. the Thompsonville Carpet Manufacturing Company, 
IV, Supp., 126-136; Pittsburg Cordwainers - IV, 16-89; in- 
dictment, IV, 18-23; judges, IV, 17; verdict, IV, 87; records, 
III, 17; slander, III, 131, footnote; Thompsonville Carpet 
Weavers, IV, Supp., 15-136; Twenty Journeymen Tailors - 
charge to jury, IV, 317-318, 320-325; indictment, IV, 315, 319; 
sentence, IV, 327*333; verdict, IV, 318, 325, 332; Twenty-four 
Journeymen Tailors, indictment, IV, 102-105 

Constant, Hon. — , VIII, 51 

Constitution of the Trades' Union of the City and County of Phila- 
delphia, V, 342-348 



194 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Contem. 

Contempt of court, II, 287 ; III, 83 

Contract: carpenters, II, 275; fencing, II, 276; overseers, I, 122- 
126; II, 315 

Contract labor: VIII, 318-319, 323 ; Scotch, I, 355-356; IV, Supp., 
29, 49, 59, 78, 120; see also Convict Labor, Immigration 

Convery, Patrick, V, 56 

Convict labor : blacksmiths, V, 54 ; carpenters, V, 54 ; cigar-makers, 
V, 54; colonial, I, 339-340; competition, V, 35; cordwainers' 
report, V, 53-56; dressers, V, 53; dyers, V, 53, 54; effect, V, 
35. 5"i> 52-53, 230; IX, 122; importation, II, 52; legislation, 
New York, VIII, 322-323; memorial to Congress, VI, 128; op- 
position of free, VIII, 225 ; resolutions of laborers, VIII, 225 ; 
resolutions of New York State Industrial Legislature, VIII, 
320; runaways, I, 346-347; shoemakers, V, 53, 54"55; spoolers, 
V, 54; transportation, I, 372, 373; wages, V, 327; warpers, V, 
54; weavers, V, 53, 54; wheelwrights, V, 54; winders, V, 54; 
women, I, 346; wool pickers, V, 54; see also National Labor 
Union, Redemptioners 

Conway, Edward, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 101, 108, 118, 120, 128, 168 

Conyers, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 103, 
105 

Cook, Cortland C, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 158 

Cook, George O., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 183 

Cook, John, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Cook, John F., printer, VI, 347 

Cooke, David A., president Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 336, 337, 338 

Cooke, Joseph J., associationist, VII, 205 

Cooks, plantation, I, 120 

Cooper, Francis, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 102 

Cooper, G. T., plantation letter, I, 336-337 

Cooper, George G., delegate New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 325 

Cooper, H. D., delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 115, 237 

Cooper, Isaac, delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 94, 95, 
140, 145 






Cooperation] INDEX 195 

Cooper, John W: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
140; delegate, IX, 128, 129; political policy, IX, 1*7 

Cooper, Jonathan H., defendant. People vs. Cooper, IV, 277 

Cooper, Peter, resolutions, IX, 241 

Cooperation: g eneral - argument favoring, VI, 62-65; Cincin- 
nati, V, 124-129; conference of Philadelphia trades, VI, 62-65; 
convention, V, 328; VI, 58-65; VIII, 119-122; early efforts, V, 
328; English, VIII, 214; IX, 148-149; farmers, X, 61-63; 
foundry, VIII, 310, 311-314; greenback doctrine, IX, 33-39; 
hatters, VI, 58; importance to labor, IX, 148, 151, 182; loan 
fund, V, 384; moulders, VIII, 309-314; negroes, VII, 96-99; 
opposition in trade unions, VI, 60-61, 63; paper-makers, VIII, 
327; printers, VII, 129-130; progress, VI, 58-62; report of 
National Trades' Union, VI, 298-299; resolution of Interna- 
tional Industrial Assembly, IX, 122; saddlers and harness-mak- 
ers, VI, 58; shoemakers, III, 40; V, 367, 368; VI, 59; VIII, 
327 ; store, V, 124-129; VI, 59; VIII, 300; substitute for strikes, 
V, 34; tailors, V, 296; VI, 58; VIII, 281-285, 300, 309; Josiah 
Warren - letter, V, 133-134; scheme of cooperation, V, 78-79; 
weavers, VI, 58-59; IX, 148-149 

Organizations - American Protective Union, VIII, 215; 
Boston Mechanics' and Laborers' Association, VIII, 263-265; 
Boston Tailors' Association, VIII, 279-285; Colored Teachers' 
Cooperative Association, VIII, 288; Cooperative Magazine, V, 
124-129; Cooperative Trade Association, VI, 58; Economical 
Exchange Association, VIII, 288; J. P. Cooperative Association, 
IX, 197; Ladies' Cordwainers' Cooperative Association, VI, 59; 
Mechanics' and Tradesmen's Permanent Building Association, 
IX, 197; Mutual Labor Association, VIII, 327; Printers' Co- 
operative Company, VIII, 326; Producers' Exchange of Labour 
for Labour Association, V, 129-135; Seamstresses' Cooperative 
Society, VIII, 327; Workingmen's League, VIII, 327; Work- 
ingmen's Protective Union - American, VIII, 215; Boston, 
VIII, 82, 214, 265, 267; constitution, VIII, 267-272 ; exchanges, 
VIII, 272-274; Manchester, VIII, 122; nature, VIII, 215-216; 
New England, convention, VIII, 326-331 ; report of divisions, 
VIII, 274-279; Supreme Division, VIII, 275; New York, VIII, 
27, 215, 285, 287; address, VIII, 305-307; Workingwomen's 



196 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Cooper. 

Co-operation (continued) — 

Cooperation, IX, 259 ; see also Association, Fourierism, National 
Labor Union, Patrons of Husbandry 

Co-operator, The, cited, V, 192, 195 

Coopers: Boston Guild, III, 21-22; demand, I, 340; incorpora- 
tion, III, 22; plantation, I, 263; strike, V, 352; see also Trade 
unions 

Copeland, Samuel, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 54 

Copper, mines, II, 247 

Copping, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
336 

Coppinger, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Corbin, Richard, instructions to overseers, I, 109-112 

Cordwainers, see Shoemakers 

Corn: cultivation, I, 93, III, 112, 114, 133, 167, 210, 217, 220, 
221, 228, 231-244, 331-333; Price, II, 194, 195, 257 

Cornell, William H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 303 

Corner Stone, The, cited, II, 358 

Corporations: evils, VII, 142; franchises, X, 44; manufacturing, 

VII, 138; see also Monopoly 

Corwin, Daniel, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Corvvin, James, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 
Cosack, William, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
Cost of living: carpenters, Philadelphia, VIII, 314-315; cause of 
strikes, V, 34; general, V, 327; VI, 48; VII, 31, 48-49, 75; 
groceries, VIII, 314-315; IX, 67, 69-70, 70-71; influence of 
paper money, V, 35; iron workers, II, 309; IX, 70-71; me- 
chanics' boarding houses, VII, 75 ; printers, New York, IX, 67- 
69, 69-70 ; relation to wages, V, 34 ; shoemakers, Pittsburgh, IV, 
51-52; see also Prices 
Cotter, Michael, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

Cotton: amount produced, X, 84; bags, I, 128; II, 339; cultiva- 
tion, I, 115, 195-203, 271-275, 276-280; diseases, I, 272; dyeing, 
II, 328; Essay on Cultivation, I, 276-280; extent of cultivation, 
I, 283-289; factories, II, 302-303, 330-331, 332-334. 335, 338- 



Cox) INDEX 197 

339. 358; V. 196-197. 33U VII, 50; gin, description, I, 273; 
effect, I, 45, 85; "King Cotton," I, 283-292; land, II, 251, 255; 
Louisiana, I, 86; manufactures, II, 301; marketing, I, 273, 
330; Memoir on Cotton, see Seabrook (Whitemarsh. B.); 
moting, I, 273; packing, I, 279; picking, I, 279; Piedmont, I, 
85-86; plantations, management, I, 109-193; products, I, 92; 
profits, I, 178-179; II. 197; records.1, 109-193, 195-208,231-244, 
252-254; routine, I, 195-203; rules, I, 1 12-1 15 ; seed, I, 128, 271, 
footnote, 331 ; spinning and weaving, I, 187-189, 191-193, 231, 
334; II, 328; types, I, 92-98, 252-254; prices, I, 86-87, 179, 180, 
273, 288; II, 74, 192; varieties, I, 271, footnote; kidney-seed, 
I, 271 ; Nankin, I, 270; sea-island, cultivation, I, 271-275; intro- 
duction, I, 85, 266-271 ; task labor, I, 272, 273, 275; transporta- 
tion, I, 283-289; development, I, 85-86; extent, I, 89-90; finan- 
cial depression, I, 290-292; railway connections, I, 90; settle- 
ment, I, 87 ; systems of industry, see Plantation, gang labor, task 
labor, etc. ; see also Slave labor 

Cotton Planters' Manual, The, see Turner (J. A.) 

Coulson, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
338 

Coulter, John Lee, Organization among Farmers, X, 39, footnote 

Counterfeiter, II, 181 

"Country marks," see Negroes 

Courts, reform demanded, V, 162-163 

Covenhoven, Christian, master cordwainer, III, 256 

Covington, Alexander, planter, II, 201, 206 

Covington, Leonard: biography, II, 201, 209; letters, II, 201, 203, 
205, 206, 209, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217 

Covington, Leven, diary, I, 231-244 

Cowell, R. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 175, 

194 

Cowles, A. M., delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 108, no 

Cowperthwaite, — , master plasterer, IV, 339 

Cowton, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
343 

Cox, — , delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, 93, 105, 108 



198 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Cox 

Cox, Byerly G., VI, 44 

Cox, William M., associationist, VII, 276 

Cozzens, Benjamin, merchant, VII, 50 

"Crackers," see Georgia 

Craig, Andrew, carpenter, VI, 337, 340 

Craig, James, deposition, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

99-100 
Craig, Robert, redemptioner, II, 327 
Cram, Noah H., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 250, 256 
Cramer, Henry N., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Cramer, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Crandall, Alonzo, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 158 
Crane, N. H., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

256 
Crans, William J., member Philadelphia Mechanics' Union, V, 

123 
Crap, Nicholas, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Crasto, Moses E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 
Crate, Henry J : New York City Industrial Congress - committee 

member, VIII, 285 ; delegate, VIII, 289; resolutions, VIII, 291 ; 

secretary, VIII, 287, 290; New York Printers - report on 

wages, VII, 109-13 1 
Crawford, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

39 

Crawford, Nelson, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288, 300 
Crawford, Valentine, letter, I, 344-345 
Creeks, see Indians 
Creser, T., delegate to Union Trades' Convention of District of 

Columbia, VI, 121, 123 
Creswell, Robert, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Crews, Toliver O., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Crier, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 94 
Crime: frontier, II, 287; jury's duty, IV, 321 ; negro, II, 1 18-125, 

152, 155, 295; redemptioner, I, 357-365 



Crumbach] INDEX 1 99 

Crocker, Hans, land reformer, VIII, 54, 56 

Croley, David G., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338, 340, 34i 
Cronlcy, E., acknowledgments to, VI, 256 
Crook, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 
Crooker, Richard, printer, VII, 131 
Crosbie, Peter, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 336, 

337 

Crosby, David G., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 337 

Crosby, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 54, 56 

Croser, T., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District of 
Columbia, VI, 119 

Crosley, John [James?], witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 86, 93, 94 

Croslin, see Crossin 

Crossfield, Edmund, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 
192 

Crossin [Croslin, Crosson?], John: National Trades' Union, com- 
mittee member, VI, 199, 204, 270, 277, 278, 291, 304; delegate. 

V, 382, 383; VI, 196, 197, 265; motion, VI, 266, 268, 277; 
report on female labor, VI, 281-291 ; report on ten-hour system, 

VI, 299-304; resolutions, VI, 267, 273; Philadelphia General 
Trades' Union - chairman, V, 353; committee member, V, 385; 
motion, V, 352; president, V, 388; resolution, V, 373, 374; 
"What is the Trades' Union ?", V, 389-392 

Croull [Crowl?], Peter, VI, 130, 138 

Crous, W. M., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 108, 119, 128, 132, 156, 168 
Crowell, H., letter, II, 357 
Crowell, J. B., cordwainer, VI, 318, 320 
Crowell, Lyman, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 168 
Crown Circuit Companion, cited, III, 315 
Crowne, Thomas P., member Knights of Labor, X, 28, footnote 
Crugier, J. J., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Crukshank, James, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 
Crumbach, — , weaver, III, 91 



200 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Crussell 



Crussell, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Crux, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288, 300 
Crygier, David, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 196-199 
Crygier, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

231 
Cuba, exports, I, 92 

Cubbage, James, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Cuddy, Lorenzo, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

265 
Cullington, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 

239 
Cumberland, Richard, letter, I, 354-355 
Cummings, James, cordwainer, III, 32 
Cummings, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

Cummings, Samuel P: account of National Colored Labor Con- 
vention, IX, 243-247 ; delegate to National Labor Reform Party, 

IX, 272; National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 228, 243; on 
admission of negroes, IX, 260, 261 ; on admission of Susan B. 
Anthony, IX, 231 ; political policy, IX, 265 

Cunningham, A. F: delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 26; 
editor of The W ashingtonian, VI, 127, 129; National Trades' 
Union, committee member, VI, 348, 350; Washington Trades' 
Union, committee member, VI, 126; resolutions favoring, VI, 
129-130; resolutions presented, VI, 128; withdrawal, VI, 129, 

135 
Cunningham, Charles, weaver, IV, Supp., 32 
Cunningham, E. B., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Cunningham, John C, delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 277, 295, 298 
Curley, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

248, 264 
Curran, — , Forensic Eloquence, cited, III, 223 
Curran, John A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Curran, William W., carpenter, VI, 346, 347, 348, 350 
Currie, Richard, weaver, IV, Supp., 43, 79-80 















Daniels] INDEX 201 

Currier, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 122 

Currier, John, delegate to General Trades' Convention, Boston, 
VI, 90 

Curriers: advice to immigrants, VII, 65; employers' association, V, 
309-311 ; strike, VI, 185; sec also Trade unions 

Curry, Daniel, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

Curtis, F., History 0/ the Republican Party, VII, 37, footnote 

Curtis, Josiah, physician: report on evils from working in non- 
ventilated rooms, VIII, 161, 102, 106, 168; gives summation, 
VIII, 187 

Curtiss, Daniel S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Cusachs, Gaspard, II, 197 

Cushman, John, carpenter, V, 280 

Custom order: III, 38; "bespoke work," III, 86; VII, 66; "export 
work," III, 34; "market work," III, 31-32; shoemakers, IV, 50 

Cuthbert, Alexander, indentured servant, I, 353 

Cutler, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 

Cutting, Robert Fulton, I, 21 

Cuttle, Edward, printer, VII, 131 

Cuyler, J. M., rejected by Trades' Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 128 

Dallas, E., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 
Dallas, James, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 53-54, 55 
Daly, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

302, 337 
Daly, John, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
Daly, O. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228, 231, 261 
Daly, Timothy, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

260 
Dalzell, A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 136, 137 
Dams, II, 311 
Dana, Charles A: Associationists' Convention, committee member, 

VII, 188, 189, 245 ; director, VII, 205 ; vice president, VII, 188; 
delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 26; New England Work- 
ingmen's Association, address, VIII, no; committee member, 

VIII, 107, no 

Daniels, Henry: Albany General Trades' Union, committee mem- 



202 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Daniels 

Daniels, Henry (continued) — 

ber, VI, 149, 152, 169, 171 ; constitutional amendment proposed, 

VI, 166; delegate, VI, 148, 168; expulsion, VI, 173; financial 

troubles, VI, 1 71-172, 173 
Daniels, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 270 
Darden, — , delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 128 
Darnes, W., delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 115 
Darragh, John, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 

269, 274 
Darrell, Ed., agent, II, 305 
Davidson, J. M., Four Precursors of Henry George, VII, 30, 

footnote 
Davidson, William, witness, II, 141 
Davie, — , delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 1 19 
Davies, — , association ist, VII, 181 
Davis, Governor — , V, 187 
Davis, Abraham B., address before Laborers' Union Association, 

VIII, 225 
Davis, Charles A: New York General Trades' Union, committee 

member, V, 239, 242, 251, 257, 270-274; delegate, V, 238, 261 ; 

director of newspaper, V, 293 ; resolutions, V, 295-296 
Davis, David : National Labor Reform Party, nominated for presi- 
dent, IX, 272; resignation, IX, 273 
Davis, Ed. M: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 230, 258, 

270; delegate to National Labor Reform Party, IX, 272 
Davis, G., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 

Davis, Ira B: delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 27; New 
York City Industrial Congress, committee member, VIII, 285 ; 
delegate, VIII, 287; Protective Union Labor Association, ad- 
dress, VIII, 305-307 J agent, VIII, 305 

Davis, James, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 
34; V, 281 

Davis, James M., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 336, 337 

Davis, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 276 

Davis, John M., editor National Labor Tribune, X, 33 



Dcgrass] INDEX 203 

Davis, O., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316 

Davis, Samuel, cordwainer, VI, 317, 320 

U.tvis, Thomas H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Dawes, Rufus, associatiunist, VII, 200 

Daws, Thomas, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 176 

Dawson, William, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

Day, A. W., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
289 

Day, Horace H : National Labor Reform Party, delegate, IX, 272; 
nominated for president, IX, 273; National Labor Union, dele- 
gate, IX, 270 ; motions, IX, 337, 338 ; negro labor, IX, 239 ; reso- 
lutions, IX, 340; vice president, IX, 271 

Day, Parsons E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287, 288, 303 

Day, Samuel, delegate to Newark Trades' Unions, VI, 180 

Day, Spencer, delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 82 

Daylies, Hannah, indentured servant, I, 352 

Daylies, William, indentured servant, I, 352 

Dean, Gilbert C, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288, 300 

Dean, Joseph, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

225 
Dearmond, William, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Deblois, James, delegate to General Trades' Convention, Boston, 

VI, 91 
Debt: exemptions, V, 27; imprisonment, V, 28-29, 131, 160, 161 ; 

New York, V, 151 ; planters, I, 321, 322; II, 52, 204; position 

of labor, V, 28-29 
Debuchy, D., member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 36b 

Decker, James P., associationist, VII, 188, 200; VIII, 27 
Dederer, Joseph, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Deeton, George L., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 130 
Defries, Kenneth, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277, 

287 
Degrass, Jeremiah, cordwainer, V, 69 



204 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Deitz 

Deitz, Andrew: Albany General Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 149; delegate, VI, 144; president, VI, 145; resignation, 
VI, 157; Andrew Deitz vs. John Tate, V, 67-69; Saddlers' 
Union, motion, VI, 139; secretary, VI, 140 

Delameter, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 270, 271, 274 

Delany, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Delany, Matthew, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 337 

Delany, W. D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258, 269, 
270 

Delaware Free Press, cited, V, 94 

Delay, David, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Delong, Jonathan, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 326; V, 257 

Democracy: frontier, I, 76; immigration, I, 52; type, I, 41 

Democratic Review, VIII, 34 

Democratic Press, cited, V, 80, 82 

Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register, The, cited, II, 256 

De Montplaisir, — , II, 246 

Dence, Stephen, planter, II, 93 

Denham, Thomas S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 

137 
Dennis, John, VI, 44 
Dentist, negro, II, 368 

Denton, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 120 
Denyse, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

265, 290 
Depenblenck, Martin, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 198 
Depew, Isaac P: delegate to National Labor L T nion, IX, 259; 

favors independent political party, IX, 265 
Depression, economic, I, 85 
Depping, Georges Bernard, editor, I, 20 
D'erbage, George, notary, II, 141 
DeRenne, W. J., acknowledgments to, I, 103 
Derham, Bartholomew, delegate to New York City Industrial 

Congress, VIII, 285, 287, 288, 300 



DiM:irsj IND! \ 205 

Description of the Province of South Carolina, A, cited, II, 174- 

176 
Detwiler, S. L., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Deutsche Freie Gemeinde, I, 25 
Devereaux, James, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

Devereux, — , delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 

330 
Devou, Isaac, cordwainer, VI, 317, 318, 321, 325 
Devoy, John, member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 359, 366 

Dcvyr, Thomas A: editor of National Reformer, VIII, 91 ; Indus- 
trial Congress, delegate, VIII, 26, 27; New England Working- 
men's Association, committee member, VIII, 93 ; report of Na- 
tional Reform Union of New York City, VII, 293-305 

Dewey, Herman, juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 

DeWolf, L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 

De Young, L., carpenter, II, 371 

Dibble, Charles L., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 

Dick, Arthur, weaver, IV, Supp., 41, 43, 45, 79, 101-103 

Dickinson, Hon. — , VIII, 151 

Dickinson, Ann, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Diddler, Richard, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 337 

Dietzgen, Joseph, see Brief e and Ausziige aus Brief en 

Dilks, George, member Mechanics' Union, Philadelphia, VI, 54 

Dillin, Eli : National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 269, 
299 ; delegate, V, 382, 383 ; VI, 265 ; judge of elections, VI, 266; 
report on cooperation, VI, 298-299; resolutions, VI, 273; vice 
president of Philadelphia General Trades' Union, V, 378 

Dillon, John, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315,319 
Dillon, Patrick, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 288, 295, 302 
Diseases: cholera, I, 141, 315, 316, 317; II, 37; V, 65; VI, 191; 

cholera infantum, VIII, 144; consumption, VIII, 144; croup, 

VIII, 144; dysentery, VIII, 144; frontier, II, 172, 174, 245; 



206 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Diseases 



Diseases ( continued ) — 

inflammation of brain, VIII, 144; inflammation of lungs, VIII, 
144; malaria, I, 81 ; measles, VIII, 144; scarlet fever, VIII, 144; 
susceptibility of new-comers, II, 172; poor whites, II, 167; 
slaves, I, 309-311 ; typhoid fever, VIII, 160; yellow fever, II, 183 

Dixey,— , VIII, 94 

Dixon, Henry J., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 338 

Dixon, Hon. James, IX, 75 

Dixon, John, carpet-weaver, VIII, 239 

Dixon, William, attorney, IV, Supp., 34, 35 

Doane, J. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 

Dobbins, D. P., IX, 106 

Dobbins, John, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 
28, 34, 5i, 54 

Documentary Publications of the United States Government, I, 31 

Documents connected with the History of South Carolina, see Wes- 
ton (P. C. J.) 

Documents relatifs a Vhistoire de V Industrie et du commerce en 
France, see Fagniez (Gustave) 

Dodge, Charles N., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 

Doheny, Michael, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 286, 289 

Doke, John, delegate to General Trades' Union, V, 375 

Dolan, J. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 

Dolan, Peter, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 170, 172 

Dolan, Thomas M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 
129, 134, 137 

Dole, Thomas D., IX, 106 

Domestic service: class feeling, VII, 94-95 ; wages, VII, 77 

Donahue, H., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 107, no, 115, 116, 119, 121, 122, 123, 127, 128, 136, 
145 

Donaldson, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 301 

Donaldson, J. G., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 124 












Douglass] INDEX 207 

Donaldson, William, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 

318.3ai.325 
Donley, J., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

101, 102, 108, 119, 128, 168 
Donley, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Donnelly, John, runaway apprentice, V, 69 
Donnelly, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 301 
Donough, Samuel, weaver, IV, Suf>f>., 107 
Dooley, James, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 341 
Dooley, Jeremiah, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Doores, William C, secretary, Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 

338, 341 
Doremus, D. G., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 182 
Doremus, Sylvester, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 
Dougherty, Henry, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 

149, 168, 192 
Doughty, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

282, 296, 299 
Douglas, Dr. Charles A: address before New England Industrial 
League, VIII, 330; Boston Trades' Union, address, VI, 91 ; com- 
mittee member, VI, 91 ; delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 
27; editor of New England Artisan, VI, 90; National Trades' 
Union, committee member, VI, 199, 200, 202, 267, 269, 277; 
delegate, VI, 192, 196, 198, 265; female labor, VI, 217-220; 
judge of elections, VI, 204; political policy, VI, 212-213; pres- 
ident of New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics, and 
Workingmen, VI, 192; president New England Workingmen's 
Association, V, 186 
Douglas, James, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 276, 337 
Douglas, Samuel, counsel, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Douglas, Thomas, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Douglass, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 124 
Douglass, Alexander, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319, 326 






208 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Douglass 



Douglass [Douglas], James: delegate to Trades' Union Conven- 
tion of District of Columbia, VI, 119; committee member, VI, 
127, 135, 137 

Douglass, Thomas, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 315, 319, 326 

Douthitt, John, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 28, 

47-48, 53 

Dover Enquirer, The, quoted, VIII, 192-194 

Dowling, Joseph, comb-maker, VI, 335 

Downer^ A., delegate to New York State Mutual Protective Con- 
vention, VIII, 250 

Downey, P. J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 295, 301 

Downie, John, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 
Downing, George T., delegate to National Colored Labor Con- 
vention, IX, 243, 244, 255, 256 
Doxtater, W. H., delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 
Doyle, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Doyle, Lewis, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 148 
Doyle, Martin, member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 378 

Doyle, Peter, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

339, 340, 342, 344 
Draper, Dr. A. C, VI, 44 
Drivers, see Slave labor, Overseers 
Drouth, I, 319 

Drugs, prices, V, 137, footnote 
Dry Goods' Clerks, see Trade unions 
Dubois, Charles, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 145, 

148 
Dubois, Ephraim F., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 

270 
Dubois, John, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62- 

66, 219 
Dubois, Samuel, VI, 44 
Ducking stool, II, 288 






Dwyer] INDEX 209 

Duff, John F., delegate Pittsburgh Workingmcn's Congress, VIII, 

332 
Dugan, Joseph, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 
Dugan, William, delegate to General Trades' Convention, Boston, 

VI. 90 
Dugannc, A. J. H., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Dugro, Justice Henry, acknowledgments to, I, 21 
Duncan, G. W., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Duncan, Robert, cordwainer, IV, 47 
"Dung," IV, 139 ; see Scab labor 

Dunlap, — , counsel, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 265 
Dunlap, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Dunlap, Andrew, cordwainer, III, 32, 67, 96 
Dunlap, James, mechanic, II, 369 

Dunlap, W. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Dunmore, Lord, II, 223 
Dunn, Alexander, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 152, 159, 

161 
Dunn, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Dunn, P., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 337 
Dunn, Stephen, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Dunning, William A., acknowledgments to, I, 103 
Duplane, B. C, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 35 
Du Pratz, Le Page, History of Louisiana, II, 240 
Dupree, — , delegate to Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 84 
Dupuy, D. B., II, 142 
Durant, — , member International Workingmcn's Association, IX, 

346 
Durgin, Silas C, delegate to New England Workingmcn's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 108 
Duryea, William H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Dutch: II, 179; see also Immigration 
Dutcher, Warren, land reformer, VIII, 26 
Dwight, J. S., association ist, VII, 205 
Dwyer, Phillip, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 123- 

125 



210 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Dwyer 

Dwyer, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 299 
Dyer, C. B., associationist, VII, 242, 248 

Dyers: prison labor, V, 53, 54; see also Trade unions 

■ 

Eager, A. A., cordwainer, VI, 331 

Earl, Samuel, delegate to Newark Trades' Convention, VI, 184 

Easton, Daniel, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 16 

Eaton, Rev. E. A., VII, 205 

Ebbo-bees, see Negroes 

Ebbos, see Negroes 

Eccarius, J. George, member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 337, 341, 347, 351 

Eccles, James, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 

Economic Influences upon Educational Progress in the United 
States, see Carlton (F. T.) 

Economical Exchange Association, VIII, 288 

Eddeys, J. M., VIII, 263 

Eddis, William, Letters from America, I, 343-344 

Eddy, L., delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, 108, in 

Edmonds, John W., counsel, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277, 
280, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288-309 

Edson, Oliver, V, 147 

Education: address to workingmen, V, 1 14-123; agricultural, V, 
167-168; agricultural colleges, demand for, VIII, 320-321, 325; 
X, 120-122; argument against public schools, V, 107-114; defects 
of system, V, 97-98, 102-103, 109, 158, 166-168; VI, 207; fac- 
tory operatives, V, 58-59, 62, 198; VII, 71; free schools de- 
manded, V, 27-28, 29, 115-118, 161; frontier school, II, 189- 
190; Hofwyl system, V, 104-105, 143 ; legislation proposed, VIII, 
321 ; limitations, V, 107-114; lyceums, VII, 73; manual training 
schools, V, 103-106; VI, 201 ; mechanical, VII, 71 ; methods de- 
nounced, V, 164; Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of 
Public Schools, V, 95, footnote; philosophy of Robert Owen, VII, 
59, 163, 165; report of New England Association, V, 195-199; 
report of Pennsylvania workingmen, V, 94-107; republican sys- 












Klon] INDEX 211 

tern, V, 174-177; rural, II, 190; State Guardianship plan, V, 
165-174; tax for support, V, 170-171, 172, 173-174; universal 
demanded, VI, 1 19; see also Apprenticeship, New England Asso- 
ciation of Farmers, Mechanics and other JVorkingmen, National 
Trades' Union 

Edwards, Joseph D., factory operative, V, 65 

Edwards, Ogden, judge, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 315, 
317-319. 325; V, 317. 318, 319; VI, 129 

Edwards, Uriah, juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 

Efner, Abram, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 164 

Efncr, Nicholas, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 164 

Eggleston, E. M., associationist, VII, 276 

Eichbaum, William, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 55 

Eisart, Frederick, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Eldar, William, land reformer, VIII, 28 

Elder, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 65, 66, 71 

Elder, Sara, associationist, VII, 205 

Elder, William, associationist, VII, 205 

Eldrige, George, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V,26 4 

Elections: unfair, II, 296; direct, V, 30, 163; district system de- 
manded, V, 30 

Eliot, W. H., master carpenter, VI, 81 

Elkton Press, The, cited, II, 89, 122, 329 

Ellacott, J. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 187 

Elliott, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 272 

Elliott, Francis, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Elliott, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Elliott, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
302 

Elliott, Richard, diary, II, 279-284 

Elliott, William, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 38-39 

Ellsworth, William W., counsel, trial Thompsonville Weavers, 
IV.Sk^., 115 

Elon, Elisha, mechanic, II, 369 






212 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Ely 

Ely, Frances M., acknowledgments to, III, 17 

Ely, Richard T: acknowledgments to, I, 103; Labor movement in 
America, The, I, 19; IX, 337, footnote 

Elzas, B., The Jews of South Carolina, I, 307 

Embezzlement, II, 70 

Emerson, M., member Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, 
VIII, 118 

Emigrant Society: advertisement, II, 176; see also Immigration, 
American Emigrant Company 

Emigration, see Immigration 

Emmet, — , counsel, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 318-336, 
361, 379-385 

Emmons, Richard, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126, 
127, 129, 137, HO 

Empire Club-men, VIII, 43 

Employer, synonyms, III, 56 

Employers' Association : bakers, V, 309-3 1 1 ; building trades, IX, 
102-104; carpenters, VI, 52; cordwainers, V, 311-313; VI, 29, 
32-35 ; curriers, V, 309-31 1 ; early, III, 37 ; foundry, IX, 89-102 ; 
hatters, VI, 101-107; general, VI, 54; IX, 109-114; iron 
moulders - Louisville, Ky., IX, 89-97; Michigan, IX, 99-102; 
New England, IX, 97-99; leather dressers, V, 301; Massachu- 
setts Corporation, VIII, 231; railroad, IX, 106-109; ship 
builders, IX, 104-106; tailors, V, 314-315 

Engels, Friedrich, see Brief e und Ausziige aus Brief en 

Engine, see Watt (James) 

Engineers: advice to immigrants, VII, 64; imported, II, 177; Po- 
tomac Company, II, 178 

English, William: citizens' meeting, address, VI, 46; secretary, 
VI, 44 ; Mechanics' Union, committee member, V, 93-94 ; politi- 
cal policy, V, 93-94; National Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 199, 202, 318, 320, 324, 325, 327; delegate, VI, 196, 
270; nomination for president, VI, 204; political policy, VI, 
214-215; preamble, VI, 321-322; resolutions, VI, 210, 322-324, 
327, 328-329; secretary, VI, 40, 192, 197, 204; Trades' Union 
of the City and County of Philadelphia, address, V, 294, 376; 
committee member, V, 355, 358 ; president, V, 375 ; resignation, 
V, 376; resolutions, V, 354; secretary, V, 325, 338, 341, 349 






Evans] INDEX 213 

Ennis, Henry, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

219, 277, 290 
Ennis, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 220 
Ensign, Charles, proprietor People's Line Propellers, IX, 106 
Eppingcr, John, mechanic, II, 368 
Errenger, Fred, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Errett, William E., carpenter, V, 209 
Erwin, Mrv A. S., manuscripts in possession of, I, 167, 309, 323; 

H-45 
Erwin, Walter R: Albany General Trades' Union - address, VI, 
I 54 _1 55» 108; chairman preliminary meeting, VI, i43;committee 
member, VI, 143, 148, 149, 151, 154, 156, 1 59-161, 170; dele- 
gate, VI, 144; president, VI, 140, 158, 163, 168; resolutions, 
VI, 146, 147, 148, 156, 169; secretary, VI, 145; National 
Trades' Union - committee member, VI, 231, 239, 240242, 
253-255; delegate, VI, 162; member Board of Commissioners, 

VI, 243 ; motion, VI, 230; resolutions, VI, 235 ; ten-hour policy, 

VI, 253-255 

Espriella, Letters, III, 263 

Estabrook, Hon. — , VIII, 60 

Estates, sec Cotton, Plantation, Rice, Sugar, Tobacco, etc. 

Eustace, Joseph, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 289, 302 

Evans, D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 

Evans, E. T., proprietor propeller company, IX, 106 

Evans, Frederick W., Shaker leader, VII, 289 

Evans, George Henry: address on land reform, VII, 308; approval 
of associationist, VII, 288-289; attack on Association, VII, 325- 
327, 33I-340; attack on Owenism, VII, 344-345; biography, 

VII, 30-33, 288-291; criticism of Fourierism, VII, 32; early 
agrarianism, IX, 46; editor of The Man, V, 46; VII, 291 ; The 
People's Rights, VII, 291; The Radical, VII, 291; Working 
Man's Advocate, V, 46; VII, 30, 291 ; Young America, VII, 32, 
288, 291; executor of Gerrit Smith's will, VII. 364, fotnote; 
Industrial Congress -call, VIII, 23-25; delegate, VIII, 26, 27; 
letter to Gerrit Smith, VII, 352-356, 358-362, 362-364; Na- 
tional Reform Union, VII, 293-305; New England Working- 
men's Convention - delegate, VIII, 91; ten-hour resolution, 



214 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Evans 



Evans, George Henry (continued) — 

VIII, 94; New York City Industrial Congress - delegate, 
VIII, 288 ; secretary, VIII, 303 ; philosophy of land reform, VII, 
31-32, 34-36, 289-293, 313-315, 321-324; P^n for township 
government, VII, 290; political activity, VII, 32 

Evans, Henry, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 157, 158, 
162, 172 

Evans, J. P., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
300 

Evans, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Evans, John, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Evans, Joseph, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
102 

Evans, Stokes, defendant, trial Philadelphia Plasterers, IV, 338 

Everett, Hon. Horace, IX, 76 

Everett, Thomas S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 
129, 137 

"Export work," III, 34 

Ewing, Dr. J. S., association ist, VII, 205 

Factorage, I, 293-308 

Factors, I, 301-307 

Factory system : advice to immigrants, VII, 64; "American system," 

VI, 221-223; boarding houses, living conditions, IV, Supp., 57, 
63. 795 VII, 132; keepers, VII, 138-140; rules, IV, Supp., 56, 
118-119; VII, 137-138; child labor, V, 59-66, 196-197, 258, 
33 1 » 332, 333J conditions in factories, V, 258, 330-334J V, 221 ; 

VII, 132-135; cotton mills, II, 330-331, 338-3395 definition, 
III, 42 ; dominance, III, 29; evils of system, V, 25 ; VI, 218-219, 
223-224; foreign labor, VII, 142-143; history since 1880, III, 
54; hours of labor, V, 33-34, 59, 60-61, 64, 65, 141, 196, 197, 
258, 330; VI, 144-146; VII, 134; VIII, 86-91, 133-187, 318; 
influence of system, V, 23; labor, how secured, VII, 141 ; negro 
labor, II, 356-358 ; relation to labor movement, V, 23, 35 ; rules 
in factory, VII, 135-136; wages, II, 339, 357; white and col- 
ored labor, II, 356-357; women, V, 333; VI, 217, 218, 219, 
220; VII, 133-135, 141-H3; woolen mills, II, 330, 334"335 



Fclton] INDEX 215 

Fagniez, Gustavc, Documents relatifs a i'hisloire de tindustrie et 
du commerce en France, cited, I, 26 

r alker, George, III, 105 

iargie, J. H., tailor, V, 317 

■armer, J. B., associationist, VII, 242 

•"armers: general - advice to immigrants, VII, 64; "Farmers Plat- 
form," IX, 48; food, VII, 75; Illinois - Bloomington conven- 
tions, call, X, 42-45, 47-48; resolutions, X, 45-46, 48-52; Ke- 
waunee convention, X, 46-47; Princeton convention, X, 59; 
Springfield convention, X, 54-59; Kansas Cooperative Associa- 
tion, X, 61-63; lands reclaimed, I, 88; migrations, VII, 70-71; 
opportunity in south, I, 82 ; organizations - Agricultural Union, 
IX, 270; American Cheap Transportation Convention, X, 67- 
70; early, V, 185; X, 39-41 ; Farmers' Alliance, IX, 51 ; Farm- 
ers' clubs, IX, 258; Southern, I, 86; see also Agriculture, Fron- 
tier, Patrons of Husbandry 

7 armer's Gazette, The, cited, II, 284 

7 armers', Mechanics' and IVorking-men's Advocate, cited, V, 52- 
53, 142, 143, 144. 145 

■arries, George, mechanic, II, 368 

Faulkner, Henry, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319, 326, 332 ; V, 257, 296 

'ay, Appleton, delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 

330 
7 ederal Union, The, cited, I, 132, 291, 315, 316; II, 73, 101, 116, 

119, 159, 162, 183, 184, 296, 302, 303, 330, 334. 336, 356; 

VII, 100-101 

Federation of Labor, definition, V, 21 ; see also Trades' Assembly 
Feeks, David, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

312 
Fehrenbatch, John, delegate to National Labor Reform Party, IX, 

272 
Fell, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

256, 335 
Fellenberg system, V, 104 
Fellilo, — , VI, 158 
Felton, Henry, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 



2l6 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Female 



Female Industry Association, New York, VIII, 226-231 

Female Industry Society, see Women 

Female Labor Reform Association, see Labor reform associations, 
Women 

Fencing, see Plantation 

Fenianism, IX, 33 

Fennimore, William, X, 19 

Ferdinand, H., associationist, VII, 242 

Ferguson, D., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 326 

Fernald, E. B., delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 108 

Ferral [Ferrall, Farrel?], John: National Trades' Union -ad- 
dress, VI, 215-216, 223-224, 230; call for convention, VI, 264; 
committee member, VI, 199, 202, 210, 235, 245, 246, 248, 269, 
271, 277; delegate, V, 382, 383; VI, 196, 265; memorial to 
Congress, VI, 246; president, V, 274; VI, 192, 229, 258; reso- 
lutions, VI, 202, 204-209, 270; vice president, VI, 204, 228 ; New 
York City Industrial Congress - delegate, VIII, 303 ; Phila- 
delphia General Trades' Union - address, VI, 46; chairman, V, 
378; committee member, V, 336, 337, 358; communication, V, 
357> 380; letter to Seth Luther, VI, 39-43; resolutions, V, 350; 
VI, 46 ; secretary, V, 388 ; Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress - 
committee member, VIII, 333 ; Trades' Union of Pennsylvania - 
organizer, V, 325 ; wage policy, VI, 203 

Ferris, Charles, carpenter, V, 80, 84 

Ferris, P. W., associationist, VII, 205 

Ferry, Francis B., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Fertilization: I, 291, 330-331 ; barnyard manure, I, 210; cotton, I, 
128; cotton-seed, I, 331 ; guano, I, 212; neglect in Tennessee, I, 
256; plaster of paris, I, 209; swamp muck, I, 195 ; trash, I, 331 

Field, — , delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 178 

Field, Moses W: delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231, 258; 
National Reform Labor Party, IX, 272 

Filly, F., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 
366 

Finance, see National Labor Union 



FitzpatrickJ INDEX 217 

Finance Report, United States, V, 31 

Finances, depression, I, 290-292 

Finch, Asahcl, land reformer, VIII, 58 

Finch, John: S'otes of Travel in the United States, VII, 47-71 ; 

Rise and Prop-ess of the General Trades' Union of the City of 

New York, V, 212, 214 
Fincher, Jonathan C: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 195; 

policies, department of labor, IX, 226-228; finance, IX, 208- 

209, 214, 216; immigration, IX, 221-222; industrial accidents, 

IX, 224; land, IX, 221-222; protection to labor, IX, 221-222; 

publication of Fincher's Trades' Review, IX, 23 
Fincher's Trades' Review: I, 25; IX, 23; cited, IX, 70-71, 72-73, 

89-97. 97-99. 99-I02, 102-104, 104-106, 106-109, 109-114, 118- 

125, 279-283, 284-301 
Fink, Albert, IX, 97 

Fink, Minor, Jr., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 319, 321 
Finnerty, Peter, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 148, 149 
Fire, plantations, II, 121 

Fish, Nicholas, justice, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 364 
Fish, S., president Wisconsin Phalanx, VII, 187 
Fisher, — , weaver, VI, 180 
Fisher, John W., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Fisher, Richard A. W., delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 298 
Fisher, Thomas J., vice president, mechanics' meeting, V, 318 
Fisheries, Mt. Vernon, I, 190 
Fishing, I, 190, 203-208; II, 235, 261 
Fisk, Theophilus: address before National Trades' Union, VI, 238; 

land reform, VIII, 26, 28 
Fisscher, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Fitman, Thomas, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 356, 

358, 374. 385 
Fitzhugh, William, letter, I, 355 
Fitzpatrick, M., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 3 I7 



2l8 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 



[Fitz. 



Fitzpatrick, Peter, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 163 
Fitzsimmons, Henry, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 

152, 153 

Flagg, Abijah, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 16 

Flaheaut, — , member International Workingmen's Association, 
IX, 346 

Flaherty, E. F., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 137 

Flaherty [O'Flaherty?], John, IV, 100, 132-133, 212-213 

Flamand, James, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 

Flanagan, Francis, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Flanagan, John P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257, 
265, 272 

Flanders, P. W., delegate to New England Workingmen's As- 
sociation, VIII, 108 

"Flasked ware," see Iron, Prices 

Flax, see Plantation 

Fleming, E. J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Fletcher, Gov. — , IX, 78 

Fletcher, Joshua S., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 
375, 381, 383; VI, 67, 69, 265, 270, 291 

Flickwir, D. Henry, master carpenter, VI, 54 

Flisch, Julia A., acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Flood, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 31, 32, 62, 90 

Flood, John K., testimony on child labor, V, 63, 65, 66 

Flood, Thomas W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 

Floods: Mississippi River, I, 317; Savannah River, I, 141 

Florida: colonization, I, 348-352; immigration, I, 87; Pensacola, 
I, 84; runaway colonists, I, 348; St. Augustine, I, 84; Spanish 
regime, I, 84; see also Romans (Bernard), Williams (John L.) 

Floridian, The, II, 84 

Flour: Mt. Vernon, I, 191; price, II, 194, 314; V, 31 

Flournoy, J. J., letter, II, 360 

Floyd, Capt. John, II, 223, 224, 228 

Fodder, curing, I, 196, 198, 200 

Folger, — , V, 134 

Follansbie, John, master shoemaker, VI, 35 









Kourierism] INDEX 219 

•.line, John, diary, II, 230-235 
Fontaine, Peter, letter, II, 29-30 
Foot, Joel B., cordwainer, VI, 317, 325, 330 
Foran, Martin A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 273 
Forbes, Samuel C, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265 
Force, Daniel A., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 152, 153, 

159. 347 

Force, Peter, Tracts, I, 340-34-2 

Ford, Ebenezer, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 220 

Ford, Ephraim, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 221 

Ford, Joseph, delegate to Trade Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 138 

Ford, P. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129, 196 

Forde, George H., member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 378 

Forensic Eloquence, see Curran 

Forges, for sale, II, 259 

Forgrave, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

92-93 

Forsyth, A. P., delegate to National Grange, Patrons of Hus- 
bandry', X, 133 

Forth, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX. 137 

Fortnightly Review, IX, 44, footnote 

Forward, Walter, counsel, Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17, 56-71 

Foss, A., delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, VI, 91 

Foster, Daniel, land reformer, VII, 305 

Foster, Hon. L. S., IX, 76 

Foster, Robert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
264, 276 

Foster. William C, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

"Foul goods," VI, 38 

Fourier, Charles, VII, 29, 147, 261, 325 

Fourierism: American, VII, 147; conventions, VII, 240-247; criti- 
cisms- G. H. Evans, VII, 32; Robert Owen, VII, 170; defects, 
VII 149; nature, VII, 1 70-171 ; organization of phalanx, VII, 



220 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Fourier. 

Fourierism (continued) — 

240-248 ; philosophy, VII, 340; phalanxes - accounts and records, 
VII, 257-258; Bloomfield Union, VII, 250-254; Boston Associa- 
tion, VIII, 263; Brook Farm, VII, 28, 148, 233; VIII, 94, 95; 
Cincinnati, VII, 201 ; Clarkson, VII, 260-263; Columbian, VII, 
277-280; distribution, VII, 167; education, VII, 258, 259; in- 
dustrial program, VII, 254-257; Integral, VII, 281; Jefferson 
County Industrial, VII, 254; Leraysville, Pa., VII, 201 ; limit of 
membership, VII, 258; New York Association, dues, VII, 185; 
meetings, VII, 186; organization, VII, 185-186; New York Con- 
federacy, VII, 248-259; North American, VII, 148-149; Ohio, 
VII, 201, 335, footnote; Ontario Union, VII, 252, 254; Phila- 
delphia Union, VIII, 28; rejected by associationists, VII, 198; 
Rush Industrial, VII, 252-253 ; Sodus Bay, VII, 251, 254; Trum- 
bull, VII, 274-277 ; Union Association, VII, 343 ; West Roxbury, 
VII, 148; Western New York Industrial, VII, 183, 250, 254- 
255; Wisconsin, Ceresco, VII, 148-150, 263-273; causes for 
failure at, VII, 282-284; Southport, VII, 186-187; see also 
Association, Cooperation, Owenism 

Four Precursors of Henry George, see Davidson (J. M.) 

Fowler, J. W., instructions to overseers, I, 1 12-1 15 

Fox, Isham P., planter, II, 79 

Fox River, VII, 266 

Foy, J. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126 

Foy, Michael, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
101, 136, 152-153 

Foy, Owen, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Francis, George, member of jury, trial Thompsonville Weavers, 
IV, Supp., 16 

Francis, George W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 
134, 136, 137 

Franklin, A. B., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 136 

Franklin, Lemuel, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Franklin, Walter, counsel, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, HI, 61, 
89, 107, 109, 117, 127, 143-162, 190-191, 236 

Fraser, William A., cordwainer, VIII, 236 

Frazer, Robert, carpenter, II, 371 

Free Democrat, VIII, 59 



Frontier] INDEX 221 

Freedmcn: white, I, 76; opportunities in Virginia, I, 340; see also 
Negroes, free 

Freedom, If. C, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Free Enquirer, cited, V, 24, 142, 180, 1 95 

Freeman, Josephus, delegate to General Trades' Convention, Bos- 
ton, VI, 90 

Free trade, advocated, VII, 59 

Freight: rates, II, 172, 312 ; see also Patrons of Husbandry 

French, H. E., agent, VIII, 146, 151, 152, 153 

French, Ira, association ist, VII, 248, footnote, 259 

Frescoln, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 

Fricke, Asahel, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
282, 296, 300 

Friecke, Augustus, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 

Friend of Equal Rights, The, V, 143 ; editor, V, 142 

Frieze, J., V, 192 

Frink, Jones, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 158 

Fritz, General Peter, VI, 44 

Frolich, — , land reformer, VII, 310 

Frontier: economic conditions, acriculture- co-operative farm- 
ing, II, 191-192; cost of opening farm, VII, 77-78; crops, I, 47, 
83, 84; II, 170, 195, 214, 251-252, 271, 273-275; farm labor, 

I. 72-73 J gardening, II, 273 ; gulf region, I, 84-85 ; orchards, II, 
189; industries (see above agriculture) -blacksmiths, II, 174; 
building contracts, II, 261, 269, 275-276; carpenters, II, 174- 
175; fishing, II, 193, 194, 235, 261 ; hunting, II, 190, 193, 194, 
228-229, 233, 261; leather dressers, II, 175; milling, II, 287; 
mining, II, 247 ; potter, II, 175 ; shoemakers, II, 174, 175 ; stock- 
raising, II, 192, 253-254, 277; tailors, II, 174; tanners, II, 175; 
vine dressers, II, 175-176; labor - scarcity, II, 1 70-171, 174- 
176; II, 271-272; slave, II, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 210, 
211, 212,245, 250, 251, 253, 256; types, I, 73; land - agencies, 

II, 239-240; character of soil, II, 234, 235, 236, 237, 244, 253, 
261 ; clearing, II, 169, 191, 256; grants, II, 235, 247, 260-262; 
lottery, II, 190, 258-260; prices, II, 265, 267; markets, I, 90; 
II, 170; westward movement- influence on cotton belt, II, 
185-196; influence on invention, I, 48; influence on land values, 
I, 46; trend, I, 45 



222 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Frontier 

Frontier (continued) — 

Social conditions - irregularities, I, 50; lawlessness, II, 238, 
283, 286-288, 295-299 ; relation with Indians, I, 86; II, 246, 250, 
283-284, 289-292; school, II, 189-190; settlers - classes, II, 
169; distribution, cotton belt, II, 185-196; Louisiana, I, 86; II, 
240-249; Maryland, I, 77-78; North Carolina, I, 77; II, 271; 
Piedmont, I, 82 ; II, 273 ; Tennessee and Kentucky, I, 84; Texas, 
I, 87-88; II, 255; Virginia, I, 74-78; II, 230-235; French, II, 
240-249; German, II, 232-233, 247; hardships, II, 169-172, 172- 
174, 196, 232, 264, 271-272; VII, 53-54J health, I, 81 ; II, 172, 
174, 245, 254; houses, II, 190, 194, 231, 232, 245; indentured 
servants, I, 75, 83, 344-345; migrations, II, 185-200, 201-218, 
219-221, 230-235, 242-245, 255-256; profanity, II, 287; pro- 
fessions - lawyer, II, 198; minister, II, 233; surveyor, II, 222- 
223 ; redemptioners, I, 77 ; Sabbath desecration, II, 287 ; scattered, 

I, 84 ; versatility, II, 194, 271-272 ; wife hunting, II, 289 ; women, 

II, 186, 188, 284 

Miscellaneous - barbecue, II, 280; climate, II, 243; court 
calendar, Augusta County, Va., II, 286-288 ; dearth of towns, I, 
83 ; defenses, II, 232, 284, 292-295 ; forests, II, 195 ; government, 
plan for local, II, 225, 228, 229; tax collection, II, 191 ; historical 
importance of the frontier, I, 70-72; mercantile operations, II, 
171-172, 261, 265-266; overlapping of plantation system, I, 86, 
94; pests, II, 194, 195; prices, II, 194, 265, 267; recruiting for 
Revolutionary War, II, 279-284; relation of the London Com- 
pany, I, 74-75; religion, camp meeting, II, 284-286; missionary 
to Indians, II, 234; roads, character, II, 198, 199, 200, 266; con- 
struction, II, 195; towns established, II, 260-262, 263-267, 267- 
269, 287; tradesmen's difficulties, II, 170-172; vineyards, II, 
231 ; wage earners, II, 174-176; see also Piedmont 
Frost, Samuel W., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 
Frothingham, O. B., Life of Gerrit Smith, VII, 364, footnote 
Frowd, William, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Fruneau, — , member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

346 
Fuchs, H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

302 
Fuel, price, V, 31 ; VII, 48, 49, 98 ; see also Coal 



Gannelly] INDEX 223 

Fuller, Hon. T. J. D., VIII, 70 

Fulling mill, equipment, II, 326 

Fulse, J., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

101, 107, no, 113, 120, 121, 123, 128, 136, 146, 149, 152 
Furlong, John, VIII, 54, 56 
Furniss, Ephraim, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 221 

Futhy, Henry, witness, II, 141 

Gable, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

242 
Gable, John, carpenter, II, 371 
Gaboon, see Negroes 
Gale, Gilman, merchant, VIII, 139 
Gallagher, Francis: Baltimore Trades' Union, committee member, 

VI, 115; delegate to cordwainers' convention, VI, 316; National 
Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 238, 259-263, 269, 276, 
291-293 ; delegate, VI, 265 ; resolutions, VI, 258, 271, 278 

Gallagher, Hugh : National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 
231 ; delegate, VI, 229 ; New York General Trades' Union, com- 
mittee member, V, 239, 243, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254, 256, 
257, 267, 281, 296, 299; resolutions, V, 252-253 

Gallagher, James, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Gallagher, Michael, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Gait, David, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

92-93 

Gait, John: weaver, discharged by Thompsonville Manufacturing 

Co., IV, Supp., 54; testifies, 89-90 
Galvin, Martin, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 
Galway, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

343 
Gamble, W. A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Gambling, negroes, II, 152 
Gang labor, see Labor 
Gannelly, James, letter, I, 192 



224 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Gannett 



Gannett, Isaac, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 90 
Gardner, Charles P., land reformer, VII, 305 
Gardner, Ezra, cordwainer, VI, 318 
Gardner, James H., delegate to Albany Trades' Convention, VI, 

145, 158 

Gardner, Nathaniel B: delegate to cordwainers' convention, VI, 
316; National Trades' Union, candidate for vice presidency, VI, 
229; committee member, VI, 246, 269, 275, 297-298; delegate, 
VI, 265 ; resolutions, VI, 249, 297-298; vice president, VI, 264; 
Newark Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 180, 181 

Gardner, William H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Garland, Hugh, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Garrett, L. C, delegate to Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 84 

Garrett, Peter V., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Garrett, William, manufacturer, II, 330 

Garrigues, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 387 

Garrison, William L., VII, 351-352; VIII, 110 

Garwood, Charles B., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 
352 

Gaston, Christian, cordwainer, VI, 318 

Gatchell, Joseph, Jr., VI, 44 

Gaudens, B. H., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Union, VIII, 337 

Gaul, Samuel R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Gautier, A. A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 300 

Gay, William, justice of the peace, IV, Supp., 23 

Gazette of the State of Carolina, cited, II, 353 

Geary, Gov. John W., IX, 273 

Geddy, James, carpenter ( ?), I, 352 

General Bulletin of the Association of the United Workers of Amer- 
ica, 1874, cited, IX, 376-378 

General Trades' Union, definition, V, 21 ; see also Trades' Assembly 

Genesis of the Republican Party, VII, 37, footnote 

Gentlemen's Magazine, cited, II, 99-101 












Gibbons] INDEX 225 

Geoghan, James, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 113 

Geology, Texas, II, 256 

George, Henry, IX, 28-29, 46, 47 ; Propers and Poverty, IX, 28, 

footnote 
George, Henry [Detroit], delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

127,129,132.137 

George Junior Republic, V, 1 43 

Georgia: Athens, II, 302 ; Augusta, ordinance, II, 345 ; proceedings 
of city council, II, 159; camp meeting, II, 284-286; Columbus, 
II, 303; cotton factory, II, 337; settlement, II, 267-269; cotton 
factory, II, 332-334, 341 ; cotton plantation records, I, 126-129, 
132, 133. 150-165, 167-186, 191-193, 309-315, 318, 319, 330- 
336 ; "Crackers," II, 165, 239; delegates to Continental Congress, 
II, 281 ; disease, II, 167 ; Ft. More, II, 284; effect of cotton gin, 
I, 85 ; frontier, I, 82 ; immigration, I, 85 ; industry, status, I, 89 ; 
"King Cotton," I, 283-292 ; mill toll, II, 346 ; mineral wealth, II, 
340; Murray County, politics, II, 296-297; Murray County, 
courts, II, 296-297; pine barrens, I, 82; rice plantation records, 

I, 122-126, 134, 166, 325-326, 336, 338; Savannah, I, 82; 
slave labor, demand, II, 65 ; exclusion attempted, I, 81 ; squatters, 

II, 238; trials, II, 123-125 ; uplands, I, 89; water power, II, 338, 
340; see also Piedmont, Slave labor 

Georgia Citizen, The, cited II, 119 

Georgia Courier, The, cited, I, 283, 289; II, 251, 267, 332, 338 

Georgia Express, The, cited, II, 92 

Georgia Gazette, The, cited, II, 118 

Georgia Journal, The, cited, II, 67, 157 

Georgia Journal and Independent Register, cited, II, 239 

German Central Committee of the United Trades, VIII, 297 

German Chauvinists, IX, 356 

German Union of Workingmen, VIII, 28 

Gerner, T., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

302 
Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, cited, 

I, 30 
Gibbons, — , weaver, IV, 43 
Gibbons, Erastus, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 143 



226 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Gibbons 

Gibbons, James, cordwainer, VI, 318, 321, 325 
Gibbons, W., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 151 
Gibbs, Charles W : National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
132; delegate, IX, 127, 170, 196; on admission of negroes, IX, 
187; secretary, elected, IX, 129; report of, IX, 172-173; vice 
president, IX, 194 
Gibbs, William, weaver, IV, Supp., 32, 90 
Gibson, David, weaver, IV, Supp., 35, 48, 83 
Gibson, James, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 52 
Gibson, John, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
Gibson, — , judge, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 163, 

250, 252, 255 
Gift, G. W., IX, 84 
Gilbert, Albert, land reformer, VIII, 25 

Gilchrist, Richard: delegate to International Industrial Assembly, 

IX, 120; National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 262; 

delegate, IX, 257 ; political policy, IX, 265 ; president Louisville 

Trades' Assembly, IX, 120 

Gilders: society, VIII, 303; strike, V, 379; wages, V, 379 

Giles, Edward, association ist, VII, 200, 205 

Gill, James, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 351 

Gillard, Nathaniel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 

229 
Gillen, John, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
Gillespie, Barnabas S: National Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 199, 200, 269, 275, 294-297; delegate, VI, 196, 197, 
265; judge of election, VI, 204; report on trades' unions, VI, 
294-297; resolutions, VI, 237, 253, 256-257, 270-271, 275; New 
York General Trades' Union, amendment to constitution, V, 
277-278; chairman, V, 259; committee member, V, 220, 223, 
236, 242, 249, 250, 255, 267, 275, 276, 278, 281, 283, 286-289, 
295, 297, 299; delegate, V, 260; director daily paper, elected, 
V, 293 ; resignation, V, 295 
Gillespie, George T., VI, 150, 157, 171 
Gillett, E. B., IX, 75 
Gillette, Hon. Francis, IX, 75 

Gilmore, Eugene A., editor, Documentary History of American In- 
dustrial Society, III, 15-17 






Goldcr] INDEX 227 

Gil more, Francis, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

Ciilmore, William: Manayunk Working People's Committee, ad- 
dress to workingmen, V, 330-334; call for convention, V, 334; 
president, V, 330 ; Philadelphia General Trades' Union - chair- 
man, V, 335; committee member, V, 336; resolutions, V, 383; 
secretary. V, 378, 389; Trades' Union of Pennsylvania - organ- 
izer, V, 325 ; president, V, 335 ; Workinfmens Convention - 
chairman, VI, 67 ; committee member, VI, 69; delegate, V, 330 

Glass, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 137 

Glass, Hugh, weaver, VI, 342 

Glass, James, defendant, trial New York Cordwaincrs, III, 252 

Glass, John, mechanic, II, 368 

Glass workers: distribution of establishments, VII, 66; see also 
Trade unions 

Glassey, Edward, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287, 301 

Glay, James A., manufacturer, VIII, 205 

Glenn, Robert, witness, trial of Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 86, 109 

Glenn, Simon, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 34, 
39, 55 

Glenn, Walter, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 

45-47 
Glocker, T. W., acknowledgments to, III, 17, 249 
Glover, James M., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 221, 230 
Glover, Thomas, plantation correspondence, I, 183-186, 326 
Goddard, Calvin, counsel, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

115 

Godwin, Parke: Associationists' Convention, chairman, VII, 188; 
committee member, VII, 189, 200; corresponding secretary, VII, 
205 ; National Reformers' Convention, committee member, VIII, 
25; delegate, VIII, 26; New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, delegate, VIII, 94 

Gold, — , cordwainer, IV, 51 

Gold and silver artisans, see Trade unions 

Golder, A., X, 82 



228 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Gold. 

Goldsmith, Oliver, quoted, IV, 297 

Goldson [Gholson?], Samuel, delegate to Trades' Union Conven- 
tion of District of Columbia, VI, 128, 132, 134, 135, 137, 138 
Goman, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Goode, H. C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Gooding, Francis, planter, II, 92 

Goodloe, J. C, delegate to Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 84 
Goodnough, W. R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 

198 
"Good will," IX, 21 

Goodwin, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 93 
Goodwin, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

275, 300 
Goodwin, Jonathan, master tailor, IV, 103, 107, 112 
Goodwin, Philo A., clerk of court, IV, Supp., 115 
Gordon, Edward, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 205 
Gordon, Francis A., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 282, 298 
Gorman, Edward, defendant, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 16, 17, 41, 57, 127 
Goucher, T. H., carpenter, V, 90 

Gould, George, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 363 
Gould, Marcus T., court reporter, IV, 99 
Gove, Mary S., association ist, VII, 280 
Gowie, Charles, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 168 
Gowrie estate, see Manigault (Louis) 
Graham, "Doctor," VII, 22 
Graham, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V,2 9 8 
Graham, Mary, secretary Female Industry Association, VIII, 231 
Graham, Robert, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Grain, Frederick, associationist, VII, 200 
Grand Eight Hour League, see Hours of labor 
Granger, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 
Granger, William H., agent Phoenix foundry, IX, 97 
"Grangers," see Patrons of Husbandry 
Grant, E. P., VII, 201 ; VIII, 26 






Greenback] INDEX 229 

Grant, G. W., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 119 

Grant, George C, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 138 

Gray, Daniel J., defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
3 15. 3I9.320 

Gray, Elizabeth, president Female Industry Association, VIII, 227, 

231 
Gray, James, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316,324.325 
Gray, Richard, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Gray, Thomas, juror, trial of Twenty- four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 102 

Greeley, Horace: address on abolition, VII, 211-216; American 
Union of Associationists, president, VII, 205; Association is ts' 
Convention, committee member, VII, 189, 200; letter, VII, 241, 
245; vice president, VII, 188; biography, VII, 131-123] VIII, 
49-51 ; criticisms, VII, 24-25; idealism, VII, 41-42; land policy, 
VII, 33-36, 211-216; VIII, 40-44, 49-51 ; letter on Association, 
VII, 241 ; National Reformers' Convention, delegate, VIII, 26; 
New York City- Industrial Congress, delegate, VIII, 288; presi- 
dential candidate, IX, 273; relation to forty-period, VII, 20, 21, 
44; socialism, VII, 25-26; ten-hour policy, VII, 37-40; VIII, 
109, 112; view of cooperation, VII, 42 ; visit to Lowell Working- 
men's Convention, VIII, m-113; visit to Wisconsin, VIII, 49- 
51 ; The Tribune established, VII, 23-24 
Green, — , delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 185 
Green, Abram H., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 238, 239. 240, 248, 250 

Green, B. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 186, 

190, 194 
Green, C. F., resident of New Harmony, VII, 49, 50 
Green, D. I., acknowledgments to, III, 17 
Green, E., associationist, VII, 242 

Green, Nathaniel H., delegate to Newark Trades' Unidn, VI, 175 
Green, Thomas, weaver, IV, Sup p., 34 
Green, William, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Greenback Labor Party, IX, 51 



230 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Green. 

Greenbackism : anarchism contrasted, IX, 38; definition, IX, 34, 
footnote) effect on wage earners, IX, 41-42; fallacies, IX, 35-40; 
legislation, IX, 41 ; nature, 33-39; stages, IX, 34; see also Na- 
tional Labor Union, financial policy 

Green County Claim Society, see Land Reform 

Greene, Russell T., juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 

Greenhalgh, Isaac, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Greenland, — , cordwainer, IV, 49 

Gregory, John, factory operative, VIII, 133 

Gregory, William S., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 94, 286, 287, 301 

Greig, John, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Gridley, Edmond, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 229 

Grier, M., Jr., manufacturer ( ?), VI, 27 

Griffin, — , missionary to Indians, II, 236 

Griffin, — , counsel, New York Cordwainers, III, 361, 362, 375-379 

Griffin, F. H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Griffin, Thomas B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 

137 
Griffith, James, woodworker, VII, 263 
Griffith, R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Griffith, William, prison superintendent, Eastern Pennsylvania, 

V.55 
Grinder, Isaac, defendant, trial Philadelphia Plasterers, IV, 338 
Grogan, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Grog-shops: I, 149; negroes forbidden to keep, II, 147 
Gross, John, delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, VI, 108 
Grosse, Edward, member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 354, 359, 366 
Grossman, Ezra, printer, VI, 347, 348 
Grow, Hon. Galusha A., VII, 36; VIII, 77-78 
Grudell, Englebert, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Gruenhagen, J. F., VIII, 54, 56 

Gudenrath, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Gudgeon, W. H., delegate to International Industrial Assembly, 

IX, 120 



Holiday] INDEX 231 

Gugle, Daniel, mechanic, II, 369 

Gui'tle, David, mechanic, II, 369 

Guild, H. A., printer, VII, 131 

Guilds, control, III, 22 ; see also Shoemakers 

Guinand, Charles A., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 289, 301, 316 

Gunn, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 

( Junn, William, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265 

Gunsmith, advertisement, II, 350-351 

Gunton, George: disciple of Ira Steward, IX, 27 ; eight-hour philo- 
sophy, IX, 27, footnote) founder of International Labor Union, 
IX, 30; member of International Workingmen's Association, 
IX, 46, footnote; Principles of Social Economics, IX, 27; 
Wealth and Progress, IX, 27 

Guyon, H. G., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
177 

Habersham, James, letters, I, 293-296, 318-319, 325-326; II, 44, 

142, 238-239 
lackney, Jonathan, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union. V, 375 
Hade, Hamilton, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Hadry, Henriette A., associationist, VII, 205 
Hagadorn, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 320 
Haight, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 220, 261, 262; VI, 197 
Halcyon and Literary Repository, cited, II, 251 
Hale, — , History of the Pleas of the Crown, III, 302 
Hall, Aaron, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII.3I6 
Hall, Christopher, carpenter, II, 371 

Hall, George W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259, 270 
Hall, Nathan, manufacturer ( ?), VI, 27 
Hallbauer, Louis, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Haller, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Halliday, James F: member Trades' Union of District of Colum- 



232 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Halliday 



Halliday, James F. (continued) — 

bia, VI, 126; National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 
269, 274, 297-298, 349, 350; delegate, VI, 265; resolutions, VI, 

277, 351 

Hallis, John, VIII, 239 

Hallman, John, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Halpen, Patrick, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Halsey, Henry, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 16 

Hamilton, Edward, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 119 

Hamilton, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Hamilton, Col. John, II, 197 

Hamilton, S. M., Letters to Washington, I, 319, 321, 344-345 

Hamilton, Silas N., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 287, 290, 301 

Hamilton, William, weaver, IV, Supp., 48, 85 

Hammatt, Benjamin H., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 
196, 198, 199, 201, 210, 228 

Hammond, A. G., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 

Hammond, E. S., II, 163 

Hammond, John, Leak and Rachel, I, 340-342 

Hammond, see Hannan 

Hampton, Gen. Wade, II, 196 

Hams, curing, I, 182-184 

Hancock, William C, master carpenter, VI, 54 

Hand, Daniel, cordwainer, VI, 318 

Hand, George W., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 294 

Hand, James P., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 177 

Handbook to Lowell, cited, VII, 135-136, 137 

Handschuh, J. Andrew, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Haney, J. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 

Hange, — , delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, VIII, 

333 
Hanna, A., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316 









Harrison) INDEX 233 

Hannan [Hammond?], M. J., delegate to National Labor Union, 

IX, 127, 134,137 
Hanson, H, J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congresa, 

VIII, 300 

Hanson, John, weaver, IV, Supp.. 36, 41, 42, 84-85, 103 

Harbinger. The, cited, VII, 94-95, 132-135, 203-206, 2 1 6-2 1 8, 221, 
I H-239, 274-277. 288, 341-343; VIII, 272-274 

Harden, William, acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Harding, William: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
126, 141, 183; delegate, IX, 127; on admission of negroes, IX, 
186; on delegate to International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 333. 3351 on mechanics' lien, IX, 192-193; on produce ex- 
change, IX, 191; political policy, IX, 137; preliminary confer- 
ence, IX, 126; resolutions, IX, 191, 192, 333 

Hard is, see Hurdis 

Hai;dy, Thomas, carpenter, II, 371 

Hare, James W. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 

Hargan, Thomas, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 183 

Hargreaves, James, inventor, I, 38 

Harket, John, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62- 
66, 219 

Harkins, William, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Harlan, Hon. James, IX, 76 

Harman, James, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 
42-44 

Harriot, James, mechanic, VIII, 217 

Harris, Dunbar B., delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 90, 91 

Harris, George, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
300 

Harris, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Harris, John B., delegate to National Colored Labor Convention, 
IX, 245 

Harris, Stephen, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Harris, Stephen R., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V. 242, 261 

Harrison, Albert H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 

Harrison, Alexander, association ist, VII, 205 



234 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Harrison 

Harrison, Job, III, 67, 71, 72, 77, 83, 85-89 
Harrison, William R., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 303 
Harrod, Captain — , pioneer, II, 222, 224, 225, 226, 228 
Harrower, John, redemptioner, I, 188-189, 326, 366-371 
Hart, Albert B., Practical Essays on American Government, V, 26 
Hart, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Hartford County Court Record, IV, Supp., 126-136 
Hartford Courant, V, 314 
Hartley, Martin, III, 62 
Hartwell, Blair and Chilton, Present State of Virginia, The, cited, 

II, 169-172 
Harvesting, see Rice, Sugar 
Harvey, J., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

378 
Harwell, T. H., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 136 
Harwood, Benjamin, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of 

District of Columbia, VI, 119 
Haskell, Enoch, delegate to Trades' Convention, Boston, VI, 90 
Haslam, Thomas, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 
Hassinger, Phillip, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 289, 301 

Hastings, Hugh J., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 319 

Hatch, George M., delegate, New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 93, in, 115 

Hatch, Joseph, planter, II, 90 

Hatch, Ruby C, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 107 

Hatfield, Charles R., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 303 

Hathaway, Mrs. — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Hat making: machinery, IX, 58; materials, IX, 56 

Hatters: advice to immigrants, VII, 66; apprenticeship, VI, 167 ; 

IX, 60; cooperation, VI, 58; domestic manufacture, VII, 72; 
employers' association, VI, 101-107 ; hours of labor, VI, 153, 153- 
155; IX, 62; lockout, VI, 74, 100, 101-107; machinery, IX, 58; 



Hellier] INDEX 235 

non-union store, V, 231 ; silk hat makers, V, 225 ; "squirtes," IX, 

58; straw bonnets, VII, 72; strike, V, 351, 355; VI, 154; IX, 

59; unemployment, IX, 61 ; wages, VI, IOO, 104-106, 153, 154- 

155, 160; IX, 57, 58, 59; see also Trade unions 
Haviland, Israel, master shoemaker, 111,255 
Hawkins, — , Pleas of the Crotvn, III, 303 
Hawkins, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers. III. 

96-97 
Hawks, F. L., History of North Carolina, cited, II, 271 
Hawlry, David C, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 143, 

164, 168, 169, 172 
Hawley, Thomas D.. delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 51, 

171 
Hayes, Alexander H., delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 238 
Hayes, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 121-123 
Hays, John, delegate to National Trades' Union, V, 382, 383 ; VI, 

265, 269, 277, 342 
Haymaking, I, 215, 221, 223 
Hayman, J. R., delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, VI, 

109, in 
Hayne, Isaac, agent, II, 305 

Haynes, Watson G., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 288 
Hayt, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 247 
Haiward [Heywood?], Billings, delegate to New York General 

Trades' Union, V, 215 
Hayward [Heywood?], William, delegate to National Labor 

Union, IX, 171, 194 
Hazard, — , Register of Pennsylvania, cited, IV, 265-268 
Heath, Joshua A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288, 295, 300 
Hedcnburgh, John C, delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 275, 281, 294 
Heim, John J., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

215 
Heintzelman, Dr. — , VI, 44 
Hellier, Thomas, autobiography, I, 357-365 



2 3 6 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Helm 



Helm, John, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 196, 198, 200 
Hemingway, Eliza R., factory operative, VIII, 134, 135, 138 
Hemingway, Henry, factory operative, VIII, 151, 152, 153 
Hemma, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 270, 286, 299, 300 
Hemp: plantation product, I, 188; South Carolina, II, 274 
Hempel, Charles J., associationist, VII, 200 
Hemple, Samuel, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 102 

Henderson, D. Campbell, delegate to New York City Industrial 

Congress, VIII, 287 
Henderson, Col. Richard, journal, II, 219-229 
Henderson, William, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

61, 236 
Hennessy, Patrick, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Hennesy, T., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Henry, George, carpenter, II, 371 
Hepburn, John, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

62-66, 219 
Herald of the New Moral World, cited, VII, 222 
Herb, John, mechanic, II, 368 

Herr, Thomas W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 
Herren, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 221 

Herrick, Hon. — , VIII, 62 

Hervey, William, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 182 
Hess, — , member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 347 
Hesse, — , secretary Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress, VIII, 333, 

334 
Hester, Samuel W., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 261 
Hester, William, delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 82 
Hewett, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Hewitt, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Hewitt, S. C, associationist, VII, 205 












History] INDEX 237 

Hewitt [Howitt?], William, delegate to New York General 

Trades' Union, V, 219, 305, 308; VIII, 289 
Hey wood, Abbie Ballou, acknowledgments to, I, 25 
Hewvood, Billings, see Hayxvard 

Heywood, E. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Hibbard, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171, 183 
Higgins, F. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Hihn, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Hik, Frederick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Hildreth, Caroline, associationist, VII, 205 
Hiler, Josiah, delegate to General Trades' Convention, Boston, 

VI, 90 
Hill, Albert C, cordwainer, VIII, 236 
Hill, Howard, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

260, 296, 299 
Hill, J. H., associationist, VII, 242, 248 
Hill, William, manufacturer, II, 305 

Hill, William T., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Hills, William L., witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 48 
Hinchcliffe, Richard: eight-hour policy, IX, 135; land policy, IX, 
188-190; National Labor Reform Party, IX, 272; National 
Labor Union, committee member, IX, 140, 188-190; delegate, 
IX, 127, 170, 272; immigration policy, IX, 334-335. 336; politi- 
cal policy, IX, 137; president, IX, 129; treasurer, IX, 194 
Hinchman, Horatio M., delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 289 
Hinckley, Hon. Almon G., VIII, 151, 152 

Hine, Lewis A: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
205; cooperative policy, IX, 220; delegate, IX, 197; financial 
policy, IX, 206 ; plan for labor statistics, IX, 226 ; report on land 
reform, VIII, 60-61 
Hinman, — , IX, 75 

Hins, — , member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 346 
Hinton, R. T., Organization of Labor, IX, 42, footnote 
Hissey, William, delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 113 
Historical Collection of South Carolina, see Carroll (B. R.) 
History of American Socialisms, see Noyes (J. H.) 



238 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [History 

History of England, see Hume (David) 

History of New York, III, 275 

History of North Carolina, see Hawks (F. L.) 

History of Tammany Hall, see Myers (Gustavus) 

History of the Pleas of the Crown, see Hale 

History of Trade Unionism, see Webb (S. and B.) 

History of Virgil A. Stewart, etc., see Hoivard (H. R.) 

Hoag, E., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Congress, VIII, 

332 
Hodgkin, R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Hodgson, W. B., planter, I, 315 
Hofer, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

288 
Hoffman, J. O., recorder, III, 364 

Hoffner, C. B., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 375 
Hofle, Charles, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

346 
Hofwyl: description, V, 105; Fellenberg school, V, 143; institu- 
tions, V, 104 
Hogan, Thomas: editor National Laborer, VI, 193; educational 
policy, VI, 291-293; land policy, VI, 271; National Trades' 
Union, address, VI, 235; committee member, VI, 199, 210, 231, 
240, 246, 269, 275, 278; committee report, VI, 291-293; dele- 
gate, VI, 196; resolutions, VI, 209, 235-237, 250-251, 257-258, 
277-278; secretary, VI, 229, 264, 265, 266; vice president, VI, 
198, 204; Philadelphia General Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, V, 349, 355, 382, 383; president, V, 278; VI, 181; reso- 
lutions, V, 353 
Hogan, Thomas A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Hogeboom, H., counsel, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277, 285 
Holaday, John, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 145 
Holbach, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 94 
Holden vs. Hardy, IX, 32, footnote 

Holdridge, D. F., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 168 
Holland, Edward, delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 100 
Holland, Dr. J. G., IX, 75 

Hollasan, Jacob, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 
Holliday, William, printer, VI, 347 



Hours] 



INDEX 



239 



Holmes, William, delegate to General Convention of Trade*, Boa- 
ton, VI, 90 

Holt, C. J., quoted, III, 326 

Holt, John, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 
VI, 90 

Home, Ninian, letter, II, 17a 

Homringhausen, Frederick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
229 

Honeywell, Alba, delrgate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 303 

Honkins, Richard, cordwainers, VI, 316 

Hood, John, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 34, 
49 

Hoogkirk [Houghkirk?], Abraham, delegate to Albany Trades' 
Union, VI, 143, 149, 152 

Hooker, Edward, Diary, I, 299 

Hooker, John, member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 

Hooper, Hon. Samuel P., IX, 303 

Hopkinson, Francis, author, III, 166 

Hopkinson, Joseph, counsel, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers. Ill, 
61, 71, 73, 76, 83, 103, 107, 126, 127, 131, 143 

Horey, J. C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 

Horse-shoers : strike, V, 244 ; see also Trade unions 

Hotson, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 81 

Hough, Jonathan T., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 101, 104, 106, 108, 126, 127, 128, 132, 143, 168 

Hough, Thomas, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101-113, 132, 167 

Hours of labor : eight-hour movement, general - carpenters, IX, 
277 ; caulkers, IX, 277 ; decision, Holden vs. Hardy, IX, 32. foot- 
note; early agitation, VIII, 318; effect of reduction, IX, 47-49, 
96-97, 284-301; foreign opposition, IX, 146; hatters, IX, 62; 
International Industrial Assembly, IX, 23, 131 ; legislation, IX, 
26, 181, 278, 302-303; machinists and blacksmiths, IX, 281- 
283; standard of living, IX, 147, 284-301, 306-329; leagues - 
Grand, formation, IX, 277; Illinois, IX, 127; Iowa, IX, 128; 
higan, IX, 127, 170; local, alliance with socialists, IX, 46; 
Beaver Dam, Wis., IX, 170; Boston, IX, 277; Buffalo, N.Y., 



240 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Hours 

Hours of Labor (continued) — 

IX, 171 ; Corunna, Mich., IX, 171 ; Grand Rapids, Mich., IX, 
171; Muskegum, Mich., IX, 171; New Haven, Ct., IX, 127; 
Ovid, Mich., IX, 171; Pontiac, Mich., IX, 170; St. John's 
Mich., IX, 171; philosophies - Steward vs. George, IX, 28; 
Steward vs. Gunton, IX, 27 ; Steward vs. Marx, IX, 24-26 ; see 
also Gunton (George), Steward (Ira) 

Ten-hour movement, conventions - Boston, VIII, 83, 91- 
99, 127-132; Fall River, VIII, 86-91, 1 19-122; Lowell, VIII, 
99-106; Lynn, VIII, 113-119; Manchester, VIII, 82-93 »" Massa- 
chusetts State, VIII, 127-132 ; organizations - Manayunk Ten- 
hour Association, VIII, 28; National Trades' Union, report, VI, 
239, 253-255 ; New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics 
and other Workingmen, resolutions, V, 193 ; New England 
Workingmen's Association, resolutions, VIII, 97-99; New York 
State Industrial Legislature, VIII, 318; miscellaneous - agra- 
rian policy, V, 147; bakers, V, 304, 305, 307; Boston circular, 
VI, 39-43, 94-99; building trades, VI, 47; cabinet makers, VII, 
105; carpenters, V, 80-83, 252; VT, 76-77, 79-81; children, V, 
59, 60-61, 64-66, 196-197, 258; VIII, 318; cordwainers, see 
below, shoemakers ; effect of extension of suffrage, V, 27 ; factory 
operatives, V, 33-34, 141, 196, 197, 330; VI, 44"46; VII, 27, 
J 33, 232; VIII, 86-91, 133-187, 208; Greeley's conversion, VII, 
37-39 1 hatters, VI, 153, 154-155 ; introduction of system, V, 252 ; 
shoemakers, III, 40, 118; VI, 37; strikes, V, 63-66, 75, 83-85, 
205, 326-327; VI, 39-43, 50-52, 73, 76-77, 153, 154, 155-156; 
VIII, 81; Van Buren's order, VIII, 85; women, V, 333; VI, 
217, 218, 220; VII, 133, 134, 141-143; legislation - general, 
VIII, 83-84, 318-319; Massachusetts, legislative report, VIII, 
133-187; New Hampshire, VIII, 188-199; Pennsylvania, 200- 
207 ; memorial to Congress, VI, 232, 235, 246-248, 274; origin of 
movement, V, 34; petitions, VIII, 81 ; Proceedings of the Govern- 
ment and Citizens of Philadelphia, VI, 73, 231 ; public employ- 
ment, V, 35; VI, 41, 233-234; remonstrance of mechanics, V, 
146; resolutions - of citizens of Philadelphia, VI, 44-46; of 
employers, VI, 47-49, 79-82 ; of ship carpenters, VI, 81-82, 83-86 
General - advantages of reduction, VI, 118-119; American 
and English systems compared, IX, 62 ; California, IX, 201 ; 



Hubbard] INDEX 241 

opposition to reduction, V, 146; VI, 47-49; political effect, V, 
27; trade agreement, VIII, 208-209; see National Labor Union, 
Steward (Ira) 

House carpenters, see Carpenters, Trade unions 

House painters, sec Painters, Trade unions 

Housing: factory operatives, VII, 134-135; laborers, VIII, 226; 
negroes, VII, 97-98; planter, II, 60; policy of National Labor 
Union, IX, 139, 150, 233 

HouMicr. William H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 287, 301 

Houston, Mordecai, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tai- 
lors, IV, 101, 157-158, 159 

Houston, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 247 

Hover, Goodlip, carpenter, II, 371 

Hovey, Charles F: land reformer, VIII, 27, 115, 117; discusses 
resolution, VIII, 118 

Hovill, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
223, 226 

loward, Asa: New York General Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, V, 239, 243, 248, 281, 300; delegate, V, 281 ; marshal, V, 
259; vice president of mass meeting, V, 318 
[ounrd, H. R., History of Virgil A. Stewart, II, 76 
toward, John, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 180 

Howard, Gen. O. O., IX, 252 

Howkins, Richard, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 249, 261, 263, 267, 278 

Hoxam, John, carpenter, II, 371 

Hoxey, Dr. — , letter, II, 252-254 

Hoxey, Asa, carpenter, II, 371 

Hoy, Peter, letter, II, 289 

Hoyle, Philip, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316 

Hoyt, David, associationist, VII, 182 

Hoyt, George, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 300 

Hubbard, Stephen, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 



242 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Hubbs 

Hubbs, John C, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Hubert, B., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 
359, 366 

Huckett, George, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 

Hudson, Daniel, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 145 

Hudson, Noah, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 178, 
179 

Hudson, William R., delegate to General Convention of Trades, 
Boston, VI, 90 

Huebner, Dr. Grover G., acknowledgments to, III, 17 

Hufty, John, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 229 

Hufty, Joseph, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
225, 266 

Hughes, Edward, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 

33,34,-44 
Hughes, T. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127 
Hughes, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 
Hulbert, Charles, member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 
Hull, John, delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 

VIII, 107, no 
Humbert, Edward, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 
Humbert, William B., master baker, V, 307 
Hume, Alexander, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319 
Hume, David, History of England, cited, III, 311, 346 
Hume, George, letter, II, 172-174 
Hund, John O., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
"Hundred Dollar Law," repeal asked, VI, 136 
Hungerford, William, counsel, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 115 
Hunt, Governor — , VIII, 321 

Hunt, W., counsel, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277 
Hunter, James: weaver, from New York, testifies, IV, Supp., 42- 

44; mentioned, IV, Supp., 79 






Immigration] INDEX 243 

Hunter, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
\ 111,289 

Hunter, Robert, acknowledgments to, I, 21 

Hunter, Robert, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 107, 113, 116, 120, 124, 128 

Hunting, II, 193, 194. 228-229, 233. 244, 261, 277 

Huntingdon, Countess of, II, 44 

Huntington, Samuel H., counsel, Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp. y 115, 136 

Hunt's Mafazine, cited, VIII, 335-336 

Hurdis [Hardis?], John: Albany General Trades' Union, chair- 
man, VI, 159; committee member, VI, 149, 168, 169; constitu- 
tional amendment proposed, VI, 146; delegate, VI, 143 ; motion, 
VI, 146, 162; secretary, VI, 143 

Hutchings, W. S., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

Hyatt, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 157 
Hyland, James: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 

134, 175; delegate, IX, 128, 129, 169; eight-hour policy, IX, 

134-136; political policy, IX, 135-136, 175 

Idealism, varieties, VII, 26-40. 

lies, William B: National Labor Union, address to Workingmen, 

IX, 141-168; committee member, IX, 134, 136, 141-168; dele- 
gate, IX, 127; eight-hour policy, IX, 134-136, 145-148; political 
policy, IX, 135-136, 136-137; vice president, IX, 129 

Illiteracy, VII, 142-143 

Immigration: assimilation, I, 51-53; bureau demanded, IX, 339; 
commissioners' methods, IX, 63-64; Importation of Chinese - 
contract, IX, 83, 84; coolies, character, IX, 82; classes, IX, 82; 
members available, IX, 83 ; cost of importation, IX, 83 ; cost of 
living, IX, 83 ; demand for, IX, 82 ; hostility of white labor, IX, 
84-88 ; Memphis convention, IX, 80-84 ; European - American 
Emigrant Company, advertisements, IX, 78-80; agents, IX, 76, 
77, 78, 79, 80; capital, IX, 74, 76, 78; charter, IX, 74; demand 
for revocation of, IX, 222, 223; contract, IX, 74, 75; members, 
IX, 75; methods, IX, 76, 77, 78; objects, IX, 74, 75; offices, 
IX. 76; official organ, IX, 77; references, IX, 75-76; convicts, 



244 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Imra. 

Immigration (continued) — 

character, I, 339, 340; VII, 59, 60; classes, I, 339; demand for, 

I, 374; runaways, I, 346, 352; hardships en route, I, 339, 372- 
373; II, 196; distribution - Florida, I, 87 ; Georgia, I, 85 ; Ken- 
tucky, I, 84, 85; North Carolina, I, 84; Pennsylvania, VII, 88; 
Rhode Island, VII, 142-143; South Carolina, I, 85; Southern, 

II, 247; Texas, II, 251, 253, 256, 257; economic effects -class 
feeling, VII, 94-95; general, IX, 86, 221, 222; negro problem, 
II, 176; VII, 60; IX, 81; pauperism, V, 25; tariff, VII, 143; 
hostility toward, as shown by -Native American Party, VII, 
90; workingmen, VII, 88-89; IX, 84-88, 221, 222, 262, 265, 
271, 334-336, 348; historical importance, I, 50-52; national- 
ities-Barbadians, I, 80; Belgians, IX, 74, 79; changing, I, 50- 
51; Chinese (see above); Dutch, II, 179; English, I, 51; II, 
79» 179 J V, 25; IX, 61, 74 (see also Indentured Servitude, Re- 
demptioners) ; French, IX, 74, 79; German, I, 51, 101 ; II, 183, 
184; VII, 92-93; VIII, 226; IX, 74, 79; Greek, I, 349; Irish, 
I, 51, 101; II, 179, 183, 286; V, 25; VII, 60, 94; VIII, 225- 
226; Italians, I, 51, 348, 349; race relations, I, 101 ; Scandi- 
navian, I, 51 ; IX, 74, 79; Scotch, I, 355-356; II, 108; IV, Supp., 
29, 49, 59, 78, 120; Scotch-Irish, I, 78; Slavs, I, 51; Spanish, 
I, 349; Swiss, II, 108; IX, 74, 79; Welsh, II, 179; IX, 79; 
political effect - democracy, I, 52; Native American Party, VII, 
90; trades affected - engineers, II, 177-178; farmers, VII, 64; 
hatters, IX, 61-62; shoemakers, IX, 84-86; transportation - 
booking shops, VII, 87-88; cost of importation, VII, 83; IX, 
82-83; dishonesty of agents, VII, 87; hardships, II, 172-174, 
255; VII, 86-88; IX, 63-65; ship accommodations, I, 366-371; 
VII, 84-86; inspection of steerage, VII, 83; size of steerage, 
VII, 81-82; unsanitary conditions, VII, 81-84; miscellaneous — 
advice to immigrants, VII, 68-70; advocated by Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 23; advocated in England, VII, 59; desirable class- 
es, II, 76; VII, 59; IX, 81 ; emigration societies, VII, 68; VIII, 
23 ; increase, VII, 49, 92-93 ; indentured servitude, I, 77 ; legis- 
lation demanded, VII, 87; IX, 74, 86-88, 237, 339; opportun- 
ities for immigrants, VII, 76-80; preparation, VII, 68; relation 
to land reform, VII, 299; VIII, 23; tradesmen in demand, VII, 
79-8o 



Industrial] INDEX 24$ 

Importation of labor, sec Immigration 

Importations, iron, VII, 57-58 

Incorporation: coopers, III, 54; methods, III, 213; see National 
Labor Union 

Indentured servitude: artisans, I, 352-354; classes, I, 339-340; 
condition, 340-344; German, I, 374-375; John Harrower's 
diary, I, 188-189, 329; immigration, I, 77, 78; improvement, I, 
77; Italian, I, 349-352; numbers, II, 287; punishment, II, 287; 
replaced by slaves, I, 77; runaways, I, 340, 346-348, 352, 353, 
374; II, 327; school teacher, I, 366-371; Spanish, I, 348; 
stampede, I, 348-352; system approved, I, 340-342; system crit- 
icized, I, 343344. 344-345; transportation and trade, I, 366- 
369i 372-375; treatment, I, 342; II, 287; wage earners, I, 354- 
356; women, I, 341 ; sec also Alsop (George), Frontier, Immi- 
gration, Redemptioners 

Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, cited, VI, 81-86 

Indian meal, price, II, 314 

Indians: attitude of "Crackers," II, 166; corn, VII, 49; depre- 
dations, II, 251; dress of women, II, 230; effect of land re- 
form, VII, 319; enslaved by Spaniards, I, 79; government 
school, II, 234; hostilities, I, 309; house, II, 230; hunting, II, 
190-195; lands purchased, II, 189; murders, II, 220; pioneer 
relations, I, 86, 87; II, 246, 250-251, 283-284, 289-290; polic- 
ing, I, 72 ; slave, II, 242 ; treaty, II, 219; tribes - Aquelon-pissas, 
II, 241-242; Cherokees, I, 86-87; Cherokee lands, II, 239; 
Chitimachas, II, 242; Cola-Pissas, II, 241; Creeks, I, 86-87; 
Natchez, II, 243, 244; Pasca-Ogoulas, II, 241; Saponey, II, 
234-235; Tonicas, II, 246; utensils, II, 230 

Indigo: culture, effect of regime, I, 82; failure of industry, I, 85; 
plantation production, I, 81, 92; typical plantation, I, 81, 92 

Industrial Congress of New York City: convention, VIII, 285- 
296, 299-308; delegates, VIII, 83, 285; organization, VIII, 
285-286 

Industrial depression, see Indigo, Tobacco 

Industrial Reform association, VIII, 82 

Industrial stages: classification, III, 18, 29, 51, 54; merchant- 
capitalist, V, 23; VII, 103-104; IX, 20-22; merchant-jobber, 
IX, 21 ; retail shop, IX, 21 



246 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Ingalls 

Ingalls, James, manufacturer, VII, 139, 140 

Ingersoll, Charles J., counsel, trial Philadelphia Plasterers, IV, 340 

Ingersoll, Jared R., counsel, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 
61, 119, 206-224; IV, 23-25, 87, footnote, 102, 230-268 

Ingraham, — , alderman, IV, 315, 325 

Insects, pests on frontier, II, 199, 255 

Inskeep, John, Mayor of Philadelphia, III, 61 

Insley, Henry E., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 219, 225, 231, 232, 239, 265; VI, 197 

Insurrections, see Conspiracies, Negro plots 

International Industrial Assembly of North America: call, IX, 
118-120; constitution, IX, 123-125; delegates, IX, 120; ob- 
jects, IX, 124; organization, IX, 23; resolutions, IX, 120-123; 
see Trades* Assembly 

International Labor Union, IX, 46, footnote 

International Workingmen's Association : address to delegates, IX, 
356-366; affiliation of National Labor Union, IX, 268; aims, 
IX, 370-373; American section, IX, 46; anarchism, IX, 45; 
appeal to trade unions, IX, 356-359; congresses- IX, 43; Copy 
Book of the Central Committee of the North American Feder- 
ation, cited, IX, 353-373 ; criticism of National Labor Union, 
IX, 363-366; delegate from National Labor Union, IX, 241; 
emigration policy, IX, 338-340, 348-349 ; General council - re- 
ports, IX, 359-373, 375J growth in America, IX, 369; head- 
quarters, IX, 44, 352; history, IX, 44-46, 334-336, 348; in- 
fluence of Marx, IX, 43-44; international trade union, IX, 
373-375; manuscripts, IX, 373; members, IX, 46, footnote; 
North American Federation, national, IX, 46, 351; sections, 
IX, 353-354; organization, IX, 43-44, 351; platform, IX, 46, 
footnote; rules, IX, 357-358; socialism, IX, 44, 45; see also 
Beesly (Edward S.J, Cameron (Andrew C.J, National Labor 
Union, Sylvis (William H.J, United Workers of America 

Interstate commerce, X, 68, 98 

Inventions: effect of shorter hours of labor, IX, 145; working- 
men's inventions, IX, 145, 146 

Irish: laborers, II, 179; mendicants, II, 183; peddlers, II, 180; 
plantation gangs, II, 181 ; see also 1 m migration 



Jamieson] 



INDEX 



247 



Iron: demand, II, 308; "flasked ware," II, 308; mills for sale, 
II, 304; mines, II, 306-307; smelting, II, 307-312 

Iron and steel industry: charcoal, II, 306; cost of living, II, 309; 
demand for labor, II, 348; furnaces, II, 307-309, 312, 313; 
furnaces for sale, II, 304, 312; slave labor, II, 304; transpor- 
tation, II, 310-311 I wages, II, 306, 307, 300-310. 311. 313 

Iron moulders: advice to immigrants VII. 65; IX, 70-71 ; wages, 
II, 309; VII, 48; see also Trade unions 

Erring, Judge — , charge, V, 67 

Irving, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Irwin, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Italians, colony, I, 348; immigrants, I. 51 

Ives, Henry H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 




Jackson, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67 

Jackson, Alexander J. W: National Trades' Union, amendment 
to constitution, VI, 230; delegate, VI, 265; judge of elections, 
VI, 229; motions, VI, 228, 229; president, VI, 193, 266; vicr 
president, VI, 229; president of National Typographical Con- 
vention, VI, 353 

Jackson, Andrew: advertisement of runaway slave, II, 67; con- 
ference with Robert Owen, VII, 160; equal rights policy, IX, 
22; influence of George Henry Evans, VII, 30-31; interest in 
ten-hour movement, VII, 40; land policy, VII, 298-299; IX, 162 

Jackson, Henry M: Cordwainers' National Union, committee 
member, VI, 320, 325; delegate, VI, 317; New York General 
Trades' Union, by-law presented, V, 249, 251 ; committee mem- 
ber, V, 233, 236, 240, 243, 251 ; delegate, V, 221 

Jackson, J. C, land reform, VIII, 26 

Jackson, James, land agent, II, 267 

Jacobs, — , Law Dictionary, cited, III, 314 

Jaeck, Gustav, Die Internationale, IX, 44, foot not V 

Jamaica: capture, I, 79; decay, I, 91, 92; eclipsed by San Domingo, 
I, 92; gang labor, I, 80; negroes, II, 134; ploughs, II, 137; 
rise, I, 91 ; slave labor, I, 80; sugar culture, I, 281-282 

Jamieson, John, carpet weaver, VIII, 239 



248 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Jamieson 

Jamieson, Solomon, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Jantus, Vilem, member International Workingmen's Association, 
IX, 359 

Jarboe, Walter S., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Jarvis, James, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 

Jaures, Jean-Leon, I, 29 

Jefferson, Thomas: VII, 19, 20, 22, 160; Notes on Virginia, 
cited, II, 158 

Jeffersonian, The, VI, 258 

Jeffries [Jeffers?], James: National Trades' Union, committee 
member, VI, 199, 202, 203; delegate, VI, 196, 197; judge of 
election, VI, 204; report on hours of labor, VI, 203; teller, 
VI, 198 

Jeffries, William, delegate to Union Trade Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 129, 133, 336 

Jenkins, Hon. — , VIII, 60 

Jenkins, Mrs. Hawkins, I, 122, 134, 320, 336, 337; II, 31, 181 

Jennison, H., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 174 

Jessup, William J: National Labor Union, committee member, 
IX, 132, 204-205; corresponding representative, IX, 194, 199; 
delegate, IX, 128, 169, 195, 258; female labor report, IX, 
204-205; letter from George J. Eccarius, IX, 336-337; politi- 
cal policy, IX, 136-137; report of New York, IX, 195, 199- 
201, 336-337; vice president, IX, 129, 199; president of Work- 
ingmen's Assembly of the State of New York, IX, 355 

Jewel, Kenneth, master tailor, IV, 103, 107, 112, 129-130, 165 

Jewellers: gold and silver artisans, VIII, 288; silversmiths, VIII, 
288; see also Trade unions 

Jewett, Gilman, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Jews of South Carolina, The, see Elzas (B.) 

Job, Hezekiah, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Johnson, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 

Johnson, Adolphus J., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 288, 300 

Johnson, Andrew, master cordwainer, IV, 30 

Johnson, Andrew (president): alderman, V, 25; appeal for poor 






Jones] 



INDI X 



240 



whites, VIII, 71 ; attacked by land reformers, VIII, 64; com- 
mittee from National Labor Union, IX, 140-141 ; land bill, 
VIII, 62-64 

Johnson, C. Ben: delegate to National Labor Reform Party con- 
vention, IX, 272; National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 230, 
270; secretary, IX, 271 

Johnson, Edward, W 'onder-W 'orking Providence of 'Lion's Saviour 
in New England, III, 22 

Johnson, Henry D., combmaker, VI, 335 

Johnson, John, contract, II, 276; III, 362, 363 

Johnson, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 250, 274 

Johnson, John I., delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, 

VI, 108 

Johnson, Jonathan, master carpenter, VI, 54 

Johnson, Moses, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Johnson, Richard, spinner, IV, 267 

Johnson, Samuel, Dictionary, III, 283 

Johnson, Thomas L., delegate to Union Trade Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 133 

Johnson, William, drover, II, 277 

Johnston, — , cordwainer, IV, 49 

Johnston, George, printer, VI, 347, 350 

Johnston, J. J., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 239, 240, 
250 

Johnston, John, weaver, VI, 342 

Johnston, Robert H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Johnston, W., secretary, Boston Trades' Union, VI, 115 

Jonassohn, Louis, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 289, 303 

Jones, Charles F. D: National Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 267, 269, 270, 274, 281-291, 291-293, 320, 321-324; 
delegate, VI, 265, 318; educational report, VI, 291-293; fe- 
male labor report, VI, 281-291 ; resolutions, VI, 279, 326; views 
on women's unions, VI, 279 

Jones, David, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 41- 
42, 45 



250 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Jones 

Jones, Edward, carpenter, II, 371 

Jones, George W., member Mechanics' Union, V, 92 

Jones, Hugh, Present State of Virginia, I, 339-340 

Jones, J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 

Jones, John H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Jones, John T., X, 85 

Jones, Joshua, delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, VI, 

109, in 
Jones, Thomas, land agent, II, 305, 371 ; IV, 101, 158; VI, 318 
Jones, W. D., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 383, 

385 ; VI, 265, 267, 269, 270, 272, 279 
Joraleman, J. W., land reformer, VIII, 26 
Jordan, Ambrose L., counsel, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277, 

283, 286 
Jordan, Stewart, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Journal and Letters of Eliza Lucas, cited, I, 309 
Journal of a Residence in the United States, see Abdy (E. S.) 
Journal of a West Indian Proprietor, see Lewis (M. J.) 
Journal of Jurisprudence, cited, IV, 201 
Journey in the Seaboard Slave States, see Olmstead (F. L.) 
Judge, A. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 137 
Judges, power, III, 22 
Judson, Alonzo, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 299 
Judson, Lewis, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

261, 362 
Julian, Hon. George W., IX, 273 

Julian, O. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Juner, G. D., witness, II, 141 
Jung, — , member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

347 
Jung, F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 303 
Junio, John J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 198 
Junior Sons of '76, X, 33 
Justis, Charles, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Karnes, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 



KeUal] INDEX 251 

Kaufman, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congrev, 

VIII, 288 
Kaulbach, John G., delegate, New England Workingmen's Aaso- 

ciation, VIII. US, 1 17, 1 20, 122, 274 
Kavanagh, F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 

Kay, James, associationiVr. VII. 189, 205 

Keane, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
221, 233, 240 

Kearnan, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Keating, Henry J: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 195; on 
admission of Susan B. Anthony, IX, 198; on woman suffrage, 

IX, 205; strike policy, IX, 206, 207 
Keating, L., master cordwainer, III, 105 

Keating, Thomas, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319, 326 
Kebscher, Philip, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Keeler, Aaron, cordwainer, V, 56 

Keeler, J. M., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67, 138 
Keen, George, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231, 261 
Kees, Hugh, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 34. 
Kecvil, A., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 

VIII, 332 

Kehoe, Philip, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 235, 237, 
246, 248 

Keimer, George, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 
62-66, 219 

Keisinger, George W., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Conven- 
tion, VIII, 346 

Kelley, O. H : circular, X, 80; organizer of Patrons of Husbandry, 

IX, 49; Patrons of Husbandry, cited, X, 71-74, 74-76, 76-79; 
secretary of National Grange, X, 80 

Kellogg, E. N., land reformer, VIII, 27 

Kellogg, Edward: financial policy, IX, 39-40; Labor and Other 

Capital, IX, 33-34, 34, footnote; A New Monetary System, IX, 

226-227 

tl, Col. Roger, planter, I, 269 



252 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Kemble 

Kemble, George, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 67, 
105 

Kemp, Alexander, delegate to Albany General Trades' Conven- 
tion, VI, 166 

Kemp, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 

Kenaday, A. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 201 

Kennedy, Andrew, member of jury, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, 
III, 62 

Kennedy, Daniel, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Kennedy, Edward, plaintiff, trial Kennedy vs. Treillou, IV, 265-268 

Kennedy, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
276 

Kennedy, Samuel, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61, 
153; IV,Supp., 16 

Kenny, Charles, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 337 

Kent, Chancellor, Commentaries, quoted, IV, 290, 291, 295, 302 

Kentucky: character of settlers, I, 91; development, I, 87; diver- 
sified industry, I, 90; Fort Boone, II, 221-222; frontier, I, 84; 
government, II, 225 ; hunting, II, 228-229 ; immigration, I, 84- 
85 ; Louisville, canal, II, 347 ; founding, II, 260-262 ; manufac- 
tures, II, 301; pioneers, I, 84; II, 219-229 

Kentucky Gazette, The, cited, II, 301 

Kentucky Gazette and General Advertiser, The, cited, II, 329 

Kentucky Reporter, The, cited, II, 335 

Kenyon, Lord, quoted, III, 173 

Keogh, Matthew, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 300 

Ker, Henry, Travels, II, 166 

Kerns, Robert, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 52-53 

Ketchum, Garratt, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 318 

Ketchum, Morris, IX, 76 

Keys, — , weaver, IV, Supp., 60, 62, 64, 67, 68, 73, 94, 95. 103 

Keyser, John H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 285, 287, 288, 295 

Kibbe, Robert, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 152 

Kidney, William, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 



Knox] INDEX 253 

Kilbournc, James, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 

Kihlarc, William, printer, VII, 131 

Kilgore, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 272 

Kilmer, David, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
261, 282; VII, 308, 310 

kilsby, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 282 

Kimball, Dr. — , VIII, 144, 145 

Kimball, Nathan, carpenter, VI, 35 

King, — , judge, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267-208 

King, E. W., counsel, trial Deitz vs. Tate, V, 69 

King, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 107 

King, John, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

King, Richard, cordwainer, IV, 39 

King, W. A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
King, William S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
"King Cotton," I, 283-292 

Kirby, J. Edward, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 137 
Kirkup, William, association ist, VII, 241, 242, 248 
Kirsch, Otto, delegate to National Labor Union, X, 228 
Kittle, Nicholas, master shoemaker, IV, 279, 287 
Kline, Jacob, tailor, IV, 103, 107, III, 1 24-1 25 
Kling, John, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 152 
Kneringer, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 256 
Knight, Daniel R., master carpenter, VI, 54 
Knights of Labor: cypher, X, 25; demoralization, IX, 5051 ; ex- 
tension, X, 34-35; founding ceremony, X, 25-31 ; initiation, X, 
19-24; nature, IX, 49; objects, IX, 49; officers, X, 19-20; or- 
ganization, IX, 49; X, 33; origin, V, 32; ritual, IX, 49-50; 
seal, X, 32 
Knights of St. Crispin, see Shoemakers, Trade unions, national 
Knowles, Thomas C, delegate to International Industrial Assem- 
bly, IX, 120 
Knowles, William, cordwainer, VI, 318 
Knox, J. J., United States Notes, IX, 34 



254 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 



[Knox 



Knox, William, letter, I, 318, 325 
Knoxville Register, The, cited, I, 374; II, 278 
Kohler, — , cordwainer, VII, 308 

Koons, Michael, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tai- 
lors, IV, 101, 107, in, 112, 113, 119, 125, 128 
Koopmanschaap, — , importer coolie labor, IX, 82-83 
Kossack, Daniel, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Krauth, A. H., printer, VI, 347, 348, 350 

Krepps, J. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 175, 194 
Kriege, Herman, editor Folks Tribun, VII, 225, footnote, 225-231 ; 

VIII, 27 

Kronberg, D., member, United Workers of America, IX, 378 
Kuhn, Conrad: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 196, 229, 
259; on admission of Susan B. Anthony, IX, 231; resolutions, 

IX, 237-238, 240; tariff policy, IX, 265; trade union policy, 
IX, 237-238, 240; vice president, IX, 242, 269 

Kuhn, John J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Kuykendall, A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 186 



Labarthe, Michael, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 
196, 197, 198, 199, 210, 213 

Labor: demand for, II, 347-349 (see also various trades) ; dis- 
honored in south, II, 341 ; evils of cheap, II, 358; frontier, I, 75 ; 
gang, I, 80, 101, 335; II, 135; indentured servants, I, 77; mi- 
grations, V, 32; IX, 55; necessity for organization, VII, 342; 
IX, 22, 182; press, V, 21; scarcity, II, 170-171, 174-176, 271- 

272, 347; task, I, 117, 118, 126, 129, 160, 260, footnote, 272, 

273, 275, 349; see Labor movement, Slave labor. Trade unions 
Labor and Capital, see Kellogg (Edivard) 

Labor conspiracy cases, see Conspiracy 

Labor movement: awakening period, V, 20; California, IX, 202; 
changing characteristics, V, 23 ; comparison with English, V, 23 ; 
cycles, V, 19-20; definition, V, 21 ; demand for free schools, V, 
27-29; dormant period, VI, 28; effects of Civil War, V, 23; 
panic, VII, 32; extension, IX, 158; extension of suffrage, V, 
26-27; factory system, V, 23; first national organization, V, 32; 
greenbackism, V, 33; imprisonment for debt, V, 28-29; influ- 



Lamar I 



INDI \ 



255 



ence of agrarianiMii, VII, 32; influence of finance, V, 20; neces- 
sity for organization, IX, 182; negro labor, IX, 158-160; period 
of the thirties, V, 37; issues of 1863, V, 33; origin, V, 23; pe- 
riods contrasted, V, 33; prospects of workingmen, V, 182 

Labor reform organizations: Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII , <; American Industrial League, IX, 288; Benevo- 

lent Society of Social Reformers, VIII, 288; Ex-board of Schuyl- 
kill County, IX, 270; Fall River Mechanics' Association, VIII, 
91; Female Labor Reform Association, VIII, 82, 83, 118; In- 
dustrial League, IX, 269; Labor Association, IX, 257; Labor 
Lodge, IX, 257; Labor Reform League, VIII, 82, 125-127; 
IX, 197; Ladies' Mechanics' Association, VIII, no; Land and 
Labor Reform Union, IX, 170; Lynn Female Society, VIII, 
91 ; Mechanical Association of the Town of Augusta (Ga.), I, 
370, footnote; Mechanical Order of the Sun, IX, 196; Mechan- 
ical Protective Association, IX, 228 ; National Association for 
the Protection of Labour, V, 22 (see International Working- 
men's Association') ; New England Association of Farmers, Me- 
chanics and other Workingmen - call, V, 192 ; character, V, iSs ; 
constitution, V, 192-195; report on education, V, 195-199; re- 
port on female labor, V, 23 ; New England Industrial League, 
VIII, 326-327; New England Reform Association, IX, 277; 
Protective Union Labor Association, VIII, 305-307; Savannah 
Association of Mechanics, I, 368-370; Social Reform Associa- 
tion, VIII, 93; Workingmen's National Society, V, 387 

Laborers: agricultural, V, 33; resolutions, VIII, 223-225; strike, 
VI, 40; wages, VII, 47; see also Trade unions 

Laboulles, L., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 104, 108, 128, 132, 134, 168, 173 

Ladd [Ludd?], Emery, delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 277, 298 

Lafflin, J. W., delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 
120 

La Fourche Gazette, The, cited, II, 277 

Laibold, J. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 

Lake Ponchartrain, II, 241 

Lamar, John B., plantation correspondence, I, 167-183, 309-313, 
323 ; II, 38, 41 



256 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Lamb 

Lamb, E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

303 

Lamb, Peter, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Lamb, William, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Lambert, Robert, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
252 

Lamont, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 36, 83-84 

Lampman, Casparus P., juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 
312 

Land: agencies, II, 239-240; California system, IX, 47; charac- 
ter, II, 234. 235, 236, 237, 244, 253, 261 ; clearing, II, 169, 195, 
256; cotton, II, 251; distribution, IX, 47; drainage, VII, 303, 
footnote; exhausted, I, 88, 291 ; fertility, I, 74, 247, 265; II, 63; 
frauds, VIII, 318; German policy, VII, 310-312; grants, I, 47; 
II, 235, 240, 247, 260-262; IX, 46; homestead, I, 47, 48, 65- 
78; Indian, I, 86-87; II, 189, 190, 239; lottery, VII, 190, 257- 
260; Louisiana, II, 244; monopoly, V, 46; VII, 343; IX, 47, 
323; North Carolina, II, 236-237; preparation for crop, I, 330; 
prices, I, 148, 149, 166, 176-177, 186; II, 73, 234, 259, 265, 
267; VII, 54, 69; sales, II, 263, 267; savannas, II, 234; settle- 
ment, VII, 73-74; squatters, II, 238-239; VII, 73-74; Texas, 
II, 253; unexplored, VII, 298; unoccupied, I, 73; Virginia, II, 
235; see also Agrarianism, Agriculture, Association, Farmers, 
Land Reform, Patrons of Husbandry 

Landers, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Landlordism: English, IX, 47; German, IX, 47 

Land Reform: address of working people, VII, 293-305; advan- 
tages of, VII, 318-320; alien's privileges, VII, 313-314; appel- 
lations of advocates, VIII, 43 ; associationists' theory, VII, 288- 
289; attitude of Germans, VII, 310-312; attitude of organized 
labor, VII, 307-310; bibliography, VII, 287; Congressional re- 
port, VII, 300-301; effects - machinery, VII, 303-304, 309; 
immigration, VII, 299; Indians, VII, 318-319; labor move- 
ment, VII, 32; pauperism, VII, 301; wages, I, 48; frauds, 
VIII, 318; public lands -free to settlers, VII, 307, 312; Ger- 
man policy, VII, 310-312; grants opposed, IX, 47, 162; home- 
stead - equal, VII, 291; exemption, VII, 290, 292, 316, 317; 



Land] 



INDIX 



257 



\ III. 53; IX, 47; Federal bill, debates, VIII, 65-78; inalien- 
able, VII, 291-29J; VIII, 43; individual, VII, 293, 315; law 
of 1862, IX, 46; hostility of press, VIII, 29-40, 48, 59-60; in- 
fluence of French Revolution, VIII, 29; leaders, IX, 47; see 
also Evans (George Henry), Greeley (Horace), Macdaniel 
(Osborne); legislation proposed, VII, 3435. 35. footnote, 313- 
317, 320-324; VIII, 43-44. 55-56, 62-64; IX, 46; limitation 
of holdings, VII, 290, 307, 310, 315. 316-317, 324; VIII, 43. 
53-58, 59-60, 60-61 ; memorial to Congress, VII, 317-320; VIII, 
62, 64-65; monopoly, evils, VII, 299, 300; natural Hunt to the 
soil, VII, 291, 299, 301, 312, 320, 322-323; VIII, 29-31 ; New 
York legislative report, VIII, 51-52; newspapers, VIII, 53; 
Ohio report of L. A. Hine, VIII, 60-61 ; organizations - Anti- 
Monopoly Association, IX, 170; Green County (Wis.) Claim 
Society, VIII, 44-48; Industrial Congress - alliance with Lib- 
erty League, VIII, 21; congresses, VIII, 21; delegates, VIII, 
26-28; freedom of soil, protective measures, VIII, 22; immi- 
gration policy, VIII, 23; Industrial Legislatures advocated, 
VIII, 22; land bill, VIII, 21-22; nominations, VIII, 21 ; prelim- 
inary convention, call, VIII, 21, 23-25; resolutions, VIII, 22- 
23; ten-hour movement, VIII, 21; Land and Labor Reform 
Union, IX, 170; National Reform Association, VIII, 221 ; pol- 
icy, VII, 324; National Reform Union of the City of New 
York - "Address to the people of the United States," VII, 294- 
305; committee, VII, 294; membership, VII, 293; newspapers, 

VII, 293; National State Central Committee, VIII, 318; Pre- 
emptors' Union, IX, 258; "patroons," VII, 300; philosophies - 
George Henry Evans, VII, 31, 313-315; Henry George, IX, 
47; William Lloyd Garrison, VII, 351-352; Horace Greeley, 

VIII, 40-44; Gerrit Smith, VII, 352-364; Thomas Spence, 
VII, 321-322; policy of National Labor Union, IX, 139, 140, 
160-164, 181, 188-190, 233, 236, 267, 268; political activity, 
VII, 289; public lands- effect on immigration, VII, 299; ex- 
tent, VII, 298, footnote; Canadian, VII, 69; freedom of, VII, 
290; Green County Claim Society, VIII, 44-48; Illinois, VII, 
70; Jackson's policy, VII, 298-299 ; IX, 162 ; Michigan, VII, 69- 
70; speculation, VII, 299; public utilities, VII, 315; relation to 
other reforms - abolition, VII, 351-364; Association, VII, 319, 



258 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Land 

Land Reform (continued) — 

325-327, 327-33I. 33I-340; cooperation, VII, 349-35©; educa- 
tion, VII, 340-341; Owenism, VII, 344-349; VIII, 36; rights 
of settlers, VII, 314; township policy, VII, 290, 313; "Vote 
Yourself a Farm," VIII, 305-307 ; Wisconsin, Homestead ex- 
emption, VIII, 53; Greeley's report, VIII, 49-51 ; Green Coun- 
ty Claim Society, VIII, 44-48; land limitation bill, VIII, 53- 
60; see also Agrarianism, Evans (George Henry), Greeley 
(Horace), Land, Skidmore (Thomas) 
Lane, Ermine A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257, 267 
Lane, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V,3» 
Lane, William H., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 312 
Lang, J. P., mechanic, II, 368 
Lang, W. W., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 117, 131, 

133, 136 
Langston, J. M., delegate to National Colored Labor Convention, 

IX, 244, 252, 259, 260, 261 
Larkin, Charles H., VIII, 54, 56 
Lassalle, Ferdinand, IX, 33, 35 

Lasselle, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67 
Latham, R. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Latty [Lattie?], James, weaver, IV, Supp., 35, 82-83 
Lavine, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 265 
Law, David, Jr., plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 
Law, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 34, 35, 49, 67-72 
Law, John, II, 247 

Lawler, Frank, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171 
Lawless, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Lawlessness, frontier, II, 238, 283, 286-288 
Lawrence, — , factory operative, VIII, 146 
Lawrence, Amos, master carpenter, VI, 81 
Lawrence, John A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338, 340 
Lawrence, W. L., juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Lawson, Thomas, advertisement, II, 83 



Leiserson] INDEX 259 

Lawton, Col. A. R., acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Lawton, E. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 

Lawton, Robert B., defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277; 
VI, 166 

Lawyer, fee, II, 198 

Lea, E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 302 

Lead, price, VII, 48 

League of Friendship, sec Trades' Assembly, Louisville 

Leah and Rachel, see Hammond (John) 

Leary, Peter, master hatter, VI, 107 

Leather, price, IV, 51, 54 

Leather cutters, advice to immigrants, VII, 65 

Leather dressers: frontier, II, 175; employers' association, V, 301; 
employers' hostility to union, V, 301 ; strike, V, 352-353 ; see 
also Trade unions 

Leaver, Gabriel, II, 369 

Leavitt, J. B., delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, 107, 113 

Leavitt, William D., delegate to New England Workingmen's 
Association, VIII, 107 

Le Barnes, J. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 205 

Lee, Charles, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 

Lee, D., land reformer, VIII, 26 

Lee, Jesse, letter, II, 284-286 

Lee, Moses, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 317, 320, 
32i, 325 

Lee, Richard, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 

Lee, William H : National Labor Union, assistant recording secre- 
tary, IX, 129; committee member, IX, 132, 141 ; delegate, IX, 
128; political policy, IX, 137 

Legislation: criminal code, III, 185-186; contracts of negroes, II, 
364-365; educational, V, 101 ; factory, V, 35; labor, III, 55-58; 
land, VII, 35, footnote; lien, V, 29, 153, 158; VIII, 123; IX, 
201 ; mill toll, II, 346; monetary demanded, IX, 179; railroad, 
X, 50, 54-59; wages, IV, 60; see also Education, Hours, Na- 
tional Labor Union, Patrons of Husbandry 

Leiserson, William M., acknowledgments to, VII, 19, footnote 



2 6o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Le Lach. 

Le Lacheure, William, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 163, 

164, 165 
Leland, T. C, associationist, VII, 253, 254 
Lent, James G., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

Leonard, D., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Leonard, Enos M : National Labor Union, committee member, VI, 
231, 238, 255, 263, 320, 324, 325; delegate, VI, 229, 316, 317; 
member of Board of Commissioners, VI, 243 ; resolution, V, 327- 
329 ; ten-hour policy, V, 253-255 

Leonard, William J., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Lescohier, Don D., acknowledgments to, III, 53, footnote 

Leslie, James, master carpenter, VI, 54 

Lessner, — , German, member International Workingmen's Union, 

IX, 347 

Letters from America, see Eddis (William) 

Letters to Washington, see Hamilton (S. M.) 

Levans, — , land agent, II, 247 

Levee: break, I, 317; sugar plantation, I, 223 

Levy, Moses, counsel, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61, 73, 

75, 83, 99, 102, 104, 106, 113, 116, 117, 120, 126, 127, 129, 

144, 203,224-236; IV, 73 
Lewden, William, mechanic, II, 368 

Lewis, H. W. L., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 85 
Lewis, J. B., delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 

VIII, 107 
Lewis, M. J., Journal of a West Indian Proprietor, I, 281-282; 

II, 40, I33-I40, 154 
Lewis, Nathaniel, carpenter, II, 369, 371 
Lewis, Thomas, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256, 

371 
Lewis, Thomas W., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 270, 286 
Lewis, William, cordwainer, IV, 26 

Libenau, — , delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 224 
Liberator, The, cited, VII, 219-221, 351-352 
Liberty and the Free Soil Parties, see Smith (T. C.) 



Loanc] INDEX i6l_ 

Liberty League: alliance with land reformers, VIII, 21 ; nomina- 
tions, VIII, 21 
Liddle, William, weaver, IV, Supp., 31, 33, 35, 65, 68, 69, 72, 

74-77. 90 
Liebknecht, — , member of International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 347 
Life of Gerrit Smith, see Frothingham (O. B.) 
Life of Mr. Turgot, III, 160 
Lighty, Mrs. W. H., acknowledgments to, III, 17 
Lincecum, Gideon, autobiography, II, 185 
Lincoln, Abraham, memorial to, IX, 72-73 
Lincoln, Ambrose H., weaver, VIII, 239 
Lindsay, John, master carpenter, VI, 54 
Linen, manufacture, I, 189; II, 274 
Linikin, Benjamin, report on cooperation, VIII, 263 
Linn, Jennet, letter, II, 274 
Linn, Capt. John, II, 274 

Linsted, T. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 
Lisk, William H., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 346 
List, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Litchman, Charles H., grand secretary of Knights of Labor, X, 25 
Lithgow, J. S., manufacturer, IX, 97 
Lithographic printers, see Printers, Trade unions 
Littell, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI. 181. 185 
Little, Thomas, weaver, IV, Supp., 36, 72 
Liverman, Conrad, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Livingston, John W., juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 

362 
Livingston, William, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 315, 319, 326; V, 257, 296 
Livzey, John, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 
Lloyd, George, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

102 
Lloyd, Thomas, court reporter, III, 59 
Loane, Richard, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of the 

District of Columbia, VI, 130, 133 



262 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Lock 

Lock, Eli, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 145, 149, 158 

Lockhead, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 54, 56, 93, 106 

Lockman, Mathias, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 312 
Lockout: hatters, VI, 74, 100; shoemakers, II, 37; weavers, IV, 

Supp., 24, 41 
Loco-foco Party, V, 36 

Locomotives: manufacture, VII, 58 ; see also Engineers 
Logan, Francis, cordwainer, IV, 18, 27, 28 
Logan, Samuel, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 93- 

96, 105 
Logan, Thomas, witness, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 286, 287 
Log-rolling, I, 231-244 
London Company, I, 74-75 

Lonergan, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 
Long, Dennis, manufacturer, IX, 97 
Long, F. A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
f-<ong> John, carpenter, II, 371 
Longshoremen, strike, VI, 41 
Longstreth, John, master carpenter, VI, 54 
Longstreet, William, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Loof burrow, Wade, associationist, VII, 241, 242, 245, 248 
Looney, Peter, contract, II, 276 

Lord, Elisha, juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 
Losee, William H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Lottery: evils, V, 119; VI, 273; land, II, 190, 258-260; Phila- 
delphia offices, V, 119 
Louck, William, carpenter, V, 80, 84 
Louis, Ernest, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Louisiana: American regime, I, 86; cotton production, I, 86; 

crime, II, 121; industry, I, 84; New Orleans, I, 84; pioneers, 

II, 240-249; plantation life, II, 240; plantation profit, II, 197; 

plantation records, I, 214-230, 253, 254, 256-258; slaves, II, 31 ; 

Spanish regime, I, 84; sugar plantations, I, 86, 90; topography, 

II, 241 
Louisiana Courier, The, cited, I, 319 






Luther) INDEX 263 

Louisiana Gazette, The, cited, II, 359 

Louisiana Journal, The, cited, II, 53, 88, 250 

Loutrel, Francis C, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
grm, VIII, 288, 301, 337 

Love, E., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
303 

Low, William, cordwaincr, IV, 18, 34, 43, 44 

Lowe, Jacob, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
236,237,251,259, 262 

Lowe, James W., delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, 
VI, 108 

Lowe, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 301 

Lowell Journal, The, quoted, VIII, in 

Lowell Operative, VIII, 221 

Lowndes, D., juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 

Lowrey, Charles F., printer, VI, 348 

Loyalists, emigration, II, 165 

Lucas, Eliza: Journal and Letters of, I, 309; letter, II, 43 ; see also 
Pinckney (Eliza L.) 

Lucker, Charles H : delegate to National Labor Reform Party, IX, 
272; National Labor Union, alternate delegate to International 
Workingmen's Association, IX, 241, 338; delegate, IX, 170, 
196, 258, 272; immigration policy, IX, 335; motion, IX, 337; 
on admission of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, IX, 198; on admission 
of negroes, IX, 187; president, IX, 232; vice president, IX, 
194, 227 

Luke, Charles, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 

Lukins [Luckens?], Jacob, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 101, 159 

Lull, Harvey, association ist, VII, 245 

Lumber, II, 196 

Luther, Seth: Boston circular, VI, 43; National Trades' Union, 
address, VI, 245-246 ; committee member, VI, 237, 240-242, 245, 
246; corresponding member, VI, 228; delegate to New York 
General Trades' Union, V, 251 ; delegate to Newark Trades' 
Union, VI, 178; motion, VI, 231, 235; resolution. VI, 238, 239, 



264 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Luther 

Luther, Seth (continued) — 

251 ; New England Workingmen's Association, committee mem- 
ber, VIII, 83; Trades' Union of Boston and Vicinity, committee 
member, VI, 99; delegate, VI, 91 ; secretary, VI, 90 
Lybrand, Charles D., VI, 44 

Lydecker, Peter, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 
Lyder, Frederick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Lyell, Charles, Second Visit to the United States, II, 45, 46, 140, 

183, 196, 255, 337, 36i 
Lyle, Samuel, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

107 
Lyman, S. P., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 
Lyman, Samuel W., association ist, VII, 248, 255, 259 
Lynch, John, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 107 
Lynchburg Virginian, The, cited, II, 196 
Lynch law, II, 299 
Lynde, Willoughby, printer, V, 214 

Lyon, Caleb, nominated for canal commissioner, VIII, 326 
Lyon, Henry, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 177, 317 
Lyon, Lewis, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 177, 

196, 197, 204, 325 
Lyon, Philip, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 101, 155 

M abb att, Samuel, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
256 

M'Allister, — , cordwainer, IV, 49 

McAndrew, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

McArthur, Arthur, address on land reform, VIII, 54, 58 

Macaulay, Thomas B., IX, 288 

McAuley, Dennis, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 270 

McBeath, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 214, 219, 254, 264, 267, 285, 286, 295, 299, 318; VI, 195 

McCabe, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

McCafferty, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 



M'Cracken] 



INDKX 



265 



McCaffit, John, Jr., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 

M'Calla [M'Cally, M'Calley?], Robert, delegate to Philadelphia 
Trades' Union, V, 355, 376 ; VI, 239, 245, 257. 263 

MrCammon, William, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 
VI, 168, 172 

McCarthy, Charles, acknowledgments to, I, 103 

McCarthy, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 285, 287, 295. 301, 341 

IfcCntJ, William J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 
239, 257 

McCauley, W. L., cordwainer, VI, 331 

McCauley, W. S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 132, 
134, 136, 137. Hi 

M'Cauley, William S., delegate to Union Trade Society, Balti- 
more, VI, 108 

McChesney, Elijah A., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 
VI, 140, 168, 169, 170, 172 

McChristie, Ewing, weaver, IV, Supp., 42, 51, 86, 88 

M'Clean, Thomas, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 

M'Clintock, John, weaver, IV, 52, 53, 55-56 

M'Clintock, Joseph A., V, 123 

McClosky, Cornelius, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 295, 301 

McClosky, M. J., member International Workingmen's Association, 
IX, 378 

McClure, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67, 69 

,M'Clure, Francis, justice, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

McClure, John A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

McConnell, Hon. — , VIII, 64 

McCormick, Mrs. Bridget, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, 
IV, 267 

McCormick, James W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

McCormick, P., manufacturer, VIII, 205 

McCormick, Stanley, acknowledgments to, I, 21 

M'Cracken, Daniel, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 

358 
M'Cracken, James, land reformer, VIII, 27 



266 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [McCrary 

McCrary, George W., X, 113 

M'Cready, Thomas, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 

McCrone, Robert, carpet weaver, VIII, 239 

M'Culley, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

103-104 
McCurdy, J. W., master shoemaker, VI, 35 
M'Curdy, John, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Macdaniel, Osborne: address on slavery, VII, 216-218; Associa- 

tionist convention, committee member, VII, 189, 200; director, 

VII, 205; secretary, VII, 188; land reform - delegate to con- 
vention, VIII, 26; policy, VII, 327-331 ; letter, VII, 241, 245 

McDannell, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 234 
McDermott, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 267 
McDiarmid, William, associationist, VII, 206, 241, 247 
McDonald, D., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

MacDonald, Mary A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 

205, 208 
McDonald, Robert B., land reformer, VIII, 28 
M'Donald, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 220, 237, 247 
McDonald, William, delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 215 
McDonnell, J. P: member of International Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, IX, 30, 46, footnote; secretary of United Workers of 

America, IX, 378 
McDonough, G., delegate to New York Citv Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287 
M'Dowell, — , cordwainer, IV, 49 

McDowell, Richard, weaver, IV, Supp., 33, 53, 103, 106 
Mace, Daniel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
McElroy, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
McElwain, John, delegate, New York General Trades' Union, 

V.3O0 
McEndow, Henry, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 316 
MacFaden, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 



McHugh] INDEX 267 

M'Fann, Thomas, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 

37-38. 40, 48, 52-53 
M'Fannand, — , master cordwaincr, IV, 28 
M'Farland, Wright, defendant, trial New York Cordwaincrs, III, 

252 
McFarlane, George R., V, 349; VIII, 26 
MacFarlane, Robert: biography, VIII, 251, footnote; address, 251- 

262 ; nominee for state surveyor, IX, 326 
M'Garvey, James, spinner, IV, 266 

McGec, Patrick, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwaincrs, IV, 23, 39 
McGill, Charles, weaver, IV, Supp., 34, 94 

Mi Gill, John, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 86 
McGlynn, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
McGonigal, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
McGovern, Philip, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
McGowan, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

M'Granahan, William, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 
23, 28, 45, 53 

McGrann, John, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 318, 
320, 324 

McGuire, J. C, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 126, 127, 138 

Machinery: agricultural, VII, 303, footnote; apple parer, I, 255; 
carding, II, 329; cloth manufacturing, VII, 275; cordwainers', 
III, 51-52; corn sheller, I, 255; cotton mills, II, 333; effect, I, 
38-40; III, 28; VII, 30, footnote, 47, 203, 295-297, 309; hatters, 

IX, 58; introduction, I, 37; invention and eight-hour day, IX, 
145; labor saving, V, 225; manufacture, VII, 57; monopoly, 
VIII, 103-104; rope yarn, V, 224, 225; spinning, V, 224; steam 
engines, VII, 303 ; sugar mill, I, 227 

Machinists and blacksmiths: advice to immigrants, VII, 64; eight- 
hour resolutions, IX, 279-285; Proceedings of International 
Union, cited, IX, 117; see also Trade unions 
McHoes, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 224 
McHugh, L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258, 265 



268 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Mackall 

Mackall, Levin, planter, II, 208 

McKay, F. C. D., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 

McKay, William, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
158 

M'Kean, Gov. Thomas, III, 59 

McKean [McKain?], J. P: Washington General Trades' Union, 
committee member, VI, 121, 123, 125, 126, 129, 136-137." dele- 
gate, VI, 119; resolutions, VI, 1 20 ; secretary , VI, 121, 126, 127, 
131. 133. 134; secretary's report, VI, 124 

McKechnie, — , witness, trial Thompson ville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
107 

McKechnie, Robert, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 
220 

M'Kee, — , manufacturer, IV, 28 

McKeeby, Edward, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 261, 262, 267, 282 

McKeeven, John, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 

M'Keever, H., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 108, 120, 128, 132, 168 

McKenny, James, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 171 

MacKenzie, W. L., land reformer, VII, 305 

McKeon, John, VI, 148 

McKewen, — , IV, 269 

Mackey, Captain — , report on southern labor, IX, 253 

McKiernan, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

McKim, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 

McKinley, S. E., author, II, 183 

M'Kinley, Thomas, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 

McKnight, Andrew, weaver, IV, Supp., 51, 57 

Macky, Thomas, cordwainer, IV, 18, 28, 34, 46 

M'Laughlin, Patrick, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
252 

McLaughlin, William J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
261 

McLean, Charles: address before National Colored Labor Con- 
vention, IX, 244 ; National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
339 ; delegate, IX, 228, 258 ; financial policy, IX, 265 ; immigra- 






Maddoxj INDEX 269 

tion policy, IX, 265-266; on admission of John M. Langston, 

IX, 260-261 ; on admission of Susan B. Anthony, IX, 231 
M'Mackcn, J., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 104, 108, 113, 118, 120, 127, 128, 132, 134, 136, 168 
McMahon, J. V. L., counsel, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 272 
McMahon, John, secretary Mechanics' Union, V, 92 
McMahon, Michael, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 ; IX, 230 
Mi Michael, Daniel, letters, I, 183- 1 86 
McMickin, John, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

140, 144, 149, 152, IS5, 158, 164 
McMullen, Hon. F., speech, VIII, 71-72 
McMullen, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
M'Mullison, Henry, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 
M'Munn, George, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 

18,28 
McNab, John, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 337 
McNair, John, carpet weaver, VIII, 239 
McNally, — , Justice of the Peace, cited, III, 330, 354 
McNeill, George E: IX, 30; Labor Movement, IX, 46, footnote; 

member of International Workingmen's Association, IX, 46, 

footnote 
M'Ninch, James, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
McPhail, William, delegate to Baltimore Trade Union Society, VI, 

108, 119, 129 
M'Quay, Samuel, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 
McQueen, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

107 
McQueeny, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
M'Quiston, Joseph, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 

34-37 
Macy, V. Everit, acknowledgments to, I, 21 
Madden, John, association ist, VII, 276 

Madden, Owen, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 
Madden, William F., association ist, VII, 276 
Madder, II, 273 
Maddox, Ellis, blacksmith, II, 349 



270 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Madigan 

Madigan, — , delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 
330 

Madison, James, president, VI, 131 ; VII, 160 

Magagnos, Julian A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Conven- 
tion, VIII, 337, 339, 340, 34i 

Magee, Hugh, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Magee, James S., defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

iv, 315,319, 326 

Magnis, John, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 132, 143, 152 
Magruder, A. C, planter, II, 208 
Magruder, James T., planter, II, 203, 208 
Maguire, Adam, advertisement, II, 329 

Maguire [Magwire, McGuire?], John, delegate to National Labor 

Union, IX, 197, 215, 259, 261 
Mahan, Francis, master tailor, IV, 103, 107, 112 
Mahar, William, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 318, 

321 
Mahony, Peter, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Mailey, John, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Major, Alexander, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 
Malambre, Jacob, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Malaria, I, 81, 310, 311 
Malice, "miching Mallecho," IV, 218 
Malone, C, member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

378 
Malone, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287 
Man, The, I, 25 ; cited, V, 24, 46, 76, 204, 218, 230, 232, 233, 247, 

2SO, 307, 326; VI, 38-43, 87-99, 196-216, 217-227 
Manahan, John H., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 179 
Manahan, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 223, 240 

Manchester, J. H., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 
Mandelslohe, — , land reformer, VII, 310 
Mandingoes, see Negroes 



Marketing) 



INDIA 



2 7 I 



Mangold, Dr. George B., acknowledgments to, III, 17 

Manigault, Charles: contract with overseer, I, 123-126; correa- 
pondence, I, 320-321 ; II, 31-33; plantation records, I, 122-126, 
320-321, 336-338 

Manigault, Louis, plantation records, I, 134-149, 166; II, 181 
William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Manley, J. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

Mann, Horace, V, 27 

Manning, E. S., land reformer, VII, 305 ; VIII, 27, 288 

Manning, P., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 318, 320 

Manning, William, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316, 321, 323, 324, 325, 326 

Mannise, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 337 

Mansfield, Lord, Modern Cases in Law and Equity, III, 285 

Mansuel, Robert, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI. 70 

Mansure, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 387 

Manual training, V, 104 

Manufactory, defined, III, 42, footnote 

Manufactures: barrels, I, 263; charcoal, II, 306; cloth, VII, 295; 
domestic, II, 314-317; VII, 72-73; hardware, II, 308; injured 
by railroads, II, 336; iron, II, 308; kerseys, VII, 330; linen, 

I, 189; locomotives, VII, 58; machinery, VII, 57, 295; nail 
making, VII, 57; naval stores, I, 80; opportunities in south, II, 
340; Philadelphia, III, 136; shoes, VII, 72; southern, I, 289; 

II, 302; straw bonnets, VII, 72; tools, VII, 58; turpentine, 
I, 197; see also Cotton, Factory system, Iron, Sugar, Weaving, 
Wool 

Manuring, see Fertilization 

Mapes, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 137 
Marble cutters : strike, VI, 1 14 ; see also Trade unions 
Marcellus, John, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277 
March, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 124 
Market: "bespoke work," III, 34; VII, 66; changing, III, 31; 
custom order, III, 34; export work, III, 34; VII, 295; "market 
work," III, 31-32; regulations, II, 345; shoes, III, 30, 31 
Marketing, cotton, I, 273 



272 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Markets 

Markets, dearth on frontier: I, 90; II, 170; see also Industrial 

stages 
Markland, John, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 62 
Marks, W. J., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 

VIII, 331 

Marley, Richard, delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 108, 

243 
Marlow, John, planter, II, 208 
Maroncelli, Pierro, associationist, VII, 200 
Marques, William, planter, I, 255 

Marrow, Joseph A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Marsden, William N., delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 260, 282, 283, 295, 296, 299 
Marsh, David, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 288, 300 
Marshall, John, chief justice, VII, 160 
Marshall, John, IV, 265 ; V, 337 
Marshall, Josiah, master builder, VI, 81 
Marshall, Miss Marietta, IX, 306 
Marshall, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 298 
Martin, — , address, VI, 46 
Martin, Angus, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Martin, Francis Xavier, letter, II, 197 

Martin, George L., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144, 150 
Martin, George W., foreman, IV, Supp., 48, 52-55, 73, 78, 1 01, 118 
Martin, Julian L., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 

Martin, Samuel, merchant, II, 278 

Martin, Sella, delegate to National Colored Labor Convention, 

IX, 244 

Martin, T. H., Atlanta and Her Builders, II, 367-368 

Marx, Karl: compared with Ira Steward, IX, 24-26, 30; founder 

of International Workingmen's Association, IX, 43-44, 351; 

founder of socialism, III, 28; IX, 42; labor theory, IX, 29-30, 

44; theory of capital, IX, 37; see Brief e und Ausziige aus 

Brief en, Karl Marx: His Life and Work 
Maryland : free negroes, I, 89 ; frontier, I, 77-78 ; plantation de- 






Maynardj INDEX 173 

velopment, I, 77, 78, 83, 84; slave conditions, II, 63; tobacco 
industry. I, 77 

Mason, George, plantation letters, I, 305-307. 321. 322, 355-356 

Mason, George, see Rowland (K. M.) 

Masons: advice to immigrants, VII, 66; strike, VI, 73 ; wages, VII, 
48 ; see also Stone masons, Trade unions 

Masonic order: X, 114; Rules of Work, I, 25 

Masquerier, LeiHll delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 27; 
disciple of George Henry Kvans, VII, 32; land policy, VII, 32, 
290-293, 294-305; report of National Reform Union, VII, 294- 
305; Sociology, cited, VII, 289-293 

Massachusetts Archives, VIII, 81 

Massachusetts House Documents, VIII, 1 33- 1 86 

Massachusetts Legislative Documents, VIII, 81 

Massachusetts Legislative Files, cited, V, 57-61 

Mastens [Masters?], William, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, 
VI, 175, 181 

Masterson, William: Cordwainers' National Union, committee 
member, VI, 321 ; delegate, VI, 317 ; New- York General Trades' 
Union, committee member, V, 236; delegate, V, 300; secretary 
of mass meeting, V, 3 1 8 

Masterton, William J., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Conven- 
tion, VIII, 338, 339, 340 

Mastin [Maston?], R. L: National Labor Union, committee mem- 
ber, IX, 132, 134, 136, 141 ; delegate, IX, 127; eight-hour policy, 
IX, 134-136; vice president, IX, 129 

Mathers, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
340, 342 

Mathews, William, carpenter, II, 371 

Matthews, James, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 318, 

321,325 
Maury, Ann, Memoirs of a Huguenot Family, II, 230 
Maxwell, James, land reformer, VII, 305 
Maxwell, W., Master State Grange of Tennessee, X, 85, 100 
Mayer, S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Mayhew, Samuel, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 100, 136-139. 214 
Maynard, G. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 



274 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Mayo 

Mayo, A. W., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

251, 277; VI, 316 
Mazzini, Giuseppe, IX, 44 
Mead, Cyrus A., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 317, 

325 
Mead, Joseph, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 102, 104, 108, 119, 122, 128, 132, 137, 168 
Meader, D. K., association ist, VII, 241 

Meaney, Peter J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Mechanics' associations: II, 368-370; VIII, 81; Atlanta, Ga., II, 

354-356; library, VI, 70; negro, I, 112, 244, 249; II, 354, 367; 

pleas for local, II, 354-356; relations of masters and journeymen, 

V, 24; wages, VII, 47 ; see also Trade unions 

Mechanics' Free Press: cited, V, 21, 43, 48, 61, 69, 70, 76, 84, 90, 

91, 94, 114, 124, 129, 133, 185, 186; successor, V, 50 
Mechanics' lien, V, 28, 161 ; VIII, 100, 123 
Mechanics' Mirror: cited, VIII, 217-218, 246-250; editor, VIII, 

251, footnote) predecessor, VIII, 219, footnote; publishers, VIII, 

217, footnote 
Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association, II, 372-376 
Mechanics' Mutual Protection: VIII, 217, footnote, 246-249, 251- 

262, 285, 288, 289; see also Cooperation 
Medicines, prices, V, 137 
Meeker, James D., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V.247 
Meeker, N. C, associationist, VII, 276, 277 
Meeteer, Marshall L., delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 

113 
Meeter, J. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 
Mehahn, M., member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 340 
Meherrin River, II, 234, 235 

Meigs, Benedict A., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 159 
Mein, Robert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

289, 297, 298 
Mellor, John T., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Meloney, William, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 

18, 27, 28, 34, 40, 44. 53 



Middlcton] INDEX 275 

Melville, — , delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 185 
Melville, Andrew, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Melvin, James, defendant, trial New York Cordwaincrs, III, 25a 
Memoirs of a Huguenot Family, see Maury (Ann) 
Memorial of the Citizens of Charleston to the Senate and House of 

Representatives of the State of South Carolina, II, 103-1 16 
Memphis Daily Avalanche, cited, IX, 80-84 
Memphis Enquirer, The, cited, II, 80 
Mentzer, Peter, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

102 
Mercer, James, report of overseer, I, 247-249 
Merchant-capitalist, see Industrial stages 
Merchant-jobber, see Industrial stages 

Merchants: classes, III, 44; frontier operations, II, 171-172; in- 
fluence, III, 55; synonyms, III, 56; unfavorable conditions, II, 

171,1 72-1 74 ; see Industrial stages 
Meredith, Samuel, Sr., planter, II, 82 

Merril, Abraham, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 
Merrill, C. A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Merrill, Chester R., machinist, IX, 282 
Merritt, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Meserve, John B., delegate to General Convention of Trades of 

Boston, VI, 90, 91 
Mesier, Peter A., defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 
Messages and Papers of the Presidents, VIII, 85 
Methodists, II, 284-286 
Mexican War, I, 36 
Mexicans, few in Texas, II, 254 

Mexico: abolition, II, 251 ; emancipation of slaves, II, 250 
Meyer, C, land reformer, VIII, 27 
Meyers, C, letter, II, 178 
Micain, C, tailor, V, 317 
Michels, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 192, 

334 

Middlemen, railroad, IX, 21, 22 
Middleton, S., VIII, 146 



276 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Middle. 

Middleton, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 300 

Mifflin, Benjamin, member Mechanics' Union, V, 94 

Mifflin, James A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 

Migration: Dutch, I, 254; Maryland, II, 214; pine barrens, I, 82; 
plantation, II, 196; repeated, II, 255; Revolutionary period, I, 
85; south, II, 185-196; Virginia, I, 85; II, 196; see also Immi- 
gration 

Miles, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 

Miles, John D., VI, 44 

Miles, Richard, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Militia system: attitude of workingmen, V, 29, 30, 1 19-120, 161 ; 
V, 29; misdeeds of soldiers, II, 294; recruiting, II, 279-286 

Milk, price, II, 314 

Mill, John Stuart, IX, 25, footnote, 289, 290, 294, 324 

Milledgeville [Ga.], ordinances, II, 147-152 

Miller, Judge — , IV, 277 

Miller, A., master cabinet maker, VII, 108 

Miller, Andrew, juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 

Miller, F. S., IX, 261 

Miller, J. D., defendant, trial Twenty- four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 104, 108, 128, 130, 132, 134, 168 

Miller, J. E., tailor, IV, 119 

Miller, James, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 154-155 

Miller, John, mechanic, II, 369 

Miller, John, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 168 

Miller, John H., weaver, IV, Supp., 38-39, 90 

Miller, Joseph D., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 349, 
356, 378, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388; VI, 265, 280, 308 

Miller, Milo M., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 382 

Miller, Peter, mechanic, II, 369 

Miller, T., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
303 

Miller, Thomas, sheriff, II, 90 

Miller, William G., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 129 

Milliage, Thomas, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 177 

Millikin, Robert, master cordwainer, III, 105 



Mink] INDEX 277 

Milliman, John, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 159 
Milling, see Rice 

Mill is, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 129 
Millot Aine, Th., member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX. 366 
Mills, — , attorney (?), VII, 139 

Mills, Columbus, master State Grange of North Carolina, X, 85 
Mills, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

276, 286, 318 
Mills, John, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 255 
Mills, Richard, delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, VI, 

108 
Mills, William, carpenter. II, 371 
Mill sites, for sale, II, 259 
Millson, Hon. J. S., speech, VIII, 73-74 
Mills Plantation, free negro squatters, II, 154 
Mill toll, regulation, II, 346 
Millwright, advertisement, II, 351-352 
Milner, Richard, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Milo, Francis, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 120, 1 21, 

141, 146, 148, 149, 150, 152, 155, 156, 158, 161, 162, 163, 166, 

228, 231, 237 
Milwaukee Daily Sentinel and Gazette, cited, VIII, 53-60 
Minard, Isaac, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 
Mindeher, Christian, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, 

IV, 18, 28, 44 
Minerals, wealth in America, VII, 57 
Miners: English, II, 179; wages, II, 307; VII, 48; Welsh, II, 

179; see also National Labor Union, Trade unions 
Miners' and Laborers' Benevolent Association, IX, 354, 359, 360, 

369 
Miner's Record, quoted, II, 296-298 
Ming, Alexander, Jr., address, V, 318 
Mining: copper, II, 247; foreign labor, II, 179; slave labor, 

II, 179 
Mink, Charles W., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 140 



278 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Mink 

Mink, William H., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Minor, Lucian, diary, I, 254-256; II, 178 

Mississippi: Biloxi, I, 84; lynch law, II, 299; Natchez, I, 84; 

plantation records, I, 112-115, 231; plantation system, I, 88 
Missonet, Recorder, II, 153 
Missouri, settlement, I, 88 
Missouri Democrat, cited, IX, 78-80 
Missouri Intelligencer, The, cited, II, 277 
Mitchell, James J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 

170, 175, 185, 194 
Mitchell, John F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 289 
Mitchell, T., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 126 
Mitchell, W. C: Gold, Prices, and Wages under the Greenback 

Standard, IX, 67, footnote; History of the Greenbacks, IX, 

34, 67, footnote 
Mitchell, William, carpenter, II, 371 
Mitchell, William, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 100, 140-141, 174; VI, 127, 131 
Mix, S. H., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316 
Mix, Victor B., associationist, VII, 248, 255 
Mocos, see Negroes, Ebbos 
Modern Cases in Law and Equity, III, 190 
Moderne Kapitalismus , Der, see Sombart 

Moessinger, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Moffet, — , printer ( ?), VI, 274 

Moffett, Thomas, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Moffit, J., factory operative, VIII, 201 
Molders: cooperation, VIII, 310-314; wages, VII, 48; VIII, 309; 

see Trade unions 
Molly Maguires, IX, 50; X, 33 
Molly Maguires in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania, IX, 

50, footnote 
Monaghan, Bartholomew, delegate to New York City Industrial 

Congress, VIII, 302 






Moore) INDEX 279 

Monahan, Christopher, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Monckton, J. H., member International Workingmen's Association, 
IX, 378 

Money: Carolina, II, 175, footnote; counterfeit, II, 181 ; influence 
on labor, V, 34-35. 5<>, 119; paper, V, 34, 35, 50; reform de- 
manded, IX, 180-181 ; scarcity, I, 291; II, 203; small notes, 
V, 48-49; workingmen's policy, IX, 178; sec also Banks, Green- 
backism, National Labor Union, financial policy, Politics 

Monitt-ur de la Louisiane, cited, II, 359 

Monopoly: banks, V, 1 18-1 19, 162; early opposition, V, 30-31; 
effect, I, 34; V, 118-119; evils, V, 118-119; IX, 178, 181; 
land (see Agrarianism, Land Reform) ; machinery, VIII, 103- 
104; tendency toward, X, 44; transition, V, 31 ; sec also Banks, 
Greenbackism. National Labor Union, financial policy 

Monroe [Munroe?], Abijah, delegate to General Convention of 
Trades of Boston, VI, 91 

Monroe, James, president, VII, 160 

Montgomery, William, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, 
III, 34, 104, 105 

Moodie, Thomas, clerk, II, 142 

Mooney, Patrick, VII, 71 

Mooney, Thomas: VII, 71 ; Nine Years in America, VII, 71-80 

Moore, B. E., tailor, IV, 104, 107, 108, 120, 127, 128, 132, 134, 
136, 169 

Moore, David, delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 164 

Moore, Edward, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 281 

Moore, Ely: address, V, 243, 262, 264; VI, 128, 139, 144; hon- 
ored by Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 146, 147, 149, 
150; letter, VI, 150; memorial to Congress, VI, 125; National 
Trades' Union, chairman, VI, 197 ; committee member, VI, 201 ; 
delegate, VI, 197, 238, 239; president, VI, 191-192, 195, 198, 
204, 228; New York General Trades' Union, address, V, 262- 
263, 264; committee member, V, 215, 233, 307-308; president, 
V, 36, 204, 215, 219, 235, 262; VI, 191 ; trade agreement policy, 
V, 307-308; nominated for Congress, V, 204, 207; VI, 204; 



28o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Moore 

Moore, Ely (continued) — 

political influence, V, 36; relation to Tammany, V, 204; report 
of State Prison Commission, V, 204, 235; vote of thanks from 
Newark Trades' Union, V, 263 

Moore, John M., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tai- 
lors, IV, 101, 104, 105, 108, 115, 116, 119, 121, 122, 123, 128, 
132, 134. 145, 158, 168 

Moore, Joseph, master carpenter, V, 82 

Moore, Silas, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District of 
Columbia, VI, 130, 133, 134, 136, 138 

Moore, Thomas, planter, I, 250 

Moore, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 338 

Moral Reform Society, VIII, 24 

Moran, Charles S., delegate to Baltimore Trades' Union, VI, 113 

Moran, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 

More, John, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
46-47 

Morehouse, John, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
252 

Moreland, Adam, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 

25-29. 65 
Morgan, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 289 
Morgan, David, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288, 302 
Morgan, E. W., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Morgan, George, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 325 
Morgan, Griffith, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 301 
Morgan, J. S., IX, 76 
Morgan, James D., delegate to General Convention of Trades, 

Boston, VI, 90 
Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, cited, V, 145, 146, 

147 155. 205, 206, and footnote, 208, 214, 308, 311, 314 
Morris, A. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126 



Munroe] INDEX 281 

Morris, Edward, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337. 338 
Morris, R. H., couasel, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

317,325 

Morrisey, Mark, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Morrison, Alexander, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 285, 287, 288 

Morrow, George, defendant, trial Pittsburgh CordwainerN, IV, 
17, 18, 28, 31, 33, 34,49, 50 

Morton, Marcus, delegate to New England Workingmen's Con- 
vention, VIII, no 

Mosier, Eli, master shoemaker, IV, 278, 279, 282, 286, 288 

Moss, Joseph, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
102 

Moss, Peter, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 315, 
319, 326 

Moting, see Cotton 

Moulien, Francis, delegate to New York General Trades' Con- 
vention, V, 276 

Moulton, Julius: National Trades' Union, committee member, 
VI, 231, 237, 239, 240-242; delegate, VI, 316; resolutions, VI, 
237, 238-239; Troy General Trades' Union, delegate, VI, 159; 
resignation, VI, 165 

Mount, Thomas, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
158, 164 

Mt. Vernon: bakery, I, 191 ; fisheries, I, 190; flour, I, 191 

Mowers, wages in England, IV, 61, footnote 

Muhlmeister, Frederick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

169, 195 
Mules, see Plantation 
Mulhall, Henry B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 

223 
Mulhollum, Cornelius, cordwainer, IV, 40 
Mullaney, Kate, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 227 
Mullen, James, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 
Mulligan, James H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 
Mumby, — , master baker, V, 307 
Munroe, — , delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 93 









282 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Munroe 

Munroe, John L., delegate to Union Trade Society of Baltimore, 
VI, 108 

Munsch, G. A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 303 

Murney, Dennis, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 300 

Murphey, Robert, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Murphy, Charles, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Murphy, J. F., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 119 

Murphy, James P: New York State Industrial Legislature, ad- 
dress, VIII, 326; committee member, VIII, 322, 324, 325; 
political policy, VIII, 318; president, VIII, 317, 318, 320 

Murphy, Michael, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302, 317 

Murphy, William: address, V, 318; National Trades' Union, 
committee member, VI, 231, 235, 240, 246-248, 269; delegate, 
VI, 265 ; memorial to Congress, VI, 246-248 ; report on trade 
unions, VI, 294-297; resolutions, VI, 235, 256; New York Gen- 
eral Trades' Union, committee member, V, 237, 239, 240, 256, 
262, 264, 267, 278, 279, 281, 283-284, 285, 289-293; delegate, 
V, 234, 269 

Murray, Hamilton H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Murray, James, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 
266, 267, 270, 274, 276, 280, 291, 304 

Murray, Terrence, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
252 

Murrell, John A., criminal, II, 76-78 

Musselman, J. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 220 

Mutual Savings Institution, VII, 97-98, 99 

My Diary North and South, see Russell (W . H.) 

Myers, George, carpenter, II, 371 

Myers, Gustavus, History of Tammany Hall, cited, V, 37 



Myers, Isaac: delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230; Na- 
tional Colored Labor Convention, address, IX, 254-255; chair- 
man, IX, 243; president, IX, 246, 255; rebuke to John M. 
Langston, IX, 244 









National] INDEX 283 

Myers, J. F., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Mvrick, S. P., recommendation of overseer, I, 323 

Nahlke, Lewis, land reformer, VIII, 28 

Nail makers, truck system, VII, 51 

Napier, John, secretary Mechanics' Union, V, 92 

Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, a Black 
Man, cited, II, 59-67 

Nashville //'//;>, The, II, 84 

National Anti-Slavery Standard, cited, VII, 218 

National Association for the Protection of Labour, V, 22; see 
Cooperation 

National Industrial Congress: account of, IX, 43, footnote', call 
IX, 42 ; composition, IX, 42-43 

National Labor, The, cited, IV, 338-341 ; V, 207, 300, 315, 318, 
326, 342, 349, 350-379, 380-387; VI, 58-65, 174, 186, 192, 193, 
264-307, 330, 332-340, 342 ; successor to Mechanics' Free Press, 
V, 50 

National Labor Reform Party, sec National Labor Union, politics 

National Labor Tribune: X, 33; cited, X, 33-35 

National Labor Union: IX, 34; accident policy, IX, 223; appren- 
ticeship, IX, 154-155, 192; Bureau of Labor, IX, 224-225, 236, 
271; Colored Convention, delegates, IX, 243-247; financial 
policy, IX, 254; land policy, IX, 253; memorial to Congress, 
IX, 253; platform, IX, 247-253; Congresses, IX, 43; Congress 
of 1866 -delegates, IX, 127-129; officers, IX, 129; reports, IX, 
1 30-141 ; Congress of 1867 -constitution, IX, 173-175; dele- 
gates, IX, 169-171; officers, IX, 194; reports, IX, 171-173; 
Congress of 1868 - constitution, IX, 202-204; delegates, IX, 
195-198; officers, IX, 227; organization, IX, 218; reports, IX, 
198-202; Congress of 1869 - delegates, IX, 228-231; offi- 
. IX, 242; subordinate unions, IX, 232; Congress of 
1870 - constitution, IX, 263; delegates, IX, 257-259; officers, 
IX, 269; reports, IX, 261-262; Congress of 1871 - delegates, 
IX, 270; officers, IX, 271 ; reports, IX, 270-271 ; miscellaneous - 
cooperation, IX, 40, 138, 148-152, 182, 219, 273; criticism, 
IX, 363, 366; decline, IX, 355; dissolution, IX, 42; female 
labor, IX, 156-157, 204, 205, 233, 266, 271; financial policy, 



284 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [National 

National Labor Union (continued) — 

IX, 40, 41, 177-181, 206, 234-236, 266, 271; hours of labor, 
IX, 134, 135. 136, 142-148, 183-185, 236, 237-238, 268, 273; 
housing, IX, 139, 233; immigration, IX, 221-222, 223, 237, 
265, 271, 273, 334-335, 339; incorporation, IX, 237; Indus- 
trial Congress, IX, 273; International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion-delegate, IX, 333-336; greetings, IX, 333; report of 
delegate, IX, 341-350; labor unions - Black River Falls, Wis., 
IX, 231, 232; Camden, N. J., IX, 229; Chicago, IX, 232, 258, 
270; Cincinnati, IX, 270; Cleveland, IX, 259; Detroit, IX, 
231, 258, 270; Easton (?), Pa., IX, 232; Eden, 111., IX, 230, 
259; Grand Rapids, Mich., IX, 197; Greencastle, Ind., IX, 
259, 270; Hamilton, O., IX, 259; Harrisburg, Pa., IX, 270; 
Haverstraw, N.Y., IX, 232 ; Hillsdale County, Mich., IX, 257 ; 
Ionia, Mich., IX, 197; LaFayette, Ind., IX, 258; Lancaster, 
Pa., IX, 270; LaSalle, 111., IX, 258; Leavenworth, Kan., IX, 
233, 270; Lostant, 111., IX, 196, 231, 232; Loveland, O., IX, 
197; Macon County, Mo., IX, 259; McGregor, Iowa, IX, 231, 
232 ; Millville, N.J., IX, 229, 232 ; Milwaukee, Wis., IX, 232 ; 
Murphysboro, 111., IX, 270; Nashville, Tenn., IX, 230, 232; 
New York City, IX, 229, 232, 257; Oberlin, O., IX, 258; 
Omaha, Neb., IX, 231, 232; Ottawa, 111., IX, 233; Painesville, 
O., IX, 232; Peekskill, N.Y., IX, 233; St. Louis, IX, 270; Sa- 
lem,©., IX, 232; San Francisco, IX, 270; Sunbury, Pa., IX, 230; 
Topeka, Kan., IX, 258; Verplanck's Point, N.Y., IX, 232; 
Water Valley, Miss., IX, 230, 232, 270; Wilmington, N.C., 
IX, 232; Williamsport, N.Y., IX, 232; land policy, IX, 139, 
140, 160-164, 181, 188-190, 233, 236, 267, 268; mechanic's 
lien, IX, 192; middlemen, IX, 191; National Labor Reform 
Party (see below, political action) ; in general - negro labor, IX, 
157-160, 185-188, 239-240; newspapers recommended, IX, 137, 
193, 227, 268; obnoxious laws, IX, 232, 238, 239; organization, 
IX, 133, 193; origin, V, 32; platform of Labor Reform Party, 
IX, 233-237; political action, IX, 42, 135, 137, 164-167, 175, 
207, 233-234, 265, 271, 272-274, 361; preliminary conference, 
IX, 126; prison labor, IX, 132, 233, 266; public utilities, IX, 
271; reconstruction policy, IX, 191, 237, 266; repudiated by 
Workingmen's Assembly of New York, IX, 355 ; statistics, IX, 



National] INDEX 285 

240; strike policy, IX, 131, 140, 155-156, 206, 207; suggested, 
IX, 117; synopsis of platforms, IX, 363-364; trade unionism, 
IX, 130, 152-154, 182; sec also International Workingmen s 
Association. 

National Labor Union, Proceedings of the Second Session of, 
cited, IX, 195-227, 336-337 

National Reform Association: attitude of Germans, VII, 310-312; 
Auburn, VIII, 27; Boston, VIII, 28; Clarkson, N.Y., VIII, 27; 
delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 288; del- 
egate to Workingmcn's Convention, VIII, 91 ; Middleton, N.J., 
VIII, 27; New York City, VIII, 27; Philadelphia, VIII, 28; 
Rochester, VIII, 27; Rochester, German, VIII, 27; Williams- 
burgh, VIII, 27 ; Wilmington, Del., VIII, 28 

National Reformer, VIII, 33, 91 

National Reform Union, see Land reform 

National Trades' Union: conventions, of 1834 -address to 
workingmen, VI, 200-201, 210; call, VI, 136-137, 191, 194- 
195; character, VI, 193; constitution, VI, 202, 224-227; dele- 
gates, VI, 191, 196-198; female labor, VI, 217-224; memorial 
to Congress, VI, 199, 209; newspaper, VI, 192; officers, VI, 
191, 198, 204; political policy, VI, 192, 211-216; postponement, 
VI, 191 ; proceedings, VI, 197-227; reports, condition of work- 
ingmen, VI, 205-209; education, VI, 201; hours of labor, 
VI, 203; prison labor, VI, 201; wages, VI, 203, 209; res- 
olutions, VI, 198-199, 207-209, 209-210, 210-21 1 ; of 1835- 
address, VI, 245-246; address to workingmen, VI, 192, 245, 
257, 271; Board of Commissioners, VI, 241-242; constitution, 
VI, 238, 259-263; delegates, VI, 192, 228-229; education, VI, 
255-256; female labor, VI, 250-251, 257-258; hours of labor, 
VI, 231-235, 239, 246-248, 253-255 ; officers, VI, 192, 228, 229, 
253; prison labor, VI, 236, 243-244, 246; proceedings, VI, 228- 
263; public lands, VI, 240, 253; strike policy, VI, 257; trade 
union policy, VI, 240-242, 248, 249, 250, 251-253, 256, 257; of 
1836 -address to workingmen, VI, 271; call, VI, 264; char- 
acter, VI, 193; committees, VI, 269-270, 276; constitution, VI, 
193. 279, 304-307; cooperation, VI, 276, 277, 279, 298-299; 
delegates, VI, 192, 265-266; education, VI, 275, 291-293; fe- 
male labor, VI, 276, 277-278, 279, 281-291 ; hours of labor, VI, 



286 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [National 

National Trades' Union (continued) — 

274, 278-279, 299-304; memorial to president, VI, 277; newspa- 
pers, VI, 278; officers, VI, 193, 266; prison labor, VI, 276, 297- 
298; proceedings, VI, 265-307; public lands, VI, 277, 280; spec- 
ulation, VI, 291-293; two-penny fund, VI, 289, footnote; trade 
unions, VI, 294-297; of 1837, VI, 193. 

Misce llaneous - character, VI, 193; constitution, V, 32; 
conventions, V, 32 ; decline, VI, 193 ; nature, V, 32 ; organiza- 
tion, V, 22-23; origin, V, 32; political policy, VIII, 81; suc- 
ceeded by national trade unions, V, 33 ; suggested, VII, 309 

National Trades' Union: cited, V, 63-66, 204, 215, 219, 221, 222- 
225, 227, 230, 236, 240, 242, 245, 247, 250, 251-300, 314; 
VI, 94, in, 1 19-124, 126, 127, 139-173, 196-211,217-224, 228- 

259, 3H-329» 341-342 
National Typographical Union, convention proceedings, VI, 346- 

351, 352-353 
Natural History of East and West Florida, see Romans (Bernard) 
Naturalization, II, 288 
Naval stores, manufacture, I, 80 
Navigation: appropriation to improve, II, 356; Catawba River, 

11,3" 

Navigation Company, chartered, II, 316 

Navy yards, ten hour day, V, 35 

Naylor, George, VIII, 239 

Neadhamer, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 

Neal, J. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 

Neale, Isaac S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126, 194 

Negro plots, see Conspiracy 

Negroes: advantage of slavery, II, 50-51 ; affected by immigration, 
II, 176; age suitable for slavery, II, 132-133; caulkers, IX, 158; 
certificates of character, II, 147; condition in Africa, II, 127; 
conspiracy, I, 100-101 ; II, 99-118, 128, 150, 248-249; conven- 
tions, VII, 96-99; cooperative scheme, VII, 96-99; "country 
marks," II, 89, footnote; crimes, II, 152, 161 ; dentist, II, 368; 
disadvantages of city life, VII, 96-98; dishonesty, II, 136; dress 
prescribed, II, 113; foreman, II, 140; free -II, 112, 141-164; 
balls, II, 151, 153; band, II, 151; certificates of freedom, II, 
141 ; distribution, I, 89; exclusion, II, 105, 159, 160; guardian, 









New Orleans) INDEX 287 

II, 147; increase, II, 107; licensed, II, 368; limitations, I, 101 ; 
list, II, 143-147; morals, II, 35; numbers, I, 89; occupations, 
II, 143-147; ordinance against, II. 968 j pe 1 '*' 011 * or church, II, 
152; plan to colonize, II, 157; relation to slaves, II, 108-109; 
residence. II, 115, 117; resolutions regarding, II, 157; squatters, 
II. 154; treatment, II, 366-367; undesirable landlords, II, 114; 
freedom purchased, II, 40, 4! ; gambling, II, 152; housing, VII, 
97-98; increase, I, 179; influence on labor movement, IX, 158- 
160; intelligence, II, 140; Mutual Savings Institute, VII, 96-99; 
New Jersey, II, 1 57-1 59; northern, VII, 96-99; property rights, 
II, 114; qualities, Aradas, II, 130; Congos, II, 129; EbW II 
1 29 ; Gabboons, II, 130; Mendingoes, II, 129; Papaws, II, 130; 
Senegals, II, 129; Whidaws, II, 130; sale, I, 253; II, 304; San 
Domingo, II, 155; Sierra Leone, II, 158; relation to white la- 
bor, II, 356-357; right of contract, II, 364-365; speculation, II, 
73; stolen, II, 42, 80-98; supplanted by immigrants, VII, 60; 
treatment, VII, 62; trials, II, 123-125; voluntary servitude, II, 
161-164; wenches, I, 109, 119, 312, 313; West Indies, II, 127- 
133; see also National Labor Union, Slave labor, Plantation 

Neil, H. G., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Nelson, R., letter, II, 293-295 

Nelson, T. S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 

Nesbit, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 

Nesbitt, James, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 144 

Newell, C. F., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 262 

New England Artisan, The, VI, 90, 92, 21 1 

Newhall,— , VIII, 115 

New Haven Palladium, V, 314 

Ncwland, Charles M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Newland, John, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 

Newman, J. H., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 133, 138 

Newman, W. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 

Newman Banner, The, cited, II, 75 

Newman, Stephen, letter, I, 3 13-3 1 4 

New Moral W or Id, cited, VII, 47, 1 52, footnote, 160-164, 166-172, 

345-349 
New Orleans: accident, I, 319; Bayou St. John, II, 241; immi- 






288 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [New Or. 

New Orleans (continued) — 

grants, II, 184; laxity of police, II, 153; state of trade, II, 349- 

350 
New Orleans Bee, The, cited, I, 329; II, 42, 80, 119, 161 
New Orleans Commercial Advertiser, The, cited, II, 155 
New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, The, cited, II, 349, 378 
New Orleans Commercial Times, The, cited, II, 143 
New Orleans Halcyon and Literary Repository, cited, II, 251 
New Orleans Picayune, The, cited, II, 81 
New Smyrna, colony, I, 348-349 
Newspapers: agricultural, I, 71; daily, established, V, 284; 

plan V, 291-293; reliability, III, 68; Yiddish, I, 25; see also 

American Bureau of Industrial Research; National Labor Union 
Newton, James, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Newton, Philip, carpenter, II, 371 
Newton, Thomas, Jr., merchant, I, 190-191 
New York American, V, 155 

New York Assembly Documents, cited, VIII, 51-52 
New York City, population, V, 25 

New York Courier and Enquirer, The, cited, IV, 314, 3 15-3 1 9 
[New York] Daily Sentinel, V, 143 
[New York] Daily Tribune, The, cited, VII, 81-86, 86-88, 96-99, 

109-131, 152-154, 155-160, 164-166, 176-182, 185,211-216,240 

248; VIII, 23-25, 26, 40-43, 60-61, 208-209, 223-225, 296-309, 

314-327, 331-334. 336-346; IX, 253 
[New York] Evening Journal, V, 143 
New York Evening Post, The, cited, IV, 325; V, 31, 204, 207, 

269, 270, 286, 289, 304, 305, 314 
[New York] Evening Star, V, 289 
New York Free Enquirer, cited, V, 93 
[New York] Herald, The, VII, 172-176; IX, 223 
New York Journal of Commerce, cited, V, 154, 205, 209, 308 ; VI, 

47 
New York Mechanics' Gazette, cited, V, 5 1 
New York Morning Herald, cited, V, 113 
[New York] Semi-Weekly Tribune, cited, VIII, 285 
New York Sentinel and Working Man's Advocate, cited, V, 165 
New York State Industrial Legislature: call, VIII, 315-316; can- 









Noland] INDEX 289 

didatrs, VIII, 326; committees, VIII, 316-317; pre» comment, 
VIII, 325-326; proceedings, VIII, $17*3*3 

New York State Mechanic, cited, VIII, 216, footnote, 219, 243- 
246, 251, footnote 

New York Sun: V, 29; quoted, VIII, 2<> 

New York Sun and Star, IX, 227 

New York Transcript, cited, V, 270, 289 

New York Union, The, cited, V, 319; prospectus, V, 292-293 

New York Weekly Herald, cited, VII, 277 

[New York] Weekly Tribune, cited, VII, 34, 35, 37-38, '39*40, 
281; VIII, 27, 43, 49-51. 64-65, 189-191, 192-199, 200201, 
225-226, 240-242, 309-314, 327-331 

Nicholas, John D., delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, 
VI, 108, 134, 136, 138 

Nichols, H. W. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 

Nichols, J., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 
VIII, 333 

Nichols, James, associationist, VII, 206 

Nichols, N. G., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 
of Columbia, VI, 121, 123 

Nichols, Smith, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 90 

Nicholson, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 289, 302 

Nicks, J. I., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316 

Nicoll, August, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 

Nietzel, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

303 
Niles, J. W., master hatter, VI, 100 

Niles, James, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267, 268 
Niles, William, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Niles' Register, cited, II, 330, 349; VIII, 85 
Nine, T. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171 
Nine Years in America, see Mooney (Thomas) 
Noe, James, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 315, 

319. 326 
Noland, John, II, 84 



290 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Non-un. 

Non-unionist, see Closed Shop, Scab labor 

N ordamerikanischen Gewerkschaften. . . Die, IX, 19, footnote 

Norman, — , delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 182 

Norris, Samuel, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 16 

Norris, Stephen, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315, 319, 326 
North, A. W., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 
North Carolina: character of settlers, I, 91; conspiracy, II, 103; 

crime, II, 120; emigration, I, 89; frontier, I, 77; history, II, 

200; settlement, I, 77; II, 236; vagabonds, II, 299; see also 

Conspiracy, Hawks (F. LJ, Tobacco 
Northrop, James, Jr., master builder, VI, 54 
Norton, D. S., advertisement, II, 329 
Norton, Thomas, defendant, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 16, 17, 54, 57, 127, 313 
Nostrand, Losee N., master currier, V, 311 
Notes of Travel in the United States, see Finch (John) 
Notes on Virginia, see Jefferson (Thomas) 
Noxious weeds, X, 47 

Noyes, J. H., History of American Socialisms, VII, 240, footnote 
Nurney, Barnard, cordwainer, VI, 316 
Nurses, plantation, I, 120 
Nye, — , V, 134 



Oak Coopers, see Coopers 

Oakes, W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171 

Oakley, David M., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Oates, J. P., carpenter, II, 371 

O'Brien, John, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
163; VIII, 344, 346 

O'Callaghan, Daniel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

O'Connor, John, delegate to New York Citv Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

O'Daniel, Thomas, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Odd Fellows, VIII, 294; X, 114 

Odell, Isaac : chairman agrarian meeting, V, 1 54 ; New York Gen- 
eral Trades' Union, chairman, V, 214; committee member, V, 






Osborn] INDEX 291 

220, 265, 266, 267, 275, 276, 299; delegate, V, 225, 260; resig- 
nation, V, 225 ; resolution, V, 220, 260 

O'Donnell, James B., vice president, Laborers* Union Association, 
New York, VIII, 225 

O'Donoghue, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 
220 

O'Donohue, F., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 

O'Driscoll, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

O'Flaherty, see Flaherty 

O'Hara, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Old Countryman, IV, Supp., 34. °l. 70, 72, 74, 91, 123 

Oliphant, D. S., associationist, VII, 188, 200, 262 

Oliver, Gen. Henry K., IX, 88 

Oliver, Joshua C, master shoemaker, V, 55 

Oliver, Samuel, mechanic, VIII, 217 

Oliver, Thomas, report of overseer, I, 247-249 

Olmstead, F. L., Journey in the Seaboard Slave States, II, 34, 179, 
340 

Olmstead, Lathrop, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 56 

Ondekirk, Jacob, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
166 

O'Neil, Felix, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

341 
O'Neil, Robert, master tailor, IV, 103, 112, 125-126, 128, 155, 165 
O'Neil, Simon, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
O'Neil, Thomas, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 358; 

VI, 69 
Orchards: frontier, II, 189; VII, 49; plantation, I, 245, 252, 253 
Ordinaries, II, 59 

Organization of Labor, IX, 42, footnote 
Origin and Rise of the Workingmen's Party, see also Berrian 

(Hobart) 
Orr, Tye Kim, testimony concerning coolie labor, IX, 82 
Orton, Harlow S., address on land reform, VIII, 54, 58 
Osborn, D. A., cordwainer, VI, 331 



292 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Osborn 

Osborn, J. H., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 82 
Osgood, James, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 90, 178 
Osgood, Thomas E., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 251 

Ostrander, Matthew, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 140 

Otis, Harrison Gray, master builder, VI, 81 ; VII, 27 

Otterson, F. J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 303 
Overacker, J. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Overseer: advertised for, I, 133, 323; assistant, I, 336; authority, 
I, 324; contract, I, 122-126; II, 315; inefficiency, II, 35-36; in- 
structions, I, 109-122, 126-129; maltreatment of slaves, I, 329, 
330, 334; recommendation, I, 323; report, I, 247-249; short- 
comings, I, 143-146, 173, 325-330; succession, I, 141-147; suit 
for wages, I, 330; testimonial, I, 322; tests of usefulness, I, 121 ; 
tribulations, I, 309-312, 324; wages, I, 145, 146, 152, 154, 160, 
183; see also Berwick (Standi), Bethea (G. N.J, Branson 
(Newyear), Capers (William) , Cooper (G. T.), Crawford 
(Valentine), Newman (Stephen), Myrick (S. P.), Smith 
(Jonas), Straughn (Samuel L.), Valentine (Joseph) 
Overton, James B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 

129, 137 

Owen John, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Owen, Robert: addresses -before ten-hour convention, VII, 109- 
110, in, 112; on leaving the United States for Europe, VII, 
172-176; to the Inhabitants of the United States of America, VII, 
160-164; advice to capitalist, VII, 164-166; arbitration policy, 

VII, 164; attack of Achille Murat, VII, 160-161 ; biography, 
VII, 155, 160-162, 167; cooperative scheme, VII, 164-166; 
criticism of the United States, VII, 168-169, 170, 172-174; de- 
fense of Owenism, VII, 345-349; financial policy, VII, 164; 
free trade policy, VII, 163; on American politics, VII, 168-169, 
*70, 173; on immigration, VII, 166-167; opinion of Fourier- 
ism, VII, 170-171, 223, 225; philosophies - communism, VII, 
152-154, 163, 169-170; education, VII, 159, 163, 165; mar- 
riage, VII, 157-160; religion, VII, 156-157, 163; socialism, VII, 






Palmer] INDEX 293 

147 ; theory of production, VII, 163 ; miscellaneous - travels, VII, 
167-168, 171-172, 173; World's Convention - call, VII, 176- 
178; objects, VII, 178-181; president, VII, 182; proceedings, 
VII, 181-182; suggested, VII, 174-176 
Owen, Robert Dale: Congressman, VII, 172; education, V, 143; 
essays on education, V, 175; repudiation of Skidmore's doctrine, 

V, 142; secretary mechanics' meeting, VII, 142, 149, 154 
Owen, Thomas ML, acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Owenism: attack of George Henry Evans, VII, 344-345; charac- 
teristics, VII, 152-154; defended by Robert Owen, VII, 345-349; 
general rules, VII, 163-164; necessity for in United States, VII, 
168-170; philosophy -communism, VII, 152-154, 163, 169-170; 
divorce, VII, 159; education, VII, 1 59-160, 163, 165; finance, 
VII, 164; laws of nature, VII, 154; marriage, VII, 157-160; 
production, VII, 163; religion, VII, 156-157, 163; use of cap- 
ital, VII, 164-166; progress in United States, VII, 166-168; so- 
cial basis for system, VII, 1 52-154; World's Convention - call, 

VII, 176-178; objects, VII, 178-181; officers, VII, 181, 182; 
proceedings, VII, 181-182; suggested, VII, 174-176; see also As- 
sociation, Fourierism, Owen (Robert) 

Owens, W. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Oxen: breed, I, 259, footnote; use, I, 208-214, 242, 259, footnote 
Oxford Historical Society, I, 20 
Oxford Mercury, The, quoted, II, 54 

Packard, E., delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91 

Paddon, William B., delegate to New York General Trades' Un- 
ion, V, 220; VI, 231, 240, 255 

Page. J«» defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
101, 128, 132, 168, 173 

Paillou, Major-general — , II, 241 

Paine, Thomas, VII, 20 

Painters: advertisement, II, 353; coach painters, VIII, 301; see 
also Trade unions 

Palmer, J. W., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316 

Palmer, John, letter, II, 166 



294 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Palmer 

Palmer, John G., land reformer, VIII, 27, 115 

Palmer, Thomas, mechanic, II, 368 

Palmer, William, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
140 

Palmo, — , VIII, 230 

Pamphlets: insurrectionary, II, 150; see also American Bureau of 
Industrial Research 

Pancoast, Samuel, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287, 289 

Panic of 1837, V, 328; VI, 193 

Parish, F. L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 

Park, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 32, 63, 67, 80-81, 90 

Parker, Hon. Joel, IX, 273 

Parker, Theodore, delegate to New England Workingmen's As- 
sociation, VIII, no 

Parker, W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171 

Parker, W. F., delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 114 

Parkin, Richard, master cabinet-maker, VII, 108 

Parkinson, James, witness, trial Twenty- four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 148-151 

Parkman, — , delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 
330 

Parks, John B., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
254, 263, 282, 285, 293, 296 

Parks, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Parmenter, Hon. — , VIII, 151 

Parnell, William, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
166 

Paronette, John, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 182 

Parsons, Anna Q. T., associationist, VII, 205 

Parsons, F. T. S., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 203 

Parsons, Francis, counsel, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
115 

Parsons, J. L., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 196, 197, 
199, 202, 336, 337 

Partis, Capt. Frasier, I, 355 






Patter.] INDEX 295 

Partridge, Capt. — , lecturer, V, 22a 

Patch, A. H., manufacturer, IX, 97 

Pateman, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 219 

Patents, IX, 145; X, III, 113 

Paterson Courier, cited, V, 63-66, 258 

Paterson, John, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 

Paterson, Joseph, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 250, 257, 264, 281 

Patrons of Husbandry: benefits, X, 105, no; Bureau of agricul- 
ture, X, 131, 134-135; business project, X, 80, 106-107, 109-110, 
in; circular, X, 74-76; commercial treaties, X, 135; coopera- 
tion, X, 94, no, 123-124, 130; decline, IX, 50-51; X, 126-127; 
demands, X, 134-136; education, X, 120-122, 131, 136; finance, 
X, 124, 127, 133, 135; grange agents, X, 107, 115, 117, 126; 
growth, X, 86, 91-92, 106, 118; legislation, X, 81-82, 124-126, 
127, 130, 134, 135; membership, X, 132; memorial to Congress, 
X, 130-131 ; memorial to cotton states, X, 82-85; nature, IX, 
49; objects, IX, 49; X, 100-105, 128-129; organization, IX, 49; 
X, 76-79, 87-91 ; patents, X, 1 1 1, 131 ; plans, X, 71-74; politics, 
X, 118, 127, 131, 132, 136; press, X, 133; Proceedings of Sixth 
Session of the National Grange, cited, X, 85-91 ; Proceedings 
of the Seventh Session of the National Grange, cited, X, 82-85, 
91-105; Proceedings of Eighth Session of the National Grange, 
cited, X, 1 06-1 14; Proceedings of the Ninth Session of the Na- 
tional Grange, cited, X, 1 1 4- 1 18; Proceedings of the Tenth Ses- 
sion of the National Grange, cited, X, 1 1 8- 1 26; Proceedings of 
the Eleventh Session of the National Grange, cited, X, 126-128; 
Proceedings of the Twelfth Session of the National Grange, cited, 
X, 1 28-1 3 1 ; Proceedings of the Thirteenth Session of the Na- 
tional Grange, cited, X, 1 32- 1 36; Proceedings of State Grange 
of Wisconsin, cited, X, 81-82; recommended, X, 51 ; ritual, IX, 
49-50; rules, X, 89; statistics, X, 107-109; taxation, X, 135; 
temperance, X, 131; Texas Pacific Railroad, X, 112-113; to- 
bacco tax, X, 131; transportation, X, 98, 112, 132, 133, 134; 
transportation company, X, 1 13 ; see also Kelley (O. H.) 

Patrons of Husbandry, cited, X, 71-79 

Patroons, VII, 300 

Patterson, Judge — , IV, 277 



296 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Patter. 

Patterson, James, delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, 

VI, 108 

Patterson, James H., printer, VIII, 346 

Patterson, Samuel P., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 303 

Patton, James, contract, II, 276, 289 

Paulding, George, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 270, 274 

Pauperism: colonial, I, 340; definition, V, 26; distribution, VII, 
76; effect of free land, VII, 301 ; effect of trade unionism, IX, 
152; increase, VII, 301, footnote; Irish, VII, 76; New York, 

VII, 301, footnote; parish charges, I, 340; support, VII, 76; 
transportation, V, 25; United States, VII, 301, footnote 

Pawson, Thomas, manufacturer, IX, 97 

Payne, Judith, factory operative, VIII, 137, 138 

Peabody, Cyrus, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 186, 

187, 335 
Peabody, Julia, foreman tailoress, VII, 263 
Peace Societies, VIII, 24 
Peaches, orchards, I, 189 
Pealer, J. J., master cabinet maker, VIII, 107 
Pearce, S. A., master hatter, VI, 100 
Pearson, J. D., delegate to New York and Philadelphia Trades' 

Unions, V, 215, 381 
Pearson, P. N., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 121, 123, 126, 127, 131, 132, 134, 135 
Pearson, William, carpenter, II, 371 
Peas, cultivation, I, 128, 195-203, 221, 229, 234, 237, 238 
Peaslee, C. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 262 
Peck, Israel, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

289 
Peck, John, letter, II, 44 
Peck, Peter, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

301 
Peddie, — , trunk manufacturer, IX, 62 
Peddlers: fined, II, 152; Irish, II, 180 
Penn, Walter L., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

135, 136 









Phelps] INDEX 297 

Pcnniman, E. A., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 359, 

370; VI, 67, 69 
Pennsylvanian, The, cited, III, 40, 41, 42, 43; V, 203, 326, 329- 

337. 339. 348» 349, 352, 360, 389; VI, 21-38, 44, 124 
Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Public Schools, V, 95, 

footnote 
Pennsylvania State Arms, III, 207, footnote 
People's Paper, The, cited, VIII, 221-223 
Percival, Thomas C, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 102 
Perfect Description of Virginia, A, cited, I, 188 
Periam, J., The Groundswell, cited, X, 39-70 
Perin, J. J., blacksmith, II, 349 
Periodical Letters of Progress, see Warren (Josiah) 
Perkins, Henry A., banker, IX, 75 
Perkins, John, letter, II, 176 
Perkins, Samuel, master builder, VI, 81 
Persse, — , VIII, 94 

Peshine, John, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 256 
Peters, E. E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Petition: pardon of slave, II, 122; see also Bass (William) 
Pettibone, P. C, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, no 
Pettit, Andrew, alderman, trial of Philadelphia CordwaineTs, III, 

61 
Peyer, Fred, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Pfeiffer, A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

303 
Phalanx, The, VII, 20 1 ; cited, VII, 186, 188-202, 207-211, 223- 

225, 231-233, 240, 248-259, 260-263, 327-331 ; VIII, 82 

Phalanx, see Fourierism 

Pheall, J. D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127 
Phelps, Alfred W: National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
132, 134, 136, 175, 204; corresponding representative, IX, 194; 
delegate, IX, 127, 170, 195, 228, 258; negro policy, IX, 185, 
186; on admission of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, IX, 198; political 
policy, IX, 135, 137, 175; treasurer, IX, 227, 242, 269; vice 
president, IX, 129 



298 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Phelps 

Phelps, Joseph K., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 247 
Philadelphia City Hall Recorder, cited, IV, 200 
Philadelphia Evening Post, V, 362 
Philadelphia Freeman s Journal, cited, V, 83 
Philadelphia Gazette, cited, VI, 47-49 
Philadelphia Inquirer, V, 314, 362 
Philadelphia Labour for Labour Association: constitution, V, 129- 

133 ; see also Cooperation 
Philadelphia National Gazette, The, cited, IV, 273 ; V, 26, 69, 107 
Philadelphia National Laborer, cited, V, 50, 53 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, The, cited, IV, 335-338, 339, 362 
Philbrick, Norris, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 197, 

199 
Phillips, Cecelia, factory operative, VIII, 138 
Phillips, John M., witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 

29-34, 39, 42, 49, 50 

Phillips, Lenthel, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 91 

Phillips, Ulrich B., editor Documentary History of American In- 
dustrial Society, I, 22-23, 69-104 

Phillips, Wendell: VII, 219-221; VIII, no; IX, 84, 273, 302; 
Speeches, Lectures, and Letters, IX, 302 

Phillips, William, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 91 ; VIII, 108, no 

Physician, attitude of poor whites, II, 167 

Pickering, — , V, 134 

Pickering, George, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 138, 139, 154, 215 

Picketing, IV, Supp., 65, 73, 75 

Piece work, see Wages 

Piedmont district: access from north, I, 82; Carolina-Georgia, I, 
82; cotton industry, I, 85, 86; exhaustion of soil, I, 89; migra- 
tion from, II, 196; pioneers, character, I, 84; plantations, com- 
parative size, I, 93; population scattered, I, 84; prosperity de- 
clining, I, 89; settlement, I, 77, 82 

Pierce, J. J., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 69 

Pierce, Marshall, land reform, VIII, 26 



Plant] INDEX 199 

Pierce, Walter B., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 344, 345 

Pierce, William, planter, I, 346 

Pierce, William T. G., associationist, VII, 205 

Pierson, Daniel, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Pierson, Walter T., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 180 

Pillow, Gideon, delegate to Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 80 

Pinchbeck, P. B., delegate to National Colored Labor Convention, 

IX, 261 

Pinckney, Charles C, memoranda, I, 203-208 

Pinckney, Eliza Lucas, letters, I, 265-266, 308 

Pine barrens: depopulation, I, 89; location, I, 82; population, II, 
160-168 

Pinkerton, Allen, Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives, 
IX, 50, footnote] X, 33 

Pinta, Samuel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Piollet, V. E., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 133, 136 

Pioneers, see Frontier 

Piper, Daniel A., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 
269, 278, 279, 293 

Pirates, Barrataria, II, 298 

Pitcher rule, see Tailors 

Pitts, Elias, editor, VIII, 326 

Pittsburgh Daily Commercial Journal, cited, VIII, 201-205 

Pittsburgh Daily Morning Post, cited, VIII, 206-207 

Pittsburgh Evening Tribune, cited, VIII, 333-334 

Plant, W. H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Plantation: accident, I, 318; accounts, I, 134, 140, 142, 144, 150- 
165 ; advertised for sale, I, 245-254; ante-bellum, I, 72 ; Aquasco, 
II, 201 ; bakery, I, 191 ; by-industry, I, 188, 191 ; candles, I, 
300; cattle, I, no; cereals unsuited, I, 93, 133; cooks, I, 121; 
crops, I, 92, 93, 128, 129, 195-203, 221, 229, 234, 237, 238; 
debt, I, 321, 322; definition, I, 72; description, I, 256-258; de- 
velopment, I, 77, 78, 80, 83, 84; domestic animals, II, 137 (see 
below oxen, mules) ; experiences, I, 167-186; extension of system, 
I, 77, 85-88 ; fencing, I, 201, 236, 242, 244; fishing, I, 190, 203- 
208; flax raising, I, 187, 188; fodder, curing, I, 196, 198, 200; 



3 oo AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Plant. 

Plantation (continued) — 

foreman, I, 337; frontier, II, 242-247; hams, curing, I, 182- 
183 ; hay-making, I, 215, 221, 223 ; hemp raising, I, 188 ; holidays, 
I, 117; importance of regime, I, 70, 71, 94; indigo, I, 80, 81; 
influence, I, 74; Irish labor, II, 181-183; indentured labor, I, 
339-375 J life, I, 188; II, 240; linen manufacture, I, 189; lists 
of slaves, I, 135-140; log-rolling, I, 231-244; management, I, 
109-193, 336-338 (see also Practical Rules for Management, 
etc.); methods, I, 72-74; migration, II, 196; mules, II, 37; 
nurses, I, 120; orchards, I, 245, 252, 253; origin of the system, 
I, 74-76; overseers, I, 323-338; oxen, I, 208-214, 242; physician, 
I, 166, 170; production, crops suitable, I, 92, 93; profit, II, 197; 
railroad, I, 219; records, I, 112-115, 150-165, 195-208, 231, 252; 
routine work, I, 72, 195-244, 330-335; rules, I, 109-112, 112- 
115; sheep raising, I, 210, 231, 249; size, I, 93 ; slave labor, I, 72 ; 
small-pox epidemic, I, 309; spinning and weaving, I, 187-189, 
191-193, 231, 334; staples, I, 92, 93, 259-292; supplies, I, 293- 
296, 296-299, 300-301, 306; syrup, I, 218, 222; tanning, I, 129, 
188; trade, I, 83, 283, 296-298, 300-301, 306; trees, I, 127; 
trunk minders, I, 120; turnips, I, 209, 213; turpentine manu- 
facture, I, 197; vicissitudes, I, 323-338; waste, I, 74, 91, 131, 
256; watchmen, I, 120, 121 ; wheat, II, 273; system - Alabama, 
I, 89; decline, I, 83, 85, 88; definition, I, 74; dependence upon 
staples, I, 71-72; extension of, I, 85, 87, 88; influence, I, 94; 
Jamaica, I, 80; Louisiana, I, 86; origin, I, 74; relation of soil 
to system of labor, I, 93 ; size for various industries, I, 92, 93 ; 
South Carolina, I, 81-82; systems of labor, I, 92; typical, I, 80, 
81 ; Virginia, I, 74; West Indies, I, 79-81 ; see also Corn, Cotton, 
Professional Planter, Rice, Sugar, Tobacco, etc. 

Plasterers: strike, VI, 73 ; wages, VII, 48; see also Trade unions 

Piatt, Erastus E., president, Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
168 

Piatt, George C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Pleas of the Crown, see Hawkins 

Pledger, Philip W., II, 164 

Plotts, Naomi, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Plowing, I, 133 

Plumbers, see Trade unions 



Politics] INDEX 301 

Plummer, Azra, mechanic, II, 369 

Poinsett, — , minister to Mexico, VII, 160 

Police: citizens' squads, II, 148; Charleston, II, 113; insufficient in 
south, II, 120; marshal's duty, II, 131; Milledgeville, Ga., II, 
147; New Orleans, II, 153; officers, II, 148 

Political Economy, sec Raymond (Daniel) 

Politics: Agrarian Party - committee of fifty, V, 149- 1 54; criti- 
cisms of press, V, 154-156; "Fanny Wright Ticket," V, 142; 
organ, V, 143 ; resolutions, V, 1 51-154; Albany regency, V, 144; 
Anti-Education Party - amalgamation with Federal Party, V, 
144-145 ; nominations, V, 143 ; support, V, 144, 145 ; Baltimore - 
mechanics' efforts, VI, 74, footnote; Labor Reform Party -Massa- 
chusetts, IX, 369; New Hampshire, IX, 356; organization, IX, 
42; Pennsylvania, IX, 369; Loco-foco Party, V, 36, 207; Me- 
chanics' Union of Trade Associations, Philadelphia - address to 
workingmen, V, 1 14-123; circular to legislative candidates, V, 
93-94; entrance into politics, V, 90; nominations, V, 76-77; 
organization, V, 75; preamble, V, 91 ; resolutions, V, 92; Work- 
ingmen's Party formed, V, 90; National Labor Reform Party - 
convention, IX, 272-273 ; nominations, IX, 273 ; organization, 
IX, 271; platform, IX, 233-237; resignation of Judge Davis, 
IX, 273; Native American Party, VII, 90; New England Asso- 
ciation of Farmers', Mechanics and other Workingmen, V, 185; 
North American Hotel Party, see Anti-education Party ; Political 
Labor Party, IX, 355; prospects of workingmen, V, 182; Social 
Labor Party of New York, IX, 351 ; State Guardianship Party - 
amalgamation with Tammany, V, 145 ; nominations, V, 144, 145 ; 
scheme of education, V, 165-174; "The Twenty-five," sec Anti- 
education Party ; Whigs - V, 37 ; Workingmen s Party - Con- 
necticut, V, 185; demands of, V, 24, 27-29; early movement, V, 
31 ; Vermont, V, 185 ; Boston - attacks upon, V, 189-191 ; plat- 
form, V, 188-189; New; York City - address, V, 157-160; "Coffin 
Handbill," V, 206; committee of fifty, appointment, V, 147-148; 
report, V, 149-154; report rejected, V, 157; demands, V, 24, 
27-29; division, V, 165 ; education - majority report, V, 174-177 ; 
minority report, V, 165-174; State Guardianship plan, V, 177; 
history, V, 215; opposition toward, V, 154-156; hostility to 
lotteries, V, 93; origin, V, 27, 141, 146-147; organization, V, 



302 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Politics 

Politics (continued) — 

91-92; reorganization, V, 157-164; resolutions, V, 147-148, 160- 

164, 204, footnote 
Pollen, Peter, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62- 

66, 219 
Pollock, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Pomeroy, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Pool, Baxter, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Pool, Charles, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91 
Poor, Mary, association ist, VII, 205 
Poor whites: I, 89; II, 165-168; character, II, 166; pine flats, II, 

167 ; see "Crackers" 
Poppal, Lewis, IV, ICO, 134 

Population: congestion, I, 80; VII, 294; Lowell, VIII, 145 
Porcher, Isaac de C, acknowledgments to, I, 103 
Pork: price, II, 314; V, 31 ; see Prices 
Pork-raising, I, 168, 169, 188, 216, 328, 330-333, 336 
Porter, A., plantation accounts, I, 150- 165 
Porters, see Trade unions 
Porto Rico, exports, I, 92 
Potomac River, removing obstructions, II, 177 
Potter, Hugh, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 137, 230 
Potter, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

250, 267, 289 
Potters, demand on frontier, II, 175 
Poud, R. C, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

288 
Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, cited, V, 78, 81 
Powderly, Terrence V: X, 19, footnote, 28, footnote; Thirty 

Years of Labor, X, 19 
Powell, Joseph H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Powell, William, delegate to Trade Union Society, Baltimore, VI, 

138 
Power, E. W., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Powers, David, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Practical Christian, The, I, 25 






Prices] INDEX 3J3 

Practical Essays on American Government, see Hart (A. B.) 
Practical Rules for the Management and Medical Treatment of 

Negro Slaves in the Sugar Colonies, I, 129-130; II, 127-133 
Pratt, David, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91 

Pratt, S. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 

Prendevall, William, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tai- 
lors, IV, 101, 151-152 

Prescott, Daniel, associationist, VII, 245 

Present State of Virginia, see Jones (Hugh) 

Preston, William, witness, II, 276 

Price, Benjamin, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288, 301, 316, 324. 325, 338, 340 

Price, Fannington, delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 319, 320, 323, 325 

Price, J. W., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Price, Joseph, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 

Price, Dr. William, associationist, VII, 241, 242, 247, 248 

Prices: beef, II, 253, 309, 314; brandy, II, 314; bread, II, 343; 
butter, II, 314; VII, 53; carding, II, 335; castings, II, 308; 
chart of wholesale, V, 19; cheese, II, 314; cloth, V, 137; coal, 
II, 313; codfish, V, 137; coffee, II, 194; VIII, 275; cotton, II, 
192 ; drugs, V, 137, footnote; effect of paper money, V, 31 ; farm 
products, VII, 53; X, 116; flasked ware, II, 308; flour, II, 314, 
3431 V, 31 ; fluctuations, VIII, 213; IX, 48; food supplies, IX, 
67-71; frontier, II, 194; fruit, VII, 49; fuel, V, 32; VII, 48, 
49, 98; Indian meal, II, 314; VII, 49; land, I, 148, 149, 166, 
176-182; II, 73, 234. 265, 267; VII, 54; leather, II, 175; IV, 
51, 54; machinery, X, no; meat, X, 99; milk, II, 314; molasses, 
VIII, 275 ; mutton, II, 309 ; pig lead, VII, 48 ; planters' supplies, 
I, 299; pork, II, 309, 314; V, 31 ; Prison labor, V, 52-53; regu- 
lation, III, 27; VI, 102; rice, V, 137; riding habits, IV, 156-157, 
165, 167; rise, V, 20, 31, 205; VI, 48; rum, II, 309; salt, II, 
194, 278; shoes, II, 175; III, 32, 36, 49. 124, 126, 130, 215; 
IV, 29, 45, 46, 48-52, 54. 56; VII, 48; slaves, I, 88, 100, 134. 
137. 139. 143. U8, 172, 184; II, 72-73. 243; staples in South 
Carolina, II, 309; sugar, VIII, 275; tea, VIII, 275; town lots, 






304 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Prices 

Prices (continued) — 

II, 267; tailor made goods, IV, 117-118; tools, V, 52; weaving, 
II, 326; wheat, VII, 49 J X, 93; whiskey, II, 314 

Prickett, John, member Illinois farmers' convention, X, 48 

Priestly, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
245 ; VI, 197, 200 

Primrose, Edward, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Primrose, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 260, 269 
Prince, Casper, master hatter, VI, 100 
Prince, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 
Prince, Samuel, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91 

Prindle, William H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Printer, The, cited, IX, 67-70 

Printers: advice to immigrants, VII, 66; apprenticeship, VII, 119- 
123, 125-126; bad workmen, VII, 123; Bulletin of the United 
States Bureau of Labor, VI, 343, 346; chapels, VII, 126-128; 
chronopress printers, VIII, 288; conventions, VI, 312; coopera- 
tion, VII, 129-130; VIII, 338; distribution of copy, VII, 117; 
early organization, V, 20; lithographic, VIII, 302; Proceedings 
of the National Typographical Convention, VI, 346-351 ; strike, 
V, 231, 327; tramp, VII, 123; circular of Typographical Asso- 
ciation, V, 212; wages, II, 378-379; VII, 109-131; see also 
Trade unions 

Prison labor, see Convict labor 

Proceedings of . . . Mechanics and other Workingmen, Dec. 29, 
1829, V, 157-164 

Proceedings of the Government and Citizens of Philadelphia on the 
Reduction of the Hours of Labor and Increase of Wages, VI, 
73,231 

Proceedings of the International Union of Machinists and Black- 
smiths, cited, IX, 117 

Proceedings of the National Typographical Convention, VI, 346- 

351 
Proctor, — , factory operative, VIII, 146 
Proctor, Billy, letter, II, 41 









Pyper] INDEX 305 

Professional Planter, A, Practical Rules for the Management and 

Medical Treatment of Negro Slaves in the Sugar Colonies, I, 

127-130; II, 127-133 
Progress and Poverty, see George (Henry) 

Prosens, Peter F., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 
Proseus, David, member of jury, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 

279, 312 
Protective Union, The, VIII, 326, 327 
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, What is Property?, IX, 33, 35 
Publes,— ,VII, 182 
Public domain, see Land reform 
Public employment: bonds of officials, V, 120-121, 163; hours of 

labor, V, 35 ; VI, 41, 233-234, 274, 277, 299-304 ; sewing women, 

IX, 72-73 
Public Ledger, The, cited, V, 326, 328, 350, 379, 386, 388; VI, 

66-70, 193, 308, 330, 351-353; VII, 102-104, 105-108 
Public Laws of Illinois, cited, IX, 330 
Public utilities: bakery, II, 344-345; land reformer's policy, VII, 

315; government ownership proposed, IX, 272 
Puett, A. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 205, 231, 

259, 261, 270, 272 
Pullis, George, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

62-66, 219 
Pullis [Pallis, Pulis?], John C, delegate to New York General 

Trades' Union, V, 251, 289, 298, 300 
Pulver, John, member of jury, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 

312 
Punishments, see Slave labor 
Purdy, Samuel, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

272, 274 
Putnam, Charles, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

165 
Putnam, Mary Kellogg, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 34, 

footnote, 195, 205 
Pyne, James A., land reformer, VII, 305 
Pyper, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

81-82 



306 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Quant. 

Quantrell, William, land reformer, VIII, 28 

Quarrymen, see Trade Unions 

Queen, John, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362, 363 

Quail, G. K., master hatter, VI, 100 

Quervelle, Anthony, master cabinet-maker, VII, 108 

Quin, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Quincy, Josiah, X, 67 
Quinn, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

147, 238, 251, 257 
Quirk, William H., cabinet maker, VII, 106 

Race question, see Immigration, Slave labor 

Races and Immigrants, see Commons (J. R.) 

Radclifr, Jacob, judge, III, 361, 364 

Radcliffe, Dr. J., associationist, VII, 241, 242, 245 

Radford, Thomas, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 

101, 106, 113, 114-115, 117, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 128, 132, 

133, 134, 141, H3, 158, 167, 208 
Radical Reformer and Working Mans Advocate, cited, V, 50; 

VI, 73 

Rahan, Joseph, carpenter, II, 371 

Railroads: argument against, II, 336; Baltimore and Washington, 
II, 178; development, X, 43; effects, V, 32; VII, 100-101 ; free 
pass, X, 50, 57 ; hostility toward, II, 336-337 ; influence on immi- 
gration, I, 51 ; land grants, I, 47 ; legislation, X, 63, 68-70; plan- 
tation use, I, 219; rate regulation, X, 49, 55-56, 60, 63, 65-66, 
68, 95 ; see Land 

Raleigh Register, The, cited, II, 85 

Raleigh Standard, The, cited, II, 299 

Raleigh Star, The, cited, II, 103 

Ramsay, Charles, errand boy, IV, 114, 126-129, 155 

Ramsay, David, letter, II, 166 

Ramsay, William, letter, II, 122 

Ramsdale, John: V, 134; delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
258 

Rand, Gilman, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 132, 
137, 168 






Redemptioners] INDEX 307 

Randall, Nicholas, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267, 
283-286, 288, 315, 325 

Ranger, journal of, II, 292-293 

Rappites, VII, 319 

Ratchford, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Rationalism, see Owenism 

Ravenel, Henry, diary, II, 91 

Ravenel, Thomas P., diary, I, 195-203 

Rawlings, D., planter, II, 209, 213, 214; letter, II, 208 

Rawlings, Thomas, planter, II, 207, 209 

Ray, J., delegate to Trade Union Convention of District of Col- 
umbia, VI, 119, 120, 125, 129, 132, 133, 134, 137 

Ray, William, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 239 

Raybold, John L., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 375 

Rayfield, William, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 100, 135, 136, 173 

Raymond, Daniel, Political Economy, V, 387 

Read, Andrew, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VI, 318 

Read, George, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 

Read, James, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 

Read, John F., cordwainer, VI, 30, 38, 318, 321, 325. 327. 328, 329 

Reardon, — , delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
340 

Reaves, William, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

143; VIII, 91 

Reconstruction, see National Labor Union 

Recor, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Red River Republican, The, cited, I, 253, 317 

Redden, George S., VI, 114 

Redderson, T., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287, 288, 301 

Reddmole, John, carpenter, II, 371 

Redemptioners : coachman, I, 354-355; criminal, I, 357-365; de- 
mand for labor, I, 77 ; Diary of John Harrower, I, 188-189, 366- 
371; German, I, 374-375; runaway, I, 346, 347, 374-3751 H. 
327-329 ; Scotch, I, 355-356; trade in, I, 374 



3 o8 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Redm. 

Redmond, — , cordwainer, IV, 38, 49 

Redstone, Albert E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259, 
265 

Reduction of Hours an Increase of Wages, see Steward (Ira) 

Reed, Asahel, delegate to New York General Trades' Convention, 
V, 294, 299 

Reed, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
48-49 

Reed, James H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 137 

Reed, John, carpenter, II, 371 

Reed, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 126 

Reed, Joseph, judge, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
101, 124, 128, 133, 142-148 

Reed, Samuel F., address on land reform, VI, 46 

Reed, Thomas, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 
28, 34, 39, 43 

Reed, William B., counsel, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 102, 142-148 

Rees, George, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Reese, J., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, VIII, 
332 

Reeve, — , History of English Law, cited, III, 263, 264, 306, 379 

Referendum, proposed, IX, 272 

Register of Pennsylvania, The, cited, V, 338 

Registres des Metiers et Marchandises de la Ville de Paris, see Dep- 
ping (Georges Bernard) 

Regney, Patrick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 

Reid, John, delegate to National Labor Union, VIII, 301 ; IX, 
128, 129, 132, 137 

Reitz, Victor M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

Religion: camp meeting, II, 284-286; legislation, V, 30; missionary 
to Indians, II, 234; Sabbath desecration, II, 287; slave, I, 114, 
115, 264 

Remington, Frederick J: Albany Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 149, 154, 168, 172; delegate, VI, 147, 170; letter, VI, 
67; resolutions, VI, 161, 164; National Trades' Union, com- 
mittee member, VI, 231, 237, 238, 240, 263, 269, 274, 297; 
delegate, VI, 162, 265; resolutions, VI, 249, 273-274, 275 



Rice] INDEX 309 

Remington, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 261 

Renne, J. Z., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Rent: demands of "patroons," VII, 300; fund of associat ionises, 

VII, 203-204; high, VII, 48, 97-98; IX, 150, 151 ; rise, V, 31 ; 

tenement, VII, 225 
Renton [Renter?], Thomas, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen 

Tailors, IV, 315, 319, 326 
Reock, Aaron, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 181 
Report of the Agricultural Survey of South Carolina, cited, I, 290 
Report on the State of the Labor Market, etc, in New York, IX, 

76-78 
Republik der Arbeiter, Die, I, 25 

Restriction of output: cordwainers, VI, 22; see Closed shop 
Retail order work, see Industrial stages 
Retz, Fred, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230 
Revolution, The, IX, 227 
Revolutionary War, effect, I, 85 

Reyan, James, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 152 
Reynolds, John, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

102 
Reynolds, Peter, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

47-48 

Rhodes, James F., Molly Maguires in the Anthracite Region of 
Pennsylvania, IX, 50, footnote 

Ricardo, David, IX, 36 

Rice: barrel, I, 134, footnote; decline of industry, I, 85; effect of 
industry, I, 82; introduction of industry, I, 81, 259; milling, 
I, 263; plantation records, I, 115, 122-126, 134-166, 309, 325, 
326, 336-338 ; rules, I, 1 15- 126; size, 1,92; price, V, 134; profits, 
I, 263; task labor, I, 117-118, 126; threshing, I, 263; types of 
estate, I, 251 

Rice, Hon. Alexander H., IX, 303 

Rice, James, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 

32, 34. 49 
Rice, Prescott, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91,92 



3io AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Rich. 

Richards, George H., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Richards, Samuel, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 

Richardson, Alpha, delegate to General Convention of Trades, 
Boston, VI, 90, 91 

Richardson, E., delegate and committee member to Chinese Labor 
Convention, IX, 84 

Richardson, G. B., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VIII, 316 

Richardson, James D., Messages and Papers of the Presidents, VIII, 

85 

Richardson, John, witness, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 267 

Richardson, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Richey, Daniel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259, 265 

Richmond Compiler, The, cited, II, 335 

Richmond Enquirer, The, cited, II, 347 

Rickets, Robert, delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, VI, 
108 

Riddell, Crawford, master cabinet-maker, VII, 108 

Riddle, James, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 27, 

33,34,35,46,48-51, 53, 55 
Riddle, Thomas, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 51-52 
Ridenhure, William, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 337 
Rider, — , V, 134 
Ridley, P. M. B., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Ridley, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

225 
Rigbay, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V,28i 
Riggers, see Trade unions 

Rights of Man to Property, The, see Skidmore (Thomas) 
Rigney, Michael, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 289 
Rihl, Charles H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 
Riker, — , district attorney, III, 310-318, 346 









Roberts] INDEX 311 

Riley, Michael, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VI, 318, 321,327 

Rimer, Thomas, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Ring, J. M., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 316 
Riots: Allegheny City, VIII, 200; Baltimore, II, 179; nature, V, 26 
Ripley, George: association ists' convention, committee member, VII, 

189, 201 ; president, VII, 188; secretary, VII, 205; criticism of 

Wendell Phillips, VII, 221-222; founder of West Roxbury 

Community, VII, 148; Ten-hour Convention - address, VIII, 

94, 95,* treasurer, VIII, 108 
Risdon, Richard P., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 123 
Rise and Progress of the General Trades' Union of the City of 

New York, see Finch (John) 
Ritchie, George W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 

192, 194 
Riter, George, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Roach, David S., secretary Laborers' Union Association, VIII, 225 
Roach, William, clerk, II, 343 
Roads: Alabama, II, 266; frontier, II, 198, 199, 200; Nashville 

to Natchez, II, 195 
Roande, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229, 240 
Robb, Charles, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

iv, 100, 135-136, 152 

Robb, Samuel, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

100, 135, 153 
Robb, William, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 100, 114, 134-135, HO, 153, 174, 214 
Robbins, Benjamin, vice president Industrial Congress, VII, 276 
Roberts, — , delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 

VIII, 93 

Roberts, David S., delegate to New York State Industrial Legis- 
lature, VI, 318, 321 

Roberts, Joseph, mechanic, II, 368 

Roberts, Marshall, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 
129, 134, 137 



312 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Roberts 

Roberts, Samuel, judge, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17, 77- 

87, 161, 263 
Roberts, Samuel, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 
Roberts, William, weaver, II, 327 
Roberts, William D., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 

269, 298, 304 
Robertson, D. A., member, Patrons of Husbandry, X, 76 
Robertson, Frederick, delegate to New England Workingmen's 

Association, VIII, no 
Robertson, George, carpenter, II, 371 
Robertson, Thomas, master cabinet maker, VII, 108 
Robin, C. C, Voyages . . . de la Louisiana, II, 31 
Robins, Isaac, cordwainer, VI, 318 

Robinson, George, justice, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 
Robinson, George S., delegate to New England Workingmen's 

Association, VIII, 105, 108 
Robinson, Israel, master carpenter, VI, 35 

Robinson, John G., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 129 
Robinson, Sir R., letter, II, 160 
Robinson, William, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 251, 282 
Rochdale, see Cooperation 
Rodney, Caesar A., counsel, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

61, 76, 77, 104, 116, 117, 129, 131, 162-206 
Raff, Almon, vice president, workingmen's mass meeting, V, 318 
Rogers, E. H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Rogers, F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

301 
Rogers, J. B., associationist, VII, 242 
Rogers, Joseph, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Rogers, Nathan A., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 312 
Rolle, — , Abridgment, cited, III, 340 
Rolles Town, I, 350 
Roma, Francis, carpenter, II, 371 



Ruppell] INDEX 313 

Romans, Bernard, Concise Natural History of East and W est 

Florida, I, 348-352 
Ronald, John, weaver, IV, Supp., 48, 49-52, 55*56, 83 
Roosevelt, Clinton, VII, 182 
Rope makers: strike, V, 231 ; wages, V, 227 
Rose, Daniel, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315. 3»9. 326; V, 224, 242 
Rose, Samuel I)., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Roseman, £. L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195, 224, 

228 
Rosenheim, A. H., land reformer, VIII, 27 
Ross, — , clerk, IV, 121, 140, 151, 156 
Ross, Hon.— , VIII, 122 
Ross, Edward A., acknowledgments to, I, 103 
Ross, Jabez, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

265, 298 
Ross, L. F., member Illinois farmers' convention, X, 48 
Roth, — , delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 333 
Rouse, Herman H., juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 
Routine work, see Plantation 
Rowe, Elizabeth, factory operative, VIII, 138 
Rowe, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
Rowell, J. H., X, 51 
Rowland, George, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

175, 176, 177 

Rowland, K. M., Life of George Mason, I, 305, 355 ; II, 292 

Royal Gazette, The, cited, II, 95 

Ruff, William, VI, 44, 46 

Ruffin, Edward, Report of the Agricultural Survey of South Caro- 
lina, I, 290 

Ruggles, Hon. Samuel B., IX, 75 

Rules of Work of the Masons of the Town of Boston, I, 25 

Rum, see Prices 

Rumsay, Edward, manufacturer, II, 348 

Runaways, see Apprenticeship, Indentured Servants, Slave labor 

Ruppell, L., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 
359, 366 



314 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Rural 

Rural Carolinian, cited, X, 80 

Russell, B. B., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 127, 128, 129, 130, 137 
Russell, J. B., associationist, VII, 206 

Russell, W. H., My Diary North and South, I, 256-258; II, 181 
Russell, W. S., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 119, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126 
Ryan, Lewis, witness, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 67, 105, 

106, 130 
Ryan, Martin, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 101, 152 
Ryan, Philip, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 215 
Ryckman, Lewis W: Association convention, committee member, 

VII, 189; secretary, VII, 181; vice president, VII, 182; In- 
dustrial Congress, call, VIII, 21 ; committee member, VIII, no; 
delegate, VIII, 26, 27; educational policy, VIII, 105-106; gov- 
ernmental policy, VIII, 104-105 ; land reform policy, VIII, 109; 
president, VIII, 108; ten-hour policy, VIII, 94; theory of coop- 
eration, VIII, 121 ; vice president, VIII, 301 

Rye, cultivation, I, 129 

Ryland, — , delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 122 

Sabbath, desecration, II, 287 

Sackett, Moses, associationist, VII, 276 

Saddlers: benevolent society, VIII, 294, 302; cooperation, VI, 58; 
negro, II, 366; Saddle and Harness Makers' Association, VIII, 
338 

Saffin, William, of Molders' International Union, delegate to Na- 
tional Labor Union, IX, 258 

Sailmakers, see Trade unions 

Sailors, see Trade unions 

St. Ganden, B., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 341 
Salley, A. S., Jr., I, 183 
Salley, G. M., letter, I, 326 
Salt, price, II, 194, 278 
Sampson, C. T., manufacturer, IX, 84, 85 
Sampson, William, counsel, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 251, 

256-310, 336-360, 361, 372-374, 379 









rrs] INDEX 315 

Sanborn, S. H., member Boston Mechanics' and Laborers' Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 263 

San Domingo: industrial and social status, II, 155-157; rise, I, 92 

Sanford, Amos, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258, 261 

Sanford, Anson P., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Sanford, George, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
144, 145, 152, 158 

Sapp, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 137 

Sappington, John, letter, II, 262 

Sappington, Thomas, master hatter, VI, 107 

Sark, Gustav, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Sartain, Samuel, association ist, VII, 205 

Sash and blind makers, see Trade unions 

Saunders, — , V, 134 

Saunders, C. W., V, 192 

Saunders, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Conventions, 
VIII, 338 

Saunders, Joseph, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 

Saunders, William, editor ( ?), X, 71 

Savage, — , delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 180 

Savage, Charles C, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Savage, Chief Justice — , V, 294, 295, 296, 364; VI, 126, 129. 

324. 325 

Savannah Mercury, The, cited, II, 338 

Savannah Republican, The, cited, II, 353 

Savery, James C, member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 

Savory, R., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, VIII, 
332 

Sawyer, — , a redemptioner, I, 347 

Sawyer, Francis A., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 279, 280; VI, 230, 235, 237, 238, 240, 248 

Sawyer, Jonathan, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316, 332 

Sawyer, Wyman B., land reformer, VIII, 27 

Sawyers, demand for, I, 340 



316 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Saxton 

Saxton, H. L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197 

Sayre, Samuel, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67 

Sayre, William, cordwainer, VI, 317, 320 

Scab labor: III, 57, 75-77, 85, 89, 90, 93, 96, 100; IV, 139, 287; 
IV, Supp., 36, 40, 44-47 ; see also "Dung" Tailors 

Scaife, Jeffrey, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17 

Scarlett, William, delegate to Newark Trades' Convention, VI, 177 

Scheer, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 303 

Schenck, Howard S : National Trades' Union, committee member, 
VI, 199, 202, 203; delegate, VI, 196, 197; nomination for vice 
president, VI, 204; political policy, VI, 21 1, 213 ; report on hours 
and wages, VI, 203 ; thanks to editors, VI, 210; Newark General 
Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 176, 177, 179; corres- 
ponding secretary, VI, 175; delegate to New York General 
Trades' Union, V, 240; resolutions, VI, 178 

Schermerhorn, Edward A: Albany General Trades' Union, com- 
mittee member, VI, 174; delegate, VI, 157, 168; resolutions, 
VI, 169; secretary, VI, 158; National Trades' Union, committee 
member, VI, 235, 247-248, 250; secretary, VI, 250; ten-hour 
policy, VI, 246-248 

Schetterly, H. R., land reformer, VIII, 27 

Schilling, — , VIII, 308 

Schlager [Schleger, Schlaeger, Schlegel?], E., delegate to National 
Labor Union, IX, 128, footnote, 129, 132, 134, 135, 171 

Schouler, Hon. William, VIII, 151 

Schreiner, Jacob, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 62 

Schroeder, Andrew, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 
129, 137, 141, 170, 175 

Schryver [Schriver?], Adam, delegate to Albany General Trades' 
Union, VI, 158, 169 

Science of Society, see Andrews (S. P.) 

Seism, John, delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, no 

Scotch-Irish, see Immigration 

Scott, Judge — , opinion, III, 379 

Scott, Alexander, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 335 

Scott, David A: National Trades' Union, delegate, VI, 196; nomi- 



Select] INDEX 317 

nation for vice president, VI, 204; view* on female labor, VI, 
220; New York General Trade*' Union, committee member, V, 
219, 246, 249, 305, 308; delegate, V, 256; report on bikers, V, 
304-305; report on stone cutters, V, 255; report on tailors, 

V, 248, 267 ; strike policy, V, 307-308; vice president, V, 219 
Scott, Henry, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 355, 359, 

386, 388 

Scott, John, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 37 

Scott, Joseph, carpet weaver, VIII, 239 

Scott, Robert, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 158, 167; VI, 178, 199 

Scott, S. B. N., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
236, 237, 256 

Scott, Thomas, president Pennsylvania Railroad, IX, 272 

Scott, William, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 101, 106, 113, 118, 119, 128, 143 

Scott, William, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Scribner, Asa: National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 
235. 238, 248, 325; delegate, VI, 316, 317; memorial to Con- 
gress, VI, 246-248; ten-hour policy, VI, 246-248; Newark 
Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 176, 179, 181 ; delegate, 

VI, 175 

Scrimgeour, E. J., boarding-house keeper, IV, Supp., 41 

Scullin, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
Scully, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Seabrook, Whitemarsh B., Memoir on Cotton, extract, I, 274-275 
Sea Coast crops, Essay on, see Allston (R. F. W.) 
Seaman, Jacob W., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 287, 288 
Sears, Charles, land reformer, VIII, 27 
Seaver, Horace, delegate to Ten-hour Convention, VIII, 93 
Second Visit to the United States, see Lyell (Charles) 
Segus, Leonard C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Seixas, Abraham, slave trader, I, 307-308 
Selden Society, I, 20 
Select Excerpta, Matthew Carey, V, 67 



3i8 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 



[Sclig 



Selig, Jacob S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Seller, S., associationist, VII, 182 
Sellers, James, Jr., associationist, VII, 205 
Semple, James, overseer, I, 109 
Senegals, see Negroes 

Sentell, Charles, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 
Serrill, Jacob, coal merchant, VI, 46 
Servoss, Charles K., VI, 44 
Sevier, Capt. John, II, 219 
Sewall, Benjamin T., vice president, Philadelphia Trades' Union, 

V, 349 

Seward, Mason, associationist, VII, 242 

Seward, Hon. William H., IX, 296 

Sewing- women, see Women 

Shaffer, Balthaser, mechanic, II, 368 

Shaffer, James, carpenter, II, 371 

Shaker Tract, VII, 251 

Shakers, VII, 319 

Shallcross, Leonard, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Shankland, E. R., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 82 

Sharp, Benjamin, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Sharp, George, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 239 
Sharp, James, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 90 

Sharp, John L., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 
Sharp, P. G., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 168, 169 
Sharp, Richard: National Trades' Union, delegate, VI, 197, 202; 

New York General Trades' Union, committee member, V, 219, 

248, 257, 262 ; delegate, V, 256, 277 
Sharpless, William, printer, VI, 347, 352 
Sharrott, Abraham, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Shattuck, Solomon, witness, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 287, 288 
Shaw, Albert, editor, I, 22 
Shaw, James, mechanic, II, 369 
Shaw, John H., carpenter, II, 371 
Sheddon, John, land reformer, VIII, 28 



Shoemakers] INDEX 3>9 

Sheep, I, 21 o, 231, 249 

Sheldon, George T. E„ delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 303 

Sheldon, Rev. H. O: delegate to National Labor Reform Party, 
IX, 272; National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 231, 258, 270, 
272; prayer, IX, 261 ; tariff policy, IX, 265 

Shellabarger, Hon. — , X, 51 

Shelton, Hon. Thomas J., VIII, 151 

Shenandoah Valley: court news, II, 286; indentured servants, II, 
287; industry domestic, I, 254-255; pioneers, I, 84 

Shepard, Charles, justice of the peace, IV, Supp., 136 

Shepard, S. C, delegate Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 385 

Shepherd, Joseph, carpenter, II, 371 

Sheppard, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII. 337 
Sherborne, Thomas P., master cabinet maker, VII, 108 
Sheridan, James, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 100, 131-132 
Sheridan, Redmond, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 287, 301 
Sheriff, Hart R., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Sherrod, Walter, cordwainer, VIII, 236 
Shields, John, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

100, 107, 195-196, 198 
Shields, Robert, tailor, IV, III 

Shields, W. A., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 228 
Sniffer, William H., delegate to Newark Trades* Union, VI, 182 
Ship carpenters: demoralization of union, IX, 199; grievances, VI, 

83-86; strike, VI, 79-82, 83-86 
Ship joiners, see Trade unions 
Shipley, A. R., X, 133 
Shipman, Thomas D., Report on the State of the Labor Market, 

etc., in New York, cited, IX, 76-78 
Ship sawyers, see Trade unions 
Shipwrights, see Trade unions 
Shoemaker, Abraham, alderman, III, 61 
Shoemakers: advice to immigrants, VII, 65; apprenticeship, IV, 36- 



320 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Shoem. 

Shoemakers (continued) — 

38, 40, 43-44; V, 69; VIII, 233; "bad ware," III, 22, 50; Boot 
and Shoemakers' Working Union, VIII, 287; Bootmakers' so- 
ciety, VIII, 302; Boston - incorporation, III, 22; charter, I, 27; 
III, 20-21, footnote; closed shop, III, 70-73; combination, III, 
65-66; competition, VI, 29; conspiracy, III, 20, 251 (see also 
Conspiracy trials) ; cooperation, V, 367, 368; Cordwain Boot and 
Shoemakers, VIII, 342; cordwainer's convention, call, V, 316, 
330-331; delegates, V, 317-318; preliminary meeting, V, 314- 
316; proceedings, V, 318-329; societies - ladies' branch, V, 46; 
VIII, 221, 301; Lynn, 232-234, 234-236; men's branch, VIII, 
301, 341 ; protective society, VIII, 287 ; cost of living, IV, 51-52 ; 
demand on frontier, II, 174, 175, 349; domestic manufacture, 
VII, 72; employers' association, V, 32-35, 311-313; employers' 
opposition to union, V, 246 ; Federal Society of Journeymen Cord- 
wainers, III, 1 10; fines, IV, 282, 283, 287 ; grievances, VI, 21-27 ; 
"foul goods," VI, 38; guild, III, 20-25 ; hardships, IV, 70; hours 
of labor, III, 40, 118; incorporation, III, 22; itinerant, III, 
23, 24; land policy, VII, 307-310; market, III, 30; masters' 
society, III, 26-27, J 25, 128, 166; IV, 55; organization, III, 35, 

39, 72, 86, 174-177; V, 20; VI, 21, 314-316; prison labor, V, 
54-56; profit, III, 125; IV, 48; restriction of output, VI, 22; 
rules, III, 166; IV, 177, 281; scab labor, III, 72-73; 90-98; 
"Shoomakers of Boston," III, 20-22; shop-work, development, 
III, 30, 32, 33; price, III, 86; retail sales, III, 49; sick benefit, 
III, 34; Society of Journeymen, Hudson, officers, IV, 280; New 
York City, constitution, III, 364-368; IV, 177; strikes, III, 81, 
249; V, 46, 240-242, 246, 248, 350, 354, 365; VI, 27-29; 
"tools found," IV, 29; "tramping committee," III, 75; wages, 
III, 27, 35, 38, footnote, 72, 118; IV, 281; V, 365-367 J VI, 
22-24, 27-28, 36-38, 65, 134, 135, 137, 184; see also Conspiracy 
trials, Industrial stages 

Shoes, price, VII, 48 

Short, John: National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 199, 
200, 201, 204; delegate, VI, 196, 197; educational policy, VI, 
201 ; New York General Trades' Union, committee member, 
V, 243, 248; delegate, V, 261 ; election inspector, V, 262 

Showard, George W., land reformer, VIII, 26 



Siney] INDEX 321 

Shrevcport Gazette, The, cited, II, 1 19 

Shubcrt, George, delegate to Philadelphia Trade*' Union, V, 337 
Shuck, Simon, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 193, 229 
Shufelt, John I., juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 
Shults, C, member Mechanics' Mutual Protection, New York, 

VIII, 251 
Shultz, Robert E., carpenter, VI, 337 
ShurtleflF, Joseph, delegate Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 144, 

145, 161 
Sibley, Hon. H. H., VIII, 74.75 

Siebert, H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Sierra Leone, negro colony, II, 158 
Silance, Charles J., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

171 
Silver knife makers: VIII, 338, 342; see also Trade unions 
Silversmiths: VIII, 288, 301 ; sec also Jewellers, Trade unions 
Simes, John W., juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

102 
Simmons, Joseph, member of jury, trial Philadelphia Cordwaincrs, 

III, 62 

Simms, James, II, 70 

Simon, Martin, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Simons, John, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 351 

Simpson, George, weaver, IV, Supp., 33, 35, 44, 45, 48, 54. 93-99 

Simpson, James, mechanic, II, 369 

Simpson, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
46 

Simpson, R. W. G., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Simpson, Thomas, juror, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 102 

Sims, Benjamin, planter, I, 253 

Sims (Symmes), James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 84, 103 

Sims, Joseph B., planter, II, 122 

Siney, John: delegate to National Labor Reform Party, IX, 272; 
National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 257, 270, 272; tariff pol- 
icy, IX, 265 



322 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Sintz. 

Sintzenich, M., delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 
1 20 

Skeegs, Thomas, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tai- 
lors, IV, 101, 102, 106, 113, 118, 119, 128, 137, 143, 167 

Skelton, Hon. C, VIII, 66-67 

Skidmore, Thomas: V, 78, 149-154; "The original workingmen," 
V, 142; repudiated by Workingmen's Party, V, 157; Rights of 
Man to Property, V, 141 ; see also A grarianism 

Skillig (Skillen?), John, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 315, 319, 326 

Skinner, Richard, planter, II, 209 

Slamm, Levi D: National Trades' Union, committee member, VI, 
250, 267, 269, 297-298; delegate, VI, 228, 265; prison labor 
policy, VI, 244, 245, 297-298; resolutions, VI, 244, 249-250, 
258; secretary, VI, 229; New York General Trades' Union, 
committee member, V, 242, 243, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 257, 
264, 265, 271, 274, 278, 279, 283-284, 284-285, 290, 291-293, 
294, 296, 297, 298, 299 ; corresponding secretary, V, 262 ; dele- 
gate, V, 238; letter, V, 271; resolutions, V, 263; secretary, V, 
318; ten-hour policy, V, 252-253 

Slaughter, Capt. — , II, 225, 226, 227, 228 

Slaveholders: estates, I, 89; vexations of, I, 174 

Slaveholding, difficulty of avoiding, II, 29-30 

Slave labor: absence from plantation, I, 116; advertised for sale 
and hire, II, 47, 52, 55, 57, 58; allowances, I, m, 114, 116, 
126, 127, 128, 129, 148, 316, 332, 336; artisans, I, 112, 244, 
249; associated with white labor, II, 356, 357; bricklayer, II, 
47; care, I, 109-113, 1 16-122, 124, 125, 166, 309-317; H, 31; 
caste, II, 134; children, I, 143, 148; clothing, I, 293-296; coffle, 
II, 59; compensation for execution, II, 122; condition, II, 46- 
47. 134. 361-367; Coromantins, II, 128; cotton mills, II, 358; 
crimes, II, 1 18-125, 149; demand for, I, 88; II, 65; diet, II, 
253; disadvantages, II, 34-37; discipline, I, 128, 129-130, 313; 
11,32,39. 137; diseases, I, 141,217, 218, 249, 309-311, 332; II, 
131; drivers (negro), I, 120, 129, 139; duty forbidden, II, 29; 
efficiency, II, 33-34. 38, 46-47. I35» 137 J emancipation, II, 40, 
142, 143, 160, 183, 250-251 ; hostility of free labor, VII, 60-61 ; 
exclusion, I, 81 ; expense of maintenance, II, 46, 357, 358; fac- 



Smelting] INDEX 323 

tory operatives, II, 358; festival, II, 134; frontier, II, aoi, 203, 
204-206, 208,210, 211, 212, 245, 250-251, 253, 256; gala draft, 
II, 134; Greek, I, 348-352; hiring, II, 36; III, 147, 179, 201- 
205, 208, 217, 341, 348; holidays, I, 117, 202; housing, I, 113, 
169; II, 34; importation, II, 29-30, 128; Indian, II, 242; in- 
gratitude, II, 136, 139; injury to free labor, II, 337-338, 360-361 ; 
inspection of quarters, I, 209-214; introduction, I, 45; Italian, 
I. 348-352; legislation, II, 128; lists, I, 135-140; management, 
I, 129-130; mechanics, II, 112; migration, I, 85, 88, 90; II, 
176. 177; mining, II, 179; moral effect, VII, 64; mulatto chil- 
dren, II, 134; night work for pay, II, 45; outlaw, II, 86-87; 
Phantees, II, 128; prices, I, 88, 100, 134, 136, 137, 139, 143, 
148, 171-172, 184; II, 30, 54, 71-73, 210, 243, 256, 341 ; priv- 
ileges, I, 114, 116, 122, 221, 229; punishments, I, 113, 116, 118, 
126, 128, 130, 334, 335. 371 1 reliability, II, 138; religious exer- 
cises, I, 114, 115, 264; replaced indentured labor, I, 77; replaced 
Indian labor, I, 79; restrictions, I, 147-152; runaways, I, 311, 
320, 321, 334, 335; II, 42, 75, 80-98, 118, 122, 152, 212, 245; 
sale, I, 89, 90; scarcity, II, 207; shoemakers, II, 46; Spanish, I, 
348-352; status in Texas, II, 250; stolen, II, 75, 76-78, 79; 
suicide, II, 31, 94; supplanted by Irish, II, 182; tasks, I, 117, 
118, 126, 260, footnote; treatment, I, 329, 330, 334, 335; II, 
31, 44-46, 59-67, 131, 180, 201-202, 249; usefulness, I, 72; see 
also Associationists, Greeley, Mexico, Negroes, Plantation, Wind- 
ward Islands 

Slave States of America, see Buckingham (J. S.) 

Slave trade: coffle, II, 59; abolition, I, 88; commission, I, 374; dis- 
tributing agency, II, 49-50; evils of, II, 155; interstate, II, 55, 
67-70; smuggling, II, 53 

Slocum, Webby, III, 362 

Sluey, William, jury, trial Pittsburgh cordwainers, IV, 17 

Small, William R, V, 334 

Smalley, Ellis, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Small-pox, I, 309 

Smedley, A. B., delegate to Patrons of Husbandry, X, 100 

Smelters, wages, VII, 48 

Smelting furnaces: construction, II, 307; machinery, II, 309; man- 
agement, II, 309 



324 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Smith 

Smith, — , History of New York, III, 275 

Smith, A., delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, no 

Smith, Adam, mentioned, IX, 36; Wealth of Nations, I, 39; III, 
151, 211, 214 

Smith, Alexander, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 303 

Smith, Bernard, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Smith, Chauncey C, printer, VIII, 344 

Smith, D. J., factory operative, VIII, 201 

Smith, Daniel C, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 288 

Smith, Daniel N., delegate to New England Industrial League, 
VIII, 330 

Smith, David M., association ist, VII, 248, 255 

Smith, Edwin, master currier, V, 3 1 1 

Smith, Francis, I, 352 

Smith, Francis M., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 289 

Smith, G. J., X, 85 

Smith, George, defendant, trial of Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 
IV, 315, 319, 326; VI, 44, 175 

Smith, George E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

Smith, Gerrit: attack of George Henry Evans, VII, 352-356, 358- 
362, 362-364; delegate to Industrial Congress, VIII, 26; gifts 
of land, VII, 364, footnote; land reform policy, VII, 357-358; 
Life of Gerrit Smith, see Frothingham (O. B.) ; nominated for 
president, VIII, 21 

Smith, H. S., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 337 

Smith, Havilah M., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 287, 338 

Smith, J. J., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Smith, Dr. J. McCune, delegate to Convention of Colored People, 

VII, 96 
Smith, James, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 






Snyder] INDEX 335 

Smith, Joel W., witness, trial Thompsonville Weaver*, IV, Supp., 

56; VII, 241 
Smith, John, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28. 

33, 34. 47; IV, Supp., 48, 77-78; VI, 197, 20a 
Smith, John A., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 317. 3i8, 319. 321, 323. 324. 325, 326 
Smith, Johnson, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 203 
Smith, Jonas, letters, I, 309-312 
Smith, Joseph, delegate to United Trade Society, Baltimore, V, 82 ; 

VI, 108 
Smith, L. Ward, nominee for judge, New York, VIII, 326 
Smith, Ransom, land reformer, VIII, 25 
Smith, Reuben, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Smith, Robert, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

137, 220 
Smith, S. N. J., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 

VIII, 331 
Smith, Samuel, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

221 
Smith, Theodore Clarke, Liberty and Free Soil Parties, VIII, 21, 

footnote 
Smith, Thomas, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

78-79 
Smith, William B., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 219, 260, 293, 3i8, 337; VI, 237; VIII, 302 
Smolniker, A. B., association ist, VII, 188 
Smyth, Capt. Ellison, acknowledgments to, I, 21 
Snedecker, P., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 

312 
Snell, J., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, VIII, 

3i6 
Snellbaker, David S., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 

266, 267, 269, 270, 274, 276, 297, 299, 304 
Snodgrass, J. E., land reformer, VIII, 28 
Snowden, Yates, acknowledgments to, I, 103 
Snyder, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 387 
Snyder, Francis, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 



326 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Snyder 

Snyder, George, defendant, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 

62, 66, 219 
Snyder, Henry J. W., juror, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 279, 312 
Snyder, Simon, Jr., communication on small notes, V, 48 
Socialism: alliance with eight-hour leagues, IX, 46; delegates to 
convention of associationists, VII, 201-202; Horace Greeley's 
socialism, VII, 25 ; International Workingmen's Association, IX, 
44, 45 ; philosophy of organization, III, 28 ; Social Party of New 
York, IX, 351 ; see also International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, United Workers of America 
Socialist e j Le, I, 25 
Social Party of New York, IX, 351 
Social Reform Association, VIII, 93, 288; see also Labor reform 

associations 
Social Reform League, VIII, 294 ; see also Labor reform associations 
Society for the Promotion of Knowledge and Industry, V, 238 
Soil: fertility, I, 89; fertilization, I, 209-212; influence, I, 74; 

waste, I, 131 
Solis, Frederic, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Boston, 

VI, 91 

Sombart, W., Der Moderne Kapitalismus, cited, III, 23 

Somerville, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 289, 301, 302 

Sonders, Casper, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Sorge, F. A: biography, IX, 351, 352; founder of International 
Labor Union, IX, 30; International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, American secretary, IX, 366, 375 ; manuscript, IX, 373 ; 
member, IX, 46, footnote; National Labor Union, resolutions, 
IX, 339 ; tariff policy, IX, 265 ; see also Brief e und Auszuge 
aus Brief en 

Souper, Thomas E., agent American Emigrant Company, IX, 79, 
80 

South : farms, distribution of, I, 93 ; land abundant, I, 73 ; society, 
industrial, I, 321, 322 

South Carolina: Charleston, founded, I, 80; immigration, II, 108; 
Memorial of Citizens, II, 103-116; freedmen, II, 107; slave 
conspiracy, II, 103-116; crops killed, II, 274; Description of, 
II, 174-176; emigration, I, 82; freedmen, II, 105-166; frontier, 









Spinning] INDEX 327 

Ii 8a; geology, II, 307, 308; immigration, I, 80, 85; II, 176; 
indigo introduced, I, 265, 266; industrial development, I, 89; 
insurrections, 11. 115; lands, II, 305; lowlands monopolized by 
planters, I, 84; madder, II, 273; malaria, I, 81 ; pine barrens, I, 
82; plantation records, I, 115, 122, 309; Report of the A pi- 
cultural Survey, I, 290; rice, I, 258-265; staples, I, 81 ; type of 
plantation, I, 81; uplands, I, 89; vegetables, II, 273; wheat, 
II, 273; see also Piedmont, Plantation 

South Carolina Gazette, The, cited, II, 51, 273 

South Carolina State Gazette, The, cited, I, 307, 323, 347 

Southern Banner, The, cited, II, 180, 234, 252, 336, 358, 360, 
372, 376 

Southern Watchman, The, cited, II, 1 16 

S pack in an, Dr. — , VI, 44 

Spalding, James, planter, I, 269 

Spalding, Thomas, letter, I, 260-271 

Spaniards, I, 348 

Spargo, John, Karl Marx: His Life and Work, IX, 44, footnote 

Spartan Band, VIII, 91 

Spaulding, George H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
128, 137, 141 

Speakman, John, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Speculation: report of National Trades' Union, VI, 291-293 ; town 
lots, II, 262; see also Negroes 

Spence, Christopher, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of 
District of Columbia, VI, 135 

Spence, Thomas, land policy, VII, 29, 32, 321-322 

Spencer, Matthias F., delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 230, 237, 248, 264, 267, 284, 298 

Spencer, William, carpenter, II, 371 

Spencer, W. H., mechanic, II, 368 

Spenser, Edmund, State of Ireland, cited, III, 291 

Sperry, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 

Spikemakers, see Trade unions 

Spinners, wages: II, 316; VII, 541 woolen, IX, 1 99 ; see also Trade 

unions 
Spinning: I, 187-189, l9l-*93» 231, 3345 H, 316; »ee also Cotton, 
Wool 



328 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Spirit 

Spirit of Seventy-Six, The, cited, II, 347 

Spirit of the Age, cited, VII, 263-273, 282-284; VIII, 274-285 

Spofford, — , delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 93 

Spottswood, Alexander, letter, I, 186-188 

Sprague, Hon. William, IX, 76, 232 

Sprague, Wooster, delegate to New England Industrial League, 
VIII, 330 

Sprainger, Peter R., plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
256 

Spratt, L. W., letter, II, 176 

Spring, Marcus, associationist, VII, 205 

Springfield Republican, cited, V, 189; IX, 84 

Spring Garden Mechanics, see Trade unions 

Sprinkle, — , delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 
VIII, 332 

Staginus, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 

Standard of living: IX, 147; see also Steward (Ira) 

Standford, Thomas H., VI, 109, 111 

Stanley, Henry, member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 

Stanley, J. C, chairman agrarian committee of fifty, V, 149 

Stansbury, Lemuel, associationist, VII, 248 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
197, 198, 219, 223 

Stanton, Henry B., nominee for comptroller, New York, VIII, 326 

Staples: devotion to, I, 283-292; see also Rice, Cotton, Tobacco, 
Plantation system, Sugar, Indigo 

Starke, Rudolph, member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 354, 359, 366 

Starks, Nathan, associationist, VII, 201 

State Central Organizations : California - Mechanics' State Coun- 
cil, IX, 231, 259, 270; Illinois - Social and Political Union, 

IX, 258; State Anti- Monopoly Association, IX, 170; State 
Workingmen's Convention, IX, 169; Indiana -State Labor 
Union, IX, 197, 259; Kansas- State Labor Union, IX, 
228, 257, 258 ; Massachusetts - State Central Organization of 
the Industrial Order of the People, IX, 191 ; State Labor Union, 












Steward] INDEX 329 

IX, 258; Michigan - State Labor Union, IX, 198; Missouri- 
State Labor Union, IX, 259, 270; Workingmen's Union, IX, 
197; New York - Workingmen's Assembly, IX, 191; add re** 
of the International Workingmen's Association, IX, 352; con* 
vention, IX, 355; resolutions, IX, 358; Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, IX, 258; Ohio- State Labor Union, IX, 270; Penn- 
sylvania - Central Labor Union, IX, 228; Virginia - Agricul- 
tural Labor Association, IX, 257; see also Hours of Labor, 
Grand Eight Hour Leagues 

State of Ireland, see Spenser (Edmund) 

Steamboat: construction, II, 356-357; durability, VII, 58 

Steam-boiler makers, see Boiler makers, Trade unions 

Steamships: influence, I, 151 ; see also Immigration: transportation 

Steele, Hugh, witness, Thompson vi lie Weavers, IV, Supp., 44-45 

Steele, John, planter, II, 209 

Steele, Silas S., cordwainer, V, 56 

Steele, Thomas C, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI. 
67, 69 

Steffen, F., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 
301 

Steffens, — , address, VIII, 308 

Stein, Henrie, Bibliographie generate des Cartularies franc ais ou 
relatifs a thistoire de France, cited, I, 27 

Steners, J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VI 1 1 . 

289 

Stephens, A. V., printer, VI, 353 

Stephens, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287 

Stephens, M., plumber, IX, 126 

Stephens, Uriah S., founder Knights of Labor, IX, 49; X, 19, 25 

Stepney, Cowell, member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 341 

Stevens, Isaac A., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 358, 

374 
Stevens, William, VI, 44 
Stevenson, A. B., land reformer, VIII, 26 
Steward, B. F., association ist, VII, 242, 245 
Steward, Ira: member of International Labor Union, IX, 352; 






330 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Steward 

Steward, Ira (continued) — 

member of International Workingmen's Association, IX, 46, 
footnote; philosophy contrasted with Henry George, IX, 28- 
30; contrasted with George Gunton, IX, 27, footnote) con- 
trasted with Karl Marx, IX, 24-26, 29; importance, IX, 24, 31, 
277-278; origin, IX, 30-31 ; success, IX, 32; The Power of the 
Cheaper over the Dearer, IX, 306-329 ; A Reduction of Hours 
an Increase of Wages, IX, 284-301 ; resolutions, IX, 279-283, 
302-305 
Stewart, — , cordwainer, IV, 49 

Stewart, Alexander (Andrew?) T., delegate to New York Gen- 
eral Trades' Union, V, 271, 274, 289, 298; IX, 207 
Stewart, Charles, weaver, IV, Supp., 35, 40, 46, 47, 84 
Stewart, Ethelbert, agent of United States Bureau of Labor, VI, 312 
Stewart, John, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 144 
Stewart, Thomas S., master carpenter, VI, 54 
Stewart, William H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 

136, 137, 141, 190 
Stiebeling, George, member International Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, IX, 366 
Stiles, John, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Stiles, Joseph, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 
Stillman, E. A., associationist, VII, 248, 255, 259 
Stillwell, Silas M., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 270 

Stilwell, Joseph, carpenter, II, 371 
Stinson, Samuel, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 225 
Stock, Adam, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 175 
Stocker, William S., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 

205 
Stock raising, I, 246; II, 253-254; VII, 66 
Stockton, Aaron W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 

230 
Stockton, Philip N., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Stockwell, John, printer, VI, 347, 348, 349, 350 
Stoddard, Herman, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277 
Stoft, Jacob, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 






Strikes] INDEX 331 

Stokes, Anthony, View 0/ the Constitution of the British Colonies, 

II, 165 

Stokes, William, master cordwainrr, III, 105 

Stone, Alfred H., acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Stone, furnaces, II, 307 

Stone, H. J., delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 
VIII, 108, no 

Stone, Hon. James M., VIII, 151, 186 

Stone cutters: V, 255 ; society, VIII, 302 ; strike, V, 242, 244, 245 ; 
VI, 73; see also Trade unions 

Store order system, V, 28; VIII, 219; IX, 122 

Storey, C. A., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Storey, C. W., clerk, VIII, 151 

Storey, J. W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 132 

Storey, Joseph C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 

Storms, Mrs. — , VIII, 228 

Storms, Abram, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 177 

Stout, Elisha, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 

Stovall, John W., manuscript, I, 112 

Stove makers, see Trade unions 

Stow, David, VIII, 239 

Strahane, David, journal, II, 292-293 

Stratton, William P., printer, VI, 353 

Straughn, Samuel L., letter, I, 324-325 

Straw bonnets, see Hatters 

Strebeck, John, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
144, 145, 153, 155. 156, 163 

Street, John, carpenter, II, 371 

Strikes: bakers, II, 343*344; benefit, III, 83-85, 122; V, 349. 350, 
352, 377, 378, 379, 384, 386, 388; VI, 155, I59-I6I. 162; book- 
binders, V, 327-328; carpenters, V, 83-84, 203, 208-209, 3*8: 
VI, 73; carpet weavers, IV, Supp. % 65, 73, 75, 89; cause. III. 
87; V, 34; children, V, 63, 65, 66; VI, 43J comb makers, V, 
354; cordwainers, III, 64-65, 117-118, 249; IV, 27, 30-32; V, 
240-241, 246, 354; VI, 40; curriers, VI, 185; dockworkers, 
VIII, 213; effect, III, 32; general, VII, 27; gilders, V, 379; 
"green hands," III, 53; hand loom weavers, VIII, 221 ; hatters. 



332 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Strikes 



Strikes (continued) — 

V, 355; VI, 153, 154. 155-156; IX, 59; hours, V, 63-66, 75, 
83-85, 205; VI, 39-43, 50-52, 76-77, 153, 154, 155, 156; VIII, 
81; horse-shoers, V, 244; laborers, VI, 40; VIII, 226; leather 
dressers, V, 352-353; longshoremen, VI, 40; loss to masters, III, 
101 ; marble workers, VI, 114; masons, VI, 73; object, III, 86; 
Philadelphia, V, 326-328; picketing, IV, Supp., 65, 73, 75; 
plantation, II, 183; policy of National Labor Union, IX, 155- 
156; plasterers, VI, 73; printers, V, 231, 327; relation of pub- 
lic land, V, 46-47; rope makers, V, 231; shoemakers, III, 37, 
41, 217-218; IV, 65; V, 240, 242; stone cutters, V, 242; VI, 
73; success, IV, 93, 144, 175, 315; V, 286-289; VII, 65; VIII, 
279-281 ; tailors, V, 353 ; unskilled labor, V, 26; wages, V, 205 ; 

VII, 231; VIII, 221, 225, 279-281; weavers, IV, 271; IV, 
Supp., 31-32, 42; carpet, IV, Supp., 65, 73, 75, 89; hand loom, 
V, 280; VI, 40; VIII, 221; women, V, 380; VI, 43; see also 
various trades, National Labor Union, National Trades' Union, 
Conspiracy Trials 

Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives, see Pinkerton 

Stroud, Thomas, delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175 

Struthers, John, VI, 44 

Stuart, D., counsel, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 272 

Stuart, G. W., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 

VIII, 322, 324, 325 

Stuart, James, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316, 317 

Stubbs, W. L., printer, VII, 131 

Stump, John F., VI, 44 

Stumpf, Henry, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Sturgeon, Samuel, weaver, IV, Supp., 31, 32, 65, 69, 77, 90 

Sturgis, Peter, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Sturtevant, J. D., association ist, VII, 205 

Styles, Henry, delegate to New England Workingmen's Associa- 
tion, VIII, 107 

Stywold, W. H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 261 

Suffrage: extension, V, 26; relation to free schools, V, 27-28; re- 
lation to short hour movement, V, 27; universal opposed, V, 154, 
163-164 



Sylvis] INDEX 



313 



Sugar: boiling, I, 222-228, 281282; Barbadoes, I, 79; cane-grind- 
ing, I, 219; introduction, I, 86; matlay, I, 215, 221, footnote; 
machinery, VII, 303, footnote; planting, II, 135; ratoons, I, 
282; varieties, I, 214, footnote; plantation, description, I, 256- 
258; gang labor, I, 90; typical, I, 80, 92; price, II, 194; pro- 
duction, advantage of large scale, I, 92; effect, I, 79 

Suicide, slave, II, 94 

Sullivan, Daniel, overseer, II, 315 

Sumner, Hon. Charles, IX, 76 

Sumner, Helen L., editor Documentary History of American In- 
dustrial Society, I, 22, 23; III, 17; V, 19-37 

Sunday work, V, 327 

Supreme Court, decision, IV, 289, 301, 311 

Surtees Society, I, 20 

Surveying, II, 222-223 

Surveyors, II, 239 

Sutherland, Hon. J., VIII, 67 

Sutherland, J., Jr., district attorney, IV, 277, 279 

Sutton, W. H., delegate to Chinese Labor Convention, IX, 84 

Swain, Julias G., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 130, 138 

Swartz, John, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Association, VIII, 

337 

Swazey, G. W., association ist, VII, 205 

Sweeney, Neil, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 

Sweet potatoes, I, 195-203 

Swegels, O. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171, 194 

Sweney, Daniel, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
145, 158 

Sylvis, Benjamin F., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 

Sylvis, James C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 261, 
270, 272, 337 

Sylvis, William H : National Labor Union, committee member, IX, 
188, 194, 205; delegate, IX, 170, 171, 197; demand for Bureau 
of Labor, IX, 224-225; eulogy, IX, 231 ; financial policy, IX, 
206, 216-218; monument proposed, IX, 244; on admission of 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, IX, 198; on delegate to International 
Workingmen's Association, IX, 334; on immigration, IX, 223; 



334 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Sylvis 

Sylvis, William H. (continued) — 

on negro labor, IX, 187 ; on strikes, IX, 220; president, IX, 227 ; 
relation to International Workingmen's Association, IX, 240- 
243; report of president, IX, 231-232; report on public lands, 
IX, 188-190; president of Molders' International Union, IX, 89 

Symmes, see Sims (James) 

Tabers, Azer, nominee for Attorney General, New York, VIII, 

326 
Tailors: advertisement, II, 353; benefit fund, IV, 159; "bespoke 

work," VII, 66; "Coffin handbill," V, 317; conspiracy, IV, 59; 

V, 36 (see also Conspiracy trials) ; cooperation, VIII, 285 ; de- 
mand on frontier, I, 340; II, 174, 349; employers' association, 

VI, 314-315; goods classified, IV, 142-143; German, VIII, 308- 
309; grievances, V, 320-322 ; journeymen - injustice to, IV, 144, 
145; charges against union, IV, 241-243; obligation to join 
union, IV, 141, 175; pitcher rule, IV, 175, 177; rules, IV, 140, 
141, 175, 177, 218, 256-257, 316; scab labor, IV, I95-I97J 
society - Boston Tailors' Associative Union, constitution, VIII, 
281-285; preamble, VIII, 279-281; master tailors, V, 314-315, 
317 ; New York Association, VIII, 309 ; Protective society, VIII, 
342; trade union society, IV, 319; V, 206; resolutions of mas- 
ters, V, 314; strike, IV, 144, 175; V, 286-289, 353; VII, 65; 
VIII, 279-281; wages, IV, 152, 252, footnote, 269, 270; V, 
206, footnote; VII, 48, 65; VIII, 297; women, VII, 65; see 
also Conspiracy trials 

Taite, William, I, 353 

Tallow chandlers, see Trade unions 

Talmage, C. M., member International Industrial Assembly, IX, 

128 
Tammany: control of city, V, 36, 37 ; nomination of Ely Moore, V, 

204 
Tanner, J., member Mechanics' Mutual Protection, New York, 

VIII, 250 
Tanners: advice to immigrants, VII, 65 ; scarcity, II, 175 
Tanning, plantation industry, I, 129, 188 
Tariff: British, VII, 56; credit system, V, 162; effect, I, 40; VI, 

222; VII, 143; IX, 56 



Tennessee] INDEX 335 

Tarlton, Hannah, factory operative, VIU, 118 

Task labor, sec Slar e labor 

Tate, John, trial, V, 67 

Taxation: collector, II, 191; educational, V, 27; equal demand- 
ed, V, 30; exemption, V, 153 ; support of paupers, VII, 76; Vir- 
ginia, II, 30; IX, 178-179 

Taylor, — , delegate to New England Workingmen's Convention, 
VIII, 94 

Taylor, Daniel B., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 225, 285, 289 

Taylor, G. P., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 

Taylor, James, weaver, IV, Supp., 33 

Taylor, James, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 1 52, 
162 

Taylor, Mark P., delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265 

Taylor, Oliver H., plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 
256, 362 

Taylor, Richard, delegate to Baltimore Union Trade Society, VI, 

"3 

Taylor, Roland, juror, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 
16 

Taylor, Thomas, member Mechanics' Union, V, 94 

Taylor, William, defendant, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 15, 16, 17,31,32,33.35,41.65.69,75.90, 126; IV, 313; 
V, 311, 312 

Taylorson, Robert, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Teamsters, demand for, II, 348; wages, II, 306 

Telfair, Alexander, planter, I, 126-129, 330; II, 39, 85 

Telfair, Margaret, planter, II, 154 

Telfair, Mary, planter, I, 192-193, 313, 330 

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, I, 191 ; II, 39 

Telfair estate, plantation records, I, 191-193, 313-3*5. 330-336 

Temperance, work of reformers, VIII, 24 

Temple, H., IX, 257 

Tennessee: Cotton-Port founded, II, 263-267; diversified industry, 
I, 90; economic conditions, I, 90; fertilization, I, 256; frontier, 
I, 84; manufactures, II, 301; pioneers, I, 84, 185; poor hus- 
bandry, I, 256, "Western Waters," I, 84 



336 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Tenn. 

Tennessee Gazette and Mero District Advertiser, The, II, 87, 328, 

349 

Tennessee Herald, The, cited, II, 263 

Tennessee Weekly Chronicle, The, cited, II, 243 

Territory of Florida, The, see Williams (John L.) 

Texan Advocate, The, cited, II, 257 

Texas: Austin, II, 251; canard, II, 254; crime, II, 120; fertility 
of soil, II, 253; fever, II, 254; geology, II, 256; immigration, 
II, 257; Indians, II, 25025 1; insect pests, II, 255; Mexicans, 
II, 254; plantation system, I, 87; slave labor, II, 250; social 
conditions, II, 252-254; type of pioneer, II, 255-256 

Textiles: domestic manufactures, II, 314-330; factory system, II, 
330-336; records of operations in George Washington's weaving 
establishment, II, 321-325; relation of capital and labor, II, 337- 
341; slave labor, II, 314-315; see also Cotton, Factory system, 
Spinners, Weavers, Wool, etc. 

Textile workers, see Weavers 

Thayer, John Quincy Adams, VIII, 133, 139 

Things as they are in America, see Chambers (William) 

Thirty Years of Labor, see Powderly (T. V.) 

Thirty Years' Review, see Benton (Thomas H.) 

Thomas, — , VIII, 151 

Thomas, David, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
164 

Thomas, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128 

Thomas, John H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229, 240 

Thomas, Hon. Salmon, VIII, 186 

Thomason, John, member Mechanics' Union, V, 94 

Thomburgh, James T., delegate to Pittsburg Workingmen's Con- 
vention, VIII, 331 

Thompson, Andrew, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Thompson, David, weaver, VIII, 239 

Thompson, Henry, plaintiff, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 23-29, 32, 41, 44, 45, 47, 49, 51, 56-58, 59-63, 67-74, 78, 
89-91, 93, 95, 99, 103-106, no, 119 

Thompson, J., justice of peace ( ?), IV, 119 

Thompson, J. W., association ist, VIII, 44 



Thomson] INDEX 337 

Thompson, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 264, 276 

Thompson, John, master cordwainer, III, 105, 127-129; IV, Supp., 

87-88; V, 123, 357; VI, 270 
Thompson, Joseph: National Trades' Union, committee member, 

VI, 246, 269; delegate, VI, 229, 268; resolutions, VI, 248-249; 
trade union policy, VI, 248 ; New York General Trades' Union, 
committee member, V, 281 ; delegate, V, 250, 264, 276; resolu- 
tions of Hand Loom Weavers' Association, VI, 341-342 

Thompson, Orrin, plaintiff, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 70, 75, 96, 108 

Thompson, Robert, plaintiff, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 
Supp., 56, 88 

Thompson, Samuel C: National Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 237. 243-244, 269, 277 ; delegate, V, 383; VI, 265, 316; 
member Board of Commissioners, VI, 243; motions, VI, 250, 
270; report on Prison labor, VI, 243-244; Philadelphia General 
Trades' Union, committee member, V, 358, 382; VI, 69; corre- 
sponding secretary, V, 374; resolutions, V, 358; trade union pol- 
icy, V, 67 

Thompson, Hon. Waddy, VI, 186, 187 

Thompson, William: Carpenters' National Union, call for con- 
vention, VI, 336; committee member, VI, 337; president, Phil- 
adelphia union, VI, 336; National Trades' Union, committee 
member, VI, 229, 235, 237, 240-242, 259-263, 267, 269, 274, 
276, 298-299; delegate, V, 382, 383 ; VI, 265 ; motions, VI, 228, 
245, 266, 273; report on cooperation, VI, 298-299; resolutions, 
VI, 238, 249, 257, 268; trade union policy, VI, 240-242, 249; 
views on female labor, VI, 257-258 ; Philadelphia Trades' Un- 
ion, address, VI, 46; agent, election, V, 359, 370; report, V, 
373 ; chairman, V, 372 ; committee member, V, 349, 377. 385 1 
constitutional amendment proposed, V, 350; president, VI, 376; 
resolutions, V, 354. 357-358 

Thompsonville Manufacturing Company: boarding houses, IV, 
Supp., 57, 63, 79; rules, IV, Supp., 56, 1 18-1 19; «e al*> Con- 
spiracy trials 

Thomson, William, Tradesman's Travels in the United States. II, 
362 



338 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Three 



Three Years Among the Working Classes in the United States, IX, 
55-56 

Thurber, William H., delegate to New York State Industrial Leg- 
islature, VI, 318 

Thurmond, Richard, II, 93 

Tice, William, delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VI, 318, 320, 324 

Tichener, Isaac, carpenter, II, 371 

Tilby, John, manufacturer ( ?), V, 63 

Tillage, see Agriculture 

Tillotson, Ira, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Tillou, William G., secretary agrarian meeting, V, 154 

Tilters, Ben, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 

Tilton, Theodore, IX, 75 

Timms, Benjamin D., land reformer, VIII, 25 

Tin and sheet iron workers, see Trade unions 

Tinker, F. C, IX, 261 

Titeman, Henry, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 247 

Toaspern, H., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Tobacco: cultivation, I, 111-112; depressions in industry, I, 76, 83, 
186-188; II, 213; effect of discovery, I, 75; fitness for routine 
methods, I, 76; industry extended, I, 77; Louisiana, II, 246; 
merchants, I, 283 ; mismanagement, I, 326-328 ; plantation equip- 
ment, I, 245-251; production, I, 92, 208-214; VIII, 344; rec- 
ords, I, 109-112, 130, 131, 186-191, 208-214, 245-252, 296-298, 
321-325, 326-330; rules, I, 109-112; returns uncertain, I, 282, 
285 ; routine work, I, 208-214; slave labor, I, 88 ; South Carolina, 
II, 273; suspension of cultivation, I, 355; types of plantation, 
I. 93. 245-251 ; use as money, II, 171, 288 ; Virginia, II, 170-171 

Tobacco pipe makers, see Trade unions 

Tobago, Coromantins, II, 128 

Tobitt, J. M., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 303 

Todd, Attorney-general — , IV, 339 

Todd, John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
223; VI, 197 



Trades'] INDEX 339 

Toedt, John C, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII. 288, 300 
Tomlinson, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170, 

175. 197 

Tool makers, advice to immigrants, VII, 65 

Tools, manufacture, VII, 58 

Topp, Julius, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Torboss, Isaac, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Torrence, Hugh, weaver, IV, Supp., 3a, 90, 107 

Totman, William, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, no 

Tourelle, Fred, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Tour in Virginia, A, cited, II, 55 

Town Gazette & Farmers' Register, cited, II, 45, 79, 301 

Townsend, John B., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 
VI, 157, 158 

Townsend, Robert, Jr: National Trades' Union, committee mem- 
ber, VI, 209; delegate, VI, 197 ; motion, VI, 210; nominated for 
vice president, VI, 204; political policy, VI, 211, 214, 215; reso- 
lutions, VI, 195, 198-199, 202, 202-204; views on female labor, 
VI, 220; New York General Trades' Union, committee member, 
V, 215, 219, 307-308; delegate, V, 220; president mass meeting, 

V, 318 ; trade agreement policy, V, 307-308 
Townsend, S. J., advertisement, II, 163-164 
Townsend, Tappan, association ist, VII, 206 

Tracey, Samuel S., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 
152, 158 

Trade: Indian, I, 73, 80; disadvantages to United States, VII, 56; 
local, I, 300; London, I, 83, 283, 296-298; southern, I, 299; 
see also National Labor Union, Patrons of Husbandry, Transpor- 
tation 

Trade agreement: bakers, V, 307-308; cigarmakcrs, VIII. 345; 
hours of labor, VIII, 208; remedy for oppression, V, 307-308 

Trades' assemblies: Albany - General Trades' Union, call for con- 
vention, VI, 140-143; officers, VI, 145; organization, V, 239; 

VI, 25, 73, 145, footnote', origin, VI, 74; preliminary meetings, 
VI, 139-140, I43-U5; proceedings, VI, 145-174! miscellaneous, 



340 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trades' 

Trades' assemblies (continued) — 

V, 230, 239, 243, 246, 250, 265; VI, 74. H5; Baltimore - 
Trades' Assembly, IX, 126, 128; Union Trade Society, address 
to workingmen, VI, 109-111 ; condition, VI, 111-113; organiza- 
tion, V, 25, 73, 108-109; origin, VI, 74; proceedings, VI, 113- 
115; Black River Falls, Wis. - Workingmen's Union and Inde- 
pendent Order of Friendship, IX, 197; Boston - Trades' 
Assembly, address of Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 
279-283 ; eight-hour resolution, IX, 282-283 ; Trades' Union of 
Boston and Vicinity, admission of employers, VI, 92-94; call for 
convention, VI, 87-90; organization, VI, 25, 73; Workingmen's 
Assembly, IX, 128; Workingmen's Institute, IX, 197; Chicago - 
German Workingmen's Association, IX, 128, 171; German 
Workingmen's Protective and Benefit Society, IX, 230; Trades' 
Assembly, IX, 127, 169, 171, 196; Cincinnati - Labor Assembly, 
IX, 258, 259; Trades' Assembly, IX, 170, 197; Trades' Union, 
letter, VI, 127; organization, VI, 73, 75; proposed, VIII, 221- 
223; Detroit, Mi c h. - Trades' Assembly, IX, 170; District of 
Columbia - Trades' Union, organization, VI, 74; Louisville, 
Ky. -Trades' Assembly and League of Friendship, IX. 1 18-120, 
170; Trades' Union, organization, VI, 73, 75, 127 ; proposal for 
national Trades' Union, VI, 130; New Albany, Ind. -Trades' 
Assembly, IX, 127; New Brunswick, N.J. - Trades' Union, 
organization, VI, 73, 75 ; New Haven, Ct. - Trades' Union, IX, 
127 ; New York City — Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 
336-346; Arbeiter Union, IX, 259, 354; Central Commission of 
the United States, VIII, 288; General Trades' Union, "Amer- 
ican System," V, 209-211; constitution, V, 215-218, 226, 228- 
230, 236, 246, 248, 267, 269, 276-278, 297, 378, 380; convention, 
call, V, 203, 212-214; preliminary meeting, V, 214-215; mass 
meeting, V, 303, 318; membership, IV, 332; organization, VI, 
88 ; origin, V, 203 ; proceedings, V, 218-303, 304-308 ; procession, 
V, 203, 260-264; recommended, VII, 308; strikes supported, V, 
205, 206 ; New York City Industrial Congress, constitution, VIII 
290-296; delegates, VIII, 287-289, 300-303; societies represent- 
ed, VIII, 285; Workingmen's Union, IX, 128, 169, 195, 228; 
Newark, N.J. -General Trades' Union, constitution, VI, 176; 
letter, VI, 126; organization, VI, 25, 73; proceedings, VI, 175- 



Trade] INDEX 341 

187; miscellaneous, V, 240, 242, 250, 252, 260; Norfolk. V*.- 
Mrchanics' Association, IX, 127 ; Norwich. Ct. - Trades' Astern* 
bly, IX, 170, 196; Pennsylvania Trade*' Union, V, 325, 329- 
330, 335-3371 Philadelphia -General Trades' Union, address 
to mechanics, V, 339-341 I argument favoring. VI, 59-62; attack 
of employers, VI, 50-55; Blnckley meeting, V, 329-330; com- 
munication, VI, 256, 285; constitution, V, 326, 336, 342-348; 
cooperation, VI, 58-65; delegates, VI, 25, 124; funds, V, 351, 
353. 355 J VI, 63; growth, VI, 325-326; organisation, V, 325, 
348-349; VI, 73; preliminary convention, V, 338-339; resolu- 
tions, V, 329-330; strike benefit, V, 352*353 I supported by cord- 
wainers, VI, 25, 27, 31-32; Mechanics' Association, IX, 229; 
Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations, address to working- 
men, V, 1 14-123; attitude of employers, V, 81-82; call for con- 
vention, V, 80; political action, V, 90, 91-92, 93-94; preamble, 
V, 84-90; report on education, V, 94-107; workingmen's con- 
ventions, V, 328, 334; VI, 66, 191 ; Trades' Assembly, IX, 128; 
Workingmen's Union, IX, 231; Pittsburgh, fa. -Trades' 
Assembly, IX, 170; Trades' Union, organization, VI, 73 ; Work- 
ingmen's Congress, VIII, 331-334; Rochester. N.Y. - Working- 
men's Assembly of Monroe County, IX, 196; St. Louis, Mo. - 
Trades' Union League, IX, 120; Workingmen's Union, IX, 
127; San Francisco, Cat. - Mechanics' Council, IX, 258; 
Schuylkill County, Pa. - Workingmen's Association, IX, 257; 
Springfield, Mass. - Workingmen's Association, IX, 228; Syra- 
cuse, N.Y. - Workingmen's Assembly, IX, 259; Washington. 
D.C- Trades' Union - address to workingmen, VI, 116-119; 
communication, V, 239; VI, 130; constitution, VI, 117-118, 121- 
123; convention, VI, 119; "Hundred dollar law," VI, 127: 
officers, VI, 127 ; organization, VI, 25, 73 ; proceedings, VI, 1 19- 
138; Workingmen's Assembly, IX, 170, 230; Workingmen's 
convention, IX, 127, 197; miscellaneous - nature, V, 22; object, 
IX, 23, 153; organization, V, 20, 80-90; origin, V, 80; wage 
policy, IX, 153-154 

Trades' Council : definition, V, 21 ; see also Trades' assemblies 

Tradesman's Travels in the United States, sec Thomson (William) 

Trades' Union. The, established, V, 326 

Trade unionism: hostility of press, V, 209-211; National Trades' 



342 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unionism (continued) — 

Union report, VI, 294-297; policy of National Labor Union, 
IX, 130, 152-154, 182; rise in England, V, 187; substitute for 
political action, V, 187 ; see also Webb (S. and B.) 

TRADE UNIONS : general - attitude toward, IV, 285-286 ; Brit- 
ish, V, 22 ; cause of agitation, V, 33 } climax of movement, V, 36; 
decline, V, 37; definition, V, 21 ; demand for national organiza- 
tion, V, 32-33 ; employers' attitude, VI, 165 ; employers excluded, 

V, 24; extension, V, 34; hindrances, IX, 152-154; history of 
term, V, 21-22 ; master mechanics admitted, V, 24; movement, V, 
36; numbers, VI, 191; objects, IX, 152-154; organization, V, 
19; period of 1833, V, 31 ; printers, V, 20; shoemakers, V, 20; 
typographical society, II, 376; union card, IV, 31 ; value, VI, 206 

Locals : Albany, N.Y. — Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, IX, 
196; Coach and Chaise Makers' Society, VI, 164, 165, 168; 
Coach Makers' and Trimmers' Society, VI, 143 ; Coopers' So- 
ciety, VI, 164, 168, 174; Cordwainers' Society, VI, 147, 148, 
149, 163, 168, 170; Founders', Machinists' and Millwrights' 
Society, VI, 144, 148, 149, 168; House Carpenters' Society, VI, 
144, 146, 149, 168, 172; Painters' Union Society, VI, 143, 
149, 166, 168, 174; Saddlers' and Harness Makers' Society, VI, 
I39> 143, 144, 147, 149. 157. 164, 168; Ship Carpenters' Society, 

VI, 144; Silver Platers' Society, VI, 144, 149, 150, 157, 168; 
Stone Masons' Society, VI, 144, 163; Typographical Society, 
VI, 143; Typographical Union, IX, 196; Union Journeymen 
Tailors' Society, VI, 143, 144, 149, 165, 168, 170; Alexandria, 
Va. - Cordwainers' Society, VI, 130, 138 ; Allentown, Pa. - Iron 
Boilers' Union, IX, 197; Alton, III. — Iron Moulders' Union, 
IX, 258 ; Augusta, Ga. - Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 127 ; Balti- 
more, Md. - Blacksmiths', Engineers' and Machinists' Society, 
VI, 108; Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 128; Bricklayers' Union, IX, 
128, 196; Cabinet Makers' Society, VI, 108; Canmakers' Union, 
IX, 128; Carpenters' Union, IX, 169; Carpet Weavers' So- 
ciety, VI, 114; Caulkers' Trade Union Society, IX, 230; Chair- 
makers' and Ornamental Painters' Society, VI, 108 ; Cigarmakers' 
Union, IX, 230; Coach Makers' Society, VI, 108; Coopers' 
Union, VI, 108; Coppersmiths' Society, VI, 108; Cordwainers' 
Society (men's branch), VI, 108; Curriers' Association, IX, 






Trade] INDEX 343 

129; Engineers' Association, IX, 230; Harness Makers' Union, 
IX, 128; Hatters' Society, VI, too, 101, 108, 114; House Car- 
penters' Society, VI, 108, 1 15; House Carpenters' Union, IX, 
129; House Painters' Union, IX, 128; Iron Moulders' Union, 
IX, 128, 230; Journeymen Coopers' Union, IX, 128, 230; Jour- 
neymen Curriers' Association, IX, 196; Journeymen Oak 
Coopers' Union, IX, 230; Journeymen Shipwrights' Union, IX, 
128; Journeymen Tailors' Society, VI, 108, 114; Ladies' Cord- 
wainers' Society, VI, 108, 113, 114; Machinists' Union, IX, 
128; Marble Stone Cutters' Society, VI, 108, 114; Millwrights' 
Union, IX, 129; Moulders' Union Society, IX, 230; Operative 
Masons' Benevolent Union, IX, 128; Painters' Society, VI, 108; 
Plane Makers' Society, VI, 113; Pattern Makers' Union, IX, 
128, 169; Printers' Society, IX, 230; Shipjoiners' Association, 
IX, 129; Shipwrights' Union, IX, 129; Tin Plate and Sheet 
Iron Workers' Society, VI, 108; Tobacconists' Society, VI, 108; 
Typographical Society, VI, 108, 114; Wood Turners' Union, 
IX, 128 ; Birmingham, Pa. - Hollow-ware Glass Blowers' Union, 
IX, 170; Iron Boilers' Union, IX, 170; Window Glass-blowers' 
Union, IX, 127, 170; Boston - Black and White Smiths' Society. 
VI, 91 ; Bookbinders' Union, IX, 128; Cabinet and Piano Forte 
Makers' Society, VI, 90; Cabinet Makers' Society, VIII, 327; 
Coopers' Society, VI, 90; Curriers' Society, VI, 90; House Car- 
penters' Society, VI, 91, 94; House Wrights' Society, VI, 251, 
253, 257, 276, 279; Iron Founders' Society, VI, 90; Iron 
Moulders' Union, IX, 128; Journeymen House Carpenters' 
Association, V, 279; Machinists' Society, VIII, 326; Marble 
Cutters' Association, IX, 127; Masons' Society, VI, 90; Me- 
chanics' and Laborers' Association, VIII, 263; Printers' Society, 
VI, 91 ; Printers' Union, VIII, 326; Rope Makers' Society, VI, 
90; Sail Makers' Society, VI, 91 ; Seamstresses' Cooperative So- 
ciety, VIII, 327 ; Ship Carpenters' and Caulkers' Society, VI, 83 ; 
Ship Carpenters' Union, IX, 128; Shipwrights' Society, VI, 90; 
Slaters' Union, VIII, 327; Tailors' Associative Union, consti- 
tution, VIII, 281-285; preamble, VIII, 279-281; Tailors' So- 
ciety, VI, 90; Brazil, Ind. - Miners' Association, IX, 258 ; Brook- 
lyn, N.Y. - Bricklayers' Beneficial and Protective Union, IX, 
127, 196; Cigar Makers' Union, IX, 229; Journeymen Tailors' 



344 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unions (continued) — 

Society, V, 214, 224, 249, 250, 256, 277, 294; VI, 197, 202; 
Masons' Laborers' Society, VIII, 303; Rope Makers' Society, 
V, 227, 231, 265, 290, 298; Tailors' Union, IX, 229; Centralia, 
III. - Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, IX, 169 ; Locomotive Engi- 
neers' Union, IX, 169; Locomotive Firemen's Union, IX, 169; 
Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 169; Charlestown, 
Mass. - Boatbuilders' and Sparmakers' Union, IX, 228 ; Chester 
Creek, Pa. - Chester Creek Association, V, 383 ; Chicago - Boot 
and Shoemakers' Union, IX, 169; Bricklayers' Union, IX, 169, 
230; Carriage Makers' Union, IX, 169; Cigarmakers' Union, 
IX, 169; Coopers' Union, IX, 169; Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 
258; Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 169; Painters' 
Union, IX, 169; Plasterers' Union, IX, 169, 258; Sewing Girls' 
Union, IX, 259 ; Ship Carpenters' and Caulkers' Union, IX, 171 ; 
Stone Cutters' Union, IX, 169; Typographical Union, IX, 169, 
196; Cincinnati - Cigarmakers' Union, VIII, 220; IX, 259; 
Colored Teachers' Cooperative Association, IX, 259; Harness 
Makers' Union, IX, 258; Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 257; 
Knights of St. Crispin, IX, 257, 258; Machinists' and Black- 
smiths' Union, IX, 258 ; Printers' Union, VIII, 220; Shoemakers' 
Union, VIII, 220; Tailors' Union, VIII, 220; Typographical 
Association, VI, 343 ; Typographical Union, IX, 257 ; Columbus, 
Ga. - Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 230 ; Covington, Ky. - Iron 
Moulders' Union, IX, 258; Knights of St. Crispin, IX, 257; 
Danvers, Mass. - Knights of St. Crispin, IX, 228 ; Detroit - 
Cigarmakers' Union, IX, 257; Harness Makers' Union, IX, 
231, 258 ; Easton, Pa. - Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, IX, 197 ; 
Fairmount, Pa. -Trade Association, V, 354, 355, 378, 379; 
Georgetown, D.C. - Bricklayers' Society, VI, 138 ; United Trade 
Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, VI, 128, 130, 133, 137, 
138; Germantown, Pa. - Cordwainers' Society, V, 386, 388; 
Hatters' Association, V, 350, 388 ; Hartford, Ct. - Carpenters' 
and Joiners' Union, IX, 197; Typographical Union, IX, 197; 
Hocking Valley, O. - Miners' Association, IX, 258 ; Hudson, 
N.Y. - United Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, V, 375 ; VI, 
166; Jersey City, N.J. - Bricklayers' and Plasterers' Union, IX, 
197; Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 197; Kingston, N.Y. -Cigar- 






Trade] INDEX 345 

makers' Union, IX, 197; Knoxvillr. TV /in. - Iron Moulder*' 
Union, IX, 230; LaSalle, III.- Miners' Union, IX, 196; Law 
r.iurvillr. Pa. -Iron Moulders' Union. IX i\Q; LouirxtlU. 
K\. Machinists' Union, IX, 257; Stone Masons' Union, IX, 
257 ; Lowell. Mass. - Carpenters', Joiners' and Machinists' 
Union, IX, 128; Lynn. Mass. - Daughters of St. Crispin, IX, 
257; Female Society, VI, 91 ; Knights of St. Crispin, IX, 228; 
Mutual Benefit Society of Cordwainers, VIII, 236; Manayunk. 
Pa. - Paper Makers' Trade Society, V, 355; Mrlvilh. X I 
Druggists' Glass Blowers' Union, IX, 229; Milwaukee. IVis.- 
Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 231 ; Ship Carpenters' and Caulkers' 
Union, IX, 171 ; Mobile, Ala. - Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 230; 
Morrisania, Pa. - Bricklayers' Union, IX, 200; Mt. Vernon, 
O. - Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 170; Nashville, 
Tenn. - Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 230, 238; New Brunswick. 
N.J. -Journeymen Cordwainers' Society, V, 251, 282, 289, 290, 
297, 298, 299; New Haven, Ct. - Carpenters' and Joiners', 
Union, IX, 170, 258; New Orleans - Typographical Associa- 
tion, VI, 348 ; New York City - Amalgamated Society of Car- 
penters and Joiners, IX, 196; Associated Hand Loom Weavers, 
V, 250, 254, 264, 276, 281 ; VI, 229, 341 ; Associated Silk Hat- 
ters, VI, 197; Bakers' Benevolent and Trade Society, IX, 195; 
Bakers' Trade Union Society, V, 214, 215, 223, 303; VI, 97; 
Barbers' Union, IX, 229; Benevolent Society of Saddlers, VIII. 
294; Blank-Book Binders' Protective Union, IX, 128; Block and 
Pump Makers' Society, V, 227 ; VIII, 302 ; Bookbinders* Pocket- 
book and Paper-box Makers' Union, VIII, 288, 300; Boot and 
Shoemakers' Working Union, VIII, 287; Bootmakers' Society, 
VIII, 302; Brass Founders' and Finishers' Union, IX. 197; 
Brick and Stone Masons' Society, VIII, 301 ; Bricklayers' and 
Plasterers' Protective Association, VIII, 287, 293. 295. 3°l I 
Bricklayers' Union, IX, 195, 196, 257; Bnishmakers' Society, 
V, 225, 265, 276, 286, 296; VI, 197. 229; VIII. 288, 301; 
Button and Fringemakers' Society, VIII, 302; Cabinet Makers' 
Society, V, 214, 215, 220, 232, 234. 235. 237, 238, 247. 259. 
281, 299, 300; Cabinet Makers' Union, VIII, 287, 301: IX. 
169; Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, IX, 196, 229; Carpenters' 
Bloomingdale Union, VIII, 287 ; Cartmen's Society, VIII. 302; 



346 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unions (continued) — 

Carvers' and Gilders' Society, V, 214, 215; Chairmakers' So- 
ciety, VIII, 302; Chairmakers' and Gilders' Society, V, 223, 275, 
281, 294, 299; Chronopress Printers' Society, VIII, 288; Cigar- 
makers' Labor Union, IX, 232; Cigarmakers' Union, VIII, 288, 
301; IX, 196, 229; Confectioners' Society, VIII, 302; Coopers' 
Protective Union, VIII, 288, 300; Coopers' Society, V, 214, 215 ; 
Cordwain Boot and Shoemakers' Society, VIII, 342; Cord- 
wainers' Protective Society, VIII, 287 ; Curriers' Society, V, 234, 
235, 250, 256, 265, 289, 290, 294, 300; Dry Goods Clerks' So- 
ciety, VIII, 303 ; Dyers' Union, VIII, 301 ; Framers' Union, 
IX, 229; Gas and Steam Fitters' Association, IX, 195; German 
Piano Makers' Association, IX, 196; German Varnishers' and 
Polishers' Association, IX, 169, 195, 229; Gilders' Society, VIII, 
303; Gold and Silver Artisans' and Manufacturing Jewellers' 
Society, VIII, 288; Granite Stone Cutters' Association, VI, 197; 
Grocers' Clerks' Society, VIII, 302; Hat Finishers' Trade Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 341 ; House Carpenters' Society, V, 220, 224, 237, 
239, 249, 279, 280, 282; Housesmiths' M[utual?] Protective?] 
Association, IX, 195; Iron Moulders' Union, VIII, 288, 300; 
IX, 229; Journeymen Bookbinders' Society, V, 214, 215, 254; 
VI, 196; Journeymen Chairmakers' Society, VI, 196; Journey- 
men Cordwainers of the City of New York, VII, 307 ; Journey- 
men Cordwainers' Society, ladies' branch, V, 238, 240, 241, 
246, 256, 261, 277, 282, 298, 299, 300; VI, 197, 229; VIII, 
221, 301 ; men's branch, V, 214, 215, 221 ; VIII, 301 ; Journey- 
men Curriers' Society, VI, 197; Journeymen Glass Cutters' So- 
ciety, V, 260, 269, 296; VI, 239; Journeymen Hat Finishers' 
Society, VIII, 288; Journeymen Hat Makers' Society, V, 222, 
227, 230, 231, 264, 284, 298; Journeymen Horse-shoers' Trade 
Union Society, V, 244-245 ; Journeymen Locksmiths' Society, V, 
238, 280, 281 ; Journeymen Silversmiths' Protective and Benefit 
Association, VIII, 288, 301 ; Journeymen Tailors' Protective and 
Benefit Union, IX, 229, 296-297 ; Journeymen Tailors' Society, 
VI, 196; Journeymen Umbrella Makers' Society, V, 282, 296; 
Journeymen Upholsterers' Society, VIII, 293 ; Knights of St. 
Crispin, IX, 229; Laborers' U[nion?] and B[enefit?] Society, 
IX, 196; Laborers' Union Association, VIII, 223, 289, 295, 301 ; 



Trade] INDEX 347 

Ladies' Shoemaker*' Union, VIII, 34'. 34*1 Leather Dream' 
Association, V, 214, 215, 234, 236, 245, 248, 255. 269, 298, 361 ; 
VI, 196, 197, 200; Licensed Public Porters' Society. VIII. 302; 
Lithographic Printers' Society, VIII, 302; Machinists' and 
Metal Workers' Union, IX, 229 ; Marble Cutters' Society, VIII. 
303; Marble Polishers' Society, VIII, 289, 301 ; Men's Branch 
of Journeymen Boot and Shoemakers' Society, VIII, 341 ; Mutual 
Benefit and Protective Society of Operative Painters, IX, 229; 
New York Benevolent Society of Journeymen Cabinet Makers, 
VI, 196; New York Independent Journeymen House Carpenters' 
Union, V, 208-209; New York Weavers' Society, V, 254, 259, 
297, 300; Operative Bakers' Industrial Union, VIII, 288, 289; 
Paper Hangers' Association, IX, 196; Piano Forte Makers' So- 
ciety, V, 237 ; Piano Makers' Union, IX, 169; Plasterers' Union, 
IX, 169; Practical House Painters' Protective and Benefit Asso- 
ciation. VIII, 338, 341, 342; Practical Painters' Benevolent Pro- 
tective Society, VIII, 287, 338; Printers' Cooperative Union, 
VIII, 338, 339; Printers' Protective Union, VIII, 109, 288, 291, 
301 ; Quarrymcn's Society, VIII, 302; Riggers' Union Associa- 
tion, VIII, 287, 302, 338; Saddle and Harness Makers' Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 338; Saddlers' Society, V, 289, 298; Saddlers' 
Benevolent Society, VIII, 294, 302; Sailmakers' Society, VIII, 
302; Sail Makers' Trade Society, VI, 197, 238; Sailors' Society, 
VIII, 288 ; Sash and Blind Makers' Protective Union, VIII, 287, 
301 ; Ship Joiners' Society, V, 237; Ship Joiners' Union, VIII, 
302, 338, 342; IX, 128; Ship Sawyers' Society, VIII, 289, 302; 
Shipwrights' and Caulkers' Society, VIII, 302; Silk Hat Makers' 
Society, V, 225; Silver Knife Makers' Association, VIII, 338, 
342; Slate Roofers' Union, IX, 196; Smiths' and Wheelwrights' 
Society, VIII, 289, 301 ; Society of Morocco Beamsmen, V, 300; 
Spikemakers' Society, VIII, 302; Steam Boiler Makers' Society, 
VIII, 301; Stone Cutters' Association, V, 231, 233, 235, 236, 
237, 238, 242, 244, 249, 255, 289; Stone Cutters' Society, VIII, 
288, 302; Stove Makers' Society, VIII, 288, 302; Tailors' Pro- 
tective Society, VIII, 342; Tailors' Union, IX, 229; Tallow 
Chandlers' Society, VIII, 342; Tin and Sheet Iron Workers' 
Aawciation, VIII, 289, 301 ; Tobacco Pipe Makers' Society, VIII, 
288, 300; Typographical Association, V, 203, footnote, 204, 212, 



348 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unions (continued) — 

215, 231, 238, 239, 261, 263, 282, 299; VI, 197; VIII, 220; 
Typographical Union, IX, 196, 229; Umbrella Frame Makers' 
Society, VIII, 303 ; Union House Painters' Association, IX, 195 ; 
Union Society of Journeymen House Carpenters, V, 260, 283, 
284; VI, 197; Union Trade Society of Journeymen Tailors, V, 
206, 215, 256, 257, 261, 267, 270, 286, 287, 289, 290, 295, 296, 
3I5> 349» 35 1 > 354> 36o> 361, 362; United Association of Coach- 
makers, VIII, 287; United Cabinet Makers' Union, IX, 195, 
229; United Carpenters Society, IX, 373, 375; United Coopers' 
Union, IX, 196; United Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, 
men's branch, VI, 196; United Society of Journeymen Sail- 
makers, V, 214, 221, 227, 267, 270, 275; United Workingmen's 
League, VIII, 288 ; Varnishers' and Polishers' Society, VIII, 302 ; 
Watch Makers' Society, VIII, 302; Window Shade Painters' 
Protective Union, VIII, 287, 301 ; Wood Carvers' Society, VIII, 
302; Newark, N.J. - Bricklayers' Union, IX, 197; Curriers' 
Society, VI, 229; Fudge Boot and Shoemakers' Society, VI, 177, 
196; House Painters' Union, IX, 197, 219; Journeymen Boot 
Fitters' Society, VI, 175, 184; Journeymen Hatters' Society, VI, 
175, 182, 184; Ladies' Shoe and Pump Makers' Society, V, 240, 
245, 246; VI, 175, 176, 196; Morocco Leather Dressers' Society, 
VI, 183; Saddlers' Harness Makers' and Trimmers' Society, VI, 
176; Second Rate Boot Makers' Society, VI, 184; Union Benevo- 
lent Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, VI, 175, 184; United 
Society of Journeymen Curriers, VI, 182, 185; Newburgh, 
N.Y. - Masons' Union, IX, 127 ; Norristown, Pa. - Trade Asso- 
ciation, V, 382 ; Norwich, Ct. - Piano Carvers' Association, IX, 
196; Orange, N. J. - Cordwainers' Society, VI, 184; Hatters' 
Society, VI, 182; Ottawa, III. -Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 
230, 270; Paterson, N.J .- Society of Cordwainers, VI, 175; 
Society of House Carpenters, VI, 183, 185; Philadelphia - Asso- 
ciation of Journeymen Cabinet Makers, V, 353, 360, 369, 372, 
384, 388; Association of Journeymen Hatters, VI, 196; Associa- 
tion of Journeymen Shell Comb Makers, V, 348, 351, 352, 386; 
Association of Journeymen Stone Cutters, V, 348, 350; Associa- 
tion of Leather Dressers, V, 348, 349. 352, 357. 360, 384, 387 ; 
Association of Moulders, V, 348, 351, 386; Benevolent and 






Trade] INDEX 349 

Trade Society of Journeymen Tailors, \ ;8a. 388; 

Biscuit Bakers' Society, V, 35.1; Black and \ niths* So- 

ciety, V, 385. 388; Blockley and Haverford [trade] Association, 
\ u8; Bookbinders' Trade Society, V, 280, 348, 35 1. 360 
388; Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, IX, 128, 197. 229; Brick- 
layers' Society, V, 280; Carpenters' Society, VI, 66; Carpet and 
Ingrain Weavers' Society, V, 354, 369; Cedar Coopers' Society, 
V, 369, 388; VII, 66, 196; Chairmakers' Society, V, 357. 360; 
Coach Makers', Trimmers' and Painters' Society, V, 369, 375; 
Cordwainers' Society, VI, 25, 66; Cotton Spinners' Society, V, 
i . 352, 388 ; Day Laborers* Society. V. 280, 357, 368, 376. 386; 
Dyers' Association, V, 369; Frame Work Knitters' Society, V, 
388; VI, 66; Furriers' Society, V, 353; German Garment Cut- 
ters' Association, IX, 229; Gilders' Association, V, ^4. 355, 378, 
379. 387 ; Glass Cutters' Society, V, 388; Hand Loom Weavers' 
Society, VI, 58-59, 64, 179, 180, 181, 183; Horn Comb Makers' 
Society, V, 354, 356, 381 ; Horse-shoers' Society, V, 361, 369, 
37'. 372, 374; House Carpenters' Association, V, 280, 380. 387; 
Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 229; Jewellers' Society, V, 384; 
Journeymen Bookbinders' Society, V, 285; VI, 124. 125. 160- 
170, 171, 184; Journeymen Brushmakers' Society, V, 348. \si, 

354, 383, 388; VI, 66, 68; Journeymen Cabinet Makers* So- 
ciety, VI, 64; Journeymen Carpenters' Benevolent Association, 

V, 348 ; Journeymen Hatters' Association, V, 280, 348. *<i. ^4 

355. 372, 388; VI, 58, 61 ; Journeymen House Carpenters' So- 
ciety, V, 80, 81 , 82-83, 90; Journeymen House Painters' and 
Glaziers' Society. V, 75, 350, 352. 37 ■■ 383. 387. 388; Journey- 
men Plumbers' Union, IX, 229 ; Journeymen Saddle and Harness 
Makers* Society, V, 348, 3 5 1, 356. 386, 388; VI, 58. 1 9°; Jour- 
neymen Umbrella Makers' Society, V, 348; Knights of St. 
Crispin, IX, 229; Marble Laborers' Society, V, 35«. 384. 388; 

VI, 66; Millwrights' and Machinists' Society, V, 361 ; Morocco 
Finishers* Society, V. 384 ; Oak Coopers* Society, V, 369. 380, 
383; VI, 66; Paper Stainers' Society, V, 475. 381. 387: Pl«*- 
terers' Society, V, 357, 387; Pressmen's Association, V. 
Ship Joiners' Society, V, 387. 388; Silk Weavers* and Taasel 
Makers' M.H. Societv. IX. 230; Silver Platers' and M 
Workers' Society, V, 388; VI. 66; Silversmiths' Society. V. 386; 



350 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unions (continued) — 

Society of Paper Makers, V, 361, 369, 370, 380; Tailors' So- 
ciety, V, 280; VI, 58; Tallow Chandlers' and Soap Boilers' So- 
ciety, V, 373; Tin Plate and Sheet Iron Workers' Society, V, 
355 ,' Tobacconists' Trade Society, V, 348 ; Typographical Asso- 
ciation, V, 335, 348, 360, 372, 388; VI, 196; Union Beneficial 
Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, ladies' branch, V, 280, 348, 
350, 364-365, 367, 368, 388; men's branch, V, 280, 348, 351, 
380, 385, 388; VI, 196; United Cabinet Makers' Union, IX, 
230; United Hand Loom Weavers' Society, V, 274, 275, 280, 
35i, 356, 371, 373, 376, 377, 384, 385, 388; United Hod Car- 
riers' and Laborers' Association, IX, 259 ; United Hod Carriers' 
Union, IX, 229; Whip and Cane Makers' Society, V, 351; 
Poughkeepsie, N.Y. — House Carpenters' Society, V, 247, 261, 
276; Journeymen Cordwainers' Society, V, 242, 243, 244, 246, 
248, 251, 255, 261, 265 ; VI, 197 ; Richmond, Va. - Iron Mould- 
ers' Association, IX, 128, 230; Rochester, N.Y -Knights of St. 
Crispin, IX, 196; St. Clair, Pa. - Engineers' Protective Union, 
IX, 230; St. Louis, Mo. - Iron Moulders' Union, IX, 259; Ma- 
chinery Moulders' Union, IX, 127; Painters' Union, IX, 127; 
Railroad Men's Protective Union, IX, 127; Ship Carpenters' and 
Caulkers' Protective Union, IX, 127, 170; San Francisco, Cal. - 
Riggers' Union, IX, 257 ; Savannah, Ga. — Iron Moulders' 
Union, IX, 127; Schenectady, N.Y. - Carpenters' Society, VI, 
144; Cordwainers' Society, VI, 114; Hatters' Society, VI, 153, 
154, 155-156, 159-161, 162, 165; Tanners' and Curriers' So- 
ciety, VI, 146; Stoneham, Mass. - Daughters of St. Crispin, IX, 
258; Knights of St. Crispin, IX, 228; Tamaqua, Pa. -General 
Council of Miners and Laborers, IX, 231 ; Troy, N.Y. - Brush- 
makers' and Finishers' Society, VI, 145, 149, 158, 164, 170, 174; 
Collar Laundry Workingwomen's Association, IX, 127 ; Copper- 
smiths' Society, VI, 157; Cordwainers' Society, VI, 158, 165, 
170, *73J Journeymen Chairmakers' Society, VI, 166; Journey- 
men Coachmakers' Society, VI, 158, 165, 166, 167, 170, 173; 
Masons' Laborers' Union, IX, 196; Operative Masons' Society, 
VI, 148, 149; Painters' Society, VI, 150, 157, 158; Tailors' So- 
ciety, VI, 144, 147, 157; Tuscarora Valley, O. - Miners' and 
Laborers' Benevolent Association, IX, 259 ; Utica, N.Y. - Brick- 



Trade] INDEX 351 

layers' Union, IX, 196; Journeymen Cordwainers' Society, VI, 
174; Verplancks" Point. S Y. - Hudson Rivrr Laborer*' Asso- 
ciation, IX, 196; Washington. D.C - Baker*' Benefit Society, 
VI, 128; Benevolent Society of Journeymen Cordwainer*. Ladiea' 
branch, VI, 1 19, 126, 13a, 133, 134; men** branch, VI, 133, 
134; 135. U8; Bookbinder*' Society, VI, 119; Bookbinder*' 
Union, IX, 128; Bricklayers' Society, VI, 119; Bricklayers' 
Union, IX, 170; Carpenters' Society, VI, 119, 130; Granite 
Cutters' Association, IX, 127 ; House Carpenters' Trades' Union, 
IX, 127; House Painters' Union, IX, 127; Journeymen Some 
Masons' Association, IX, 128; Saddlers' and Harness Makers' 
Society, VI, 119; Society of Metal Worker*, VI, 135; Water 
Valley, Miss.- Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, IX, 128 

Nationals and Internationals: American Miners' Asso- 
ciation, IX, 169; Bricklayers' International Union, IX, 169, 195, 
355; Carpenters' and Joiners' National Union, IX, 195, 288; 
Carpenters' National Union -call for convention, VI, 337; pro- 
ceedings, VI, 337-340; Coach Makers' International Union. IX, 
127, 170; Combmakcrs' National Union, VI, 332-335; Hand 
Loom Weavers' National Union, VI, 193, 341-342; Interna- 
tional Lodge of the Knights of St. Crispin, apprenticeship, III, 
52-53; attitude toward machinery, III, 52, 53-54 ; membership, 
III, 52; objects, III, 52, 54; opposition to Chinese, III, 53 : I V 
84-86; organization, III, 52; origin, III, 29; progress, IX. 199; 
strike, III, 53; International Union of Machinists and Black- 
smiths, IX, 117, 195, 228; Iron Moulders' International Coop- 
erative and Protective Union, IX, 170, 197, 228, 258; National 
Association of Journeymen Cordwainers, call for convention. \ I . 
316, 330; constitution, VI, 322-324; preliminary meetinj; \ I 
314-316; proceedings, VI, 3*7-329; National Colored Teachers' 
Association, IX, 259; National Typographical Convention ol 
1836, VI, 346-351 ; convention of 1837. VI, 351-353 i National 
Typographical Union, IX, 169, 195. 228, 257, 361 ; National 
Union of Curriers, IX, 129; organization, VI, 311; Tailors' 
International Union, IX, 1 70 

State: Illinois - American Miners' Association, IX. 258; 
Miners' Lodge, IX, 127 ; Pennsylvania - Miners' and Working- 
men's Benevolent Association, IX, 354; State General Council 



352 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Trade 

Trade unions (continued) — 

Miners' Benevolent Association, IX, 270; State Lodge of Knights 
of St. Crispin, IX, 228; Stone Masons' Union, IX, 257; United 
Hod Carriers' and Laborers' Association, IX, 228; Union 
Agency, V, 135; Virginia - Agricultural Labor Association, IX, 

257 

Tramping committee, cordwainers, III, 75 

Transactions of the American Medical Association, VIII, 187 

Transcendentalism, VII, 27 

Transportation : agricultural products, VII, 53 ; American Cheap 
Transportation Convention, X, 67-70; frontier, II, 53, 264; 
iron products, II, 311, 313; merchant-capitalist stage, V, 23; see 
also Immigration, transportation, Patrons of Husbandry, Rail- 
roads 

Trask, H. P., delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 
330 

Travel: southwest, II, 198; see also Finch, Frontier 

Travels, see Ker (Henry) 

Traver, William H., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 
VI, 166 

Treadway, Edward, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, 107 

Treadwell, Francis C, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Treanor, B. S., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 326, 327, 330 
Trees, South Carolina, II, 305 

Treillou, J. J., defendant, trial Philadelphia Spinners, IV, 265-268 
Trevellick, Richard F: delegate to Industrial Congress, IX, 273; 
delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 120; delegate 
to International Workingmen's Association, IX, 194; delegate to 
National Labor Reform Party, IX, 272 ; National Labor Union, 
committee member, IX, 183; delegate, IX, 170, 198, 231, 257, 
270, 272, 273 ; financial policy, IX, 210-213 ; immigration policy, 

IX, 334, 338-339; on admission of negroes, IX, 185-186; politi- 
cal policy, IX, 265, 272, 273 ; strike policy, IX, 208 ; president, 
address, IX, 261-263, 270-271, 338-339; election, IX, 242, 269, 
271 ; vote of thanks, IX, 227 

Trever, John, mechanic, II, 369 






Turner] INDEX 333 

Treyhern, Enos, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

143, 144, 148 
Trial of the Journeymen Boot & Shoemakers of Philadelphia. Tht, 

cited, III, 26, 27 
Trong, Louis, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 

Trotter, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 234, 262 
Troup, Alexander H : delegate to National Labor Reform Party, 

IX, 272; National Labor Union, committee member, IX. 1 12, 
136, 261 ; delegate, IX, 128, 195, 257; financial policy, IX, 218; 
motions, IX, 218, 259; on admission of negroes, IX, 239, 260; 
political policy, IX, 137, 265; vice president, IX, 129 

Trow, John F., printer, VIII, 221 

Trowd, William, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III. 256 

Troy Budget, The, V, 314 

Truck system, evils, III, 24; VII, 5051, 54, 55 

True Greenback, The, see Campbell (Alexander) 

True Sun, The, quoted, VIII, 236-238 

True Workingman, The, cited, VII, 305-307; VIII, 82, 113-119, 
122, 125 

Trunk-minders, I, 120 

Tucker, John H., delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimore, VI, 
108 

Tucker, Joseph, mechanic, VIII, 217 

Tucker, W. C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Tucker, William, VIII, 217 

Tupper, Hiram, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 261, 266, 267, 282, 294, 318 

Turnbull, Andrew, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 195 

Turnbull, Andrew E., delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 209, 225, 233. 237, 240, 243 

Turner, A. J., Genesis of the Republican Party, VII. 37. footnote 

Turner, Charles, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 90 

Turner, Dyer D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 262 

Turner, Frederick J., acknowledgments to, I, 103 

Turner, J. A., Cotton Planters' Manual, I, 276-280 



354 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Turner 

Turner, John, member Labor Reform League, VIII, 127 

Turnips, I, 209, 213 

Turnout, see Strike 

Turpentine, manufacture, I, 197 

Tuscaloosa Monitor, The, cited, II, 330 

Tweedy, Edmund, association ist, VII, 205 

Tye Kim Orr, testimony on coolie labor, IX, 82 

Typographical Association, see Printers 

Typographical Union, see Printers 

Tyson, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 

Ugh, Henry, II, 240 

Umbrella makers, see Trade unions 

Unemployment: American, VII, 55; carpenters, VI, 55; cause, V, 

19; VII, 295 ; VIII, 200, footnote] effect of climate, VII, 51-53 ; 

employers' view, VII, 49; relation to cost of living, V, 34; ship 

carpenters, VI, 84; tailors, VII, 66; truck system, VII, 50-51 
Union card, IV, 3 1 
Union of Trade Associations: definition, V, 21; see also Trades' 

Assemblies 
Union shop policy, see Closed shop, Scab labor 
Unitarianism, VII, 27 

United States Gazette, cited, V, no, 112, 352 
United Workers of America : General Rules of the Association of, 

IX, 376-378 ; International Workingmen's Association compared, 

IX, 376-378 

Universal Brotherhood, I, 33 

Upholsterers, see Trade unions 

Urmstone [Urnstone?], Rev. John, letter, II, 271 

Urner, Benjamin, associationist, VII, 242, 246 

Urquhart, A. H., letter, II, 154 

Urquhart, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 289, 300 
Usher, Rev.— , VIII, 116 

Vail [Vane?], Howell, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 315, 3^9, 326, 332 



Vineyard] INDEX 355 

Vain Prodigal Life and Tragical Penitent Death of Tkonuu llellter. 
The, cited, I, 357-365 

Vale, G., delegate to New York City Industrial Congraa, VIII. 
303 

Valentine, Joseph, letter, I, 319-320 

Van Amringe, H. H., land reformer, VIII, 22 

Van Buren, Martin: VII, 40, 160; VIII, 81, 85; executive order, 
V, 35; VIII, 81, 85 

Vance, George, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 143 

Van Cleef, William H., delegate to New York City Industrial 
Congress, VIII, 302 

Van Cott, Edward B., delegate to Amalgamated Trades* Con- 
vention, VIII, 343 

Vanderlip, Elias, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union. VI, 
164, 165, 168, 169, 173 

Vanderpool, John I., plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III. 
256 

Van Dorn, Henry, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169, 186 

Vandyke, John S., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 67 

Vane, Henry, defendant, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 252 

Van Valkenburgh, Daniel, delegate to Albany General Trades' 
Union, VI, 144, 157 

Van Wickle, S., II, 88 

Varnishers and polishers, see Trade unions 

Vaughan, A. J., master Mississippi State Grange, X, 85 

Vedder, J. E., delegate to New York State Industrial Legislature, 
VIII, 316 

Venable, George, delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 138 

Verner, — , delegate to National Labor Union, IX, IJJ 

View of the Constitution of the British Colonies, see Stokes (An- 
thony) 

Villiers, Thomas, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Vincent, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 204, 227 

Vinchell [Winchell?], Madison, VI, 150, 168 

Vine dressers, demand on frontier, II, 176 

Vineyard, II, 231 



356 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Virgin 

Virgin, Samuel: committee member, New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 251; delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 178; 
National Trades' Union - Board of Commissioners, VI, 243 ; 
committee member, VI, 237, 238, 240, 246, 253-255 ; delegate, 
VI, 230; ten-hour report, VI, 253-255 

Virginia: court calendar, Augusta County, II, 286-288; curse of 
slavery, II, 30; development, I, 74-75; economic conditions, II, 
30, 60; emigration, I, 82, 85, 86, 90; freedmen, I, 89, 340; II, 
57; frontier, I, 74-78; immigrants, II, 169; industry diversified, 

I, 88, 89; plantation - records, I, 109, 112, 130, 131, 186-191, 
208-214, 245-252, 296-298, 321-325, 326-330; system, I, 74-76; 
type, I, 81; planters, II, 62; sectionalism, I, 76; settlement, I, 
76-78; Shenandoah Valley, I, 86-90; slave labor, I, 81, 177; 

II, 30; soil — character, II, 62; exhaustion, I, 83; taxes, II, 30; 
towns few, I, 83 ; vineyard, II, 231 ; see also Frontier, Immigra- 
tion, Indentured servitude, Jefferson (Thomas), Negroes, Slave 
labor, Tobacco 

Virginia Gazette, The, cited, I, 133, 245, 346, 352, 353-354J H, 

52, 81, 82, 86, 88, 93, 177, 260, 326, 327, 350 
Virginia Historical Register, cited, I, 346, 355 ; II, 286-288 
Vliet, Jasper, anti-agrarian, VIII, 53, 55, 58 
Vogdes, William, VI, 44 
Vogelgesang, G., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 300 
Voice of Industry, cited, VII, 88, 138-140, 141, 142-143, 233-234; 

VIII, 53, 82, 83, 106-113, 1 19-122, 123-127, 188-189, 192, 218, 

231, 232, 239-240, 265-272 
Volksfreund, VIII, 59 

Folks Tribun, cited, VII, 91-92, 225-229; VIII, 333-334 
Vollaton, David Moses, mechanic, II, 368 
Von Waltershausen, Sartorius, Die nordamerikanischen Gewerk- 

schaften unter dem Einfluss der fortschreitenden Production- 

technik, IX, 19 and footnote 
"Vote Yourself a Farm," see Land 
Voyages . . . de la Louisiana, see Robin (C. C.) 

Wade, George R., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 
VI, 176, 181 









Wages] INDEX 357 

Wadsworth, Lewis L., delegate to National Labor Union. IX, 169 

Wadsworth, William, delegate to New York General Trades' 
Union, V, 247 

VVagenfuhr, Charles, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 288, 301 

Wager, Peter, VI, 44 

Wager, Phillip, alderman, III, 61 

Wages: advertising forbidden. III, 166; agricultural laborers, II, 
36-37; VII, 47; American and British compared, VII, 47, 50, 
51, 76-77 ; bakers, V, 305-306, 307; blacksmiths, VII, 47; book- 
binders, V, 285 ; bricklayer, II, 47; VII, 48; cabinet makers. VII. 
106-107; carpenter, II, 174, 275; V, 203, 205; VI, 50, 55, 56, 
78; children, V, 64, 65, 66; cigarmakers, VIII, 345; colliers, 
II, 306; colonial, I, 340; control by masters, III, 166; cordwain- 
ers (see shoemakers) ; decline, VII, 55; domestic service, VII, 
77; effect of reduction of hours, VI, 49; IX, 287-301, 306-329: 
employers' attitude, III, 34; IV, 53; English, III. -244; factory 
operatives, II, 339, 34©, 357; fillers, II, 309; hammerer. II, 
310; hatters, VI, 100, 104-107, 153, 154*155. 160; IX, 57, 59; 
influence of immigration, VII, 143; influence of public lands, V, 
35-36; Irish labor, II, 181, 309, 3 1 3 ; iron workers, II, 309, 313; 

VII, 48; laborers, II, 309; VII, 751 VIII, 225; low, V. 330- 
332; IX, 151 ; masons, VII, 48; VIII, 217; mechanics, VII, 47; 
methods of payment, II, 306; III, 24, 269; V, 28-29, 193: VI. 
56, 219; VII, 50-51, 54, 55. 116-117, 309 (see also Store order 
system, Truck system) ; miners, II, 317; VII, 48; molders, VII. 
48; mowers, IV, 61, footnote; overseer, II, 315; printers, VII, 
109-111, 113, footnote, 309; VIII, 220; plasterers, VII, 48; 
regulation, III, 68; V, 232, 237; ropemakers, V, 227; shoe- 
makers, III, 32, 33, 36-37. 40, 63, 74. 104, »o6, 118. 1 1 - 

124, 166, 215, 368; IV, 28, 33. 34. 45. 66; V, 365-367; VI. 36- 
38; VIII, 232-234. 235-236; skilled labor. VII. 80; smel- 
ters, VII, 48; spinners, II, 316; VII, 541 "tike, V. 205; VII. 
231; VIII 219, 22i; tailors, IV, 59. "7. 152-153. 225, foot- 
note, 252, footnote, 269, 270; V, 206, footnote; VII, 48-65; 

VIII, 297; tariff, VIII, 218; teamsters, II, 306; weavers, II, 
315, 316; IV, Supp., 21, 27-29. 52. 55. 60, 63, 72. 80, 118-120. 
134; V, 275, 297; VI, 180; VIII, 236-238; wheelwrights, II. 



358 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Wages 

Wages (continued) — 

309; women, II, 340; VIII, 226-231, 231-232; IX, 72-73; 

wood cutters, II, 306; see also National Labor Union 
Waggoner, Jacob, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

H7 
Wagstaff, David, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362 
Wailes, Levin, II, 205 
Wainwright, William, delegate to New York City Industrial 

Congress, VIII, 289, 301 
Wait, William S., land reformer, VIII, 21, 26, 27 
Walcott, J., associationist, VII, 205 
Walker, Amasa, VIII, 83, 126, 127 
Walker, G. W., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of District 

of Columbia, VI, 109, in ; VII, 205 
Walker, Hal T., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 239 
Walker, Hon. Isaac P., VIII, 21, 326 
Walker, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 301 
Walker, N. B., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 168 
Walker, William, II, 98 

Walker, William, weaver, IV, Supp., 54, 56, 88, 93 
Wallace, A., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

3i6 
Wallace, Hugh, III, 17 

Wallace, S. J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 198, 218 
Wallbridge, Martha M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

228, 231, 258, 267 
Wallenberger, Henry, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 
Walling, William English, acknowledgments to, I, 27 
Walls, Harry J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 242, 340 
Walsh, — , delegate to New England Workingmen's Association, 

VIII, 93, 94 
Walsh, John M., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Walsh, Lawrence, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 269, 290 
Walsh, M. R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 






Washburn] INDEX 3)9 

Walsh, Mike, land reformer, VII, 305 

Walsh, Thomas J., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196, 

220, 221, 224 
Walter, Adam, master cordwainer, III, 105 
Walters, G. O., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, as* 
Walters, John, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 259 
Walton, Benjamin, associationist, VII. 248 
Walton, Henry, delegate to New York General Trades' Union. V, 

215, 221 
Wandle, Sidney, defendant, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 277 
Wangner, — , delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 

VIII, 333 
War of 181 2, economic effect, I, 86 
Ward, — , defendant, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Ward, Allen, witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

100 
Ward, John, defendant, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 26, 

28, 49 
Ward, Ralph, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V. 

294 
Wardlaw, Benjamin F., master State Grange of Florida, X, 85, IOO 
Ware, J. D., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 127, 129. 137 
Waring, Amos, delegate to New York General Trades' Union. V. 

261, 265, 266, 278, 283, 296, 298, 299, 318 
Warner, A. M., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

174 
Warner, Adam, delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 336, 

337 

Warner, Henry A., iron foundry owner, IX, 99 

Warner, John S., member Mechanics* Union, V, 1 2 * 

Warner, William, iron worker, IX, 102 

Warren, Cyrus, delegate to Albany General Trade*' Union, VI, 158 

Warren, James, land reformer, VIII, 27 

Warren, Josiah: cooperative scheme, V, 78; letter, V, 133*137; 
Periodical Letters of Profress, V, 79. footnote 

Warrington, William, carpenter, II, 371 

Washburn, J. Smith, delegate to New York State Industrial Leg- 
islature. VIII, 316, 317. 320, 324. 326 



3 6o AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Wash. 

Washington, George, I, 89, 190, 19I1 296-298, 301-305, 319, 320, 

344-345 ; II, 56, 322-325 
Washington Daily Morning Chronicle, cited, IX, 253-256 
Washingtonian, The, VI, 125, 127, 129 
W ashingtonian and Farmers' , Mechanics' and Merchants' Gazette, 

cited, VI, 138 
Watchcase makers' society: VIII, 302; see Trade unions 
Watchmen, see Plantation 
Wateree Agricultural Society, I, 290 
Waterman, Henry, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 144 
Waterton, George, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265 
Watkins, Isaac, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 61 
Watson, Abijah, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, no 
Watson, Alonzo M., associationist, VII, 188, 189, 201, 248-259; 

VIII, 26 
Watson, Charles, Jr., witness, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 

Tailors, IV, 101, 119, 141, 156, 165 
Watson, J., delegate to Pittsburgh Workingmen's Convention, 

VIII, 331, 332, 333 
Watson, P. V., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

165, 168 
Watt, James, I, 38, 39 
Watts, George P., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 157 
Watts, John, II, 290-292 

Watts, P. K., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 169 
Way, W. B., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 385 
Wayne, William G., delegate Patrons of Husbandry, X, 133 
Weaky, William, associationist, VII, 276 
Wealth, per capita, IX, 150; see Monopoly 
Wealth of Nations, see Smith (Adam) 
Weare, Isaac C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 244, 259, 

261 
Weaver, George H., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 270 
Weaver, Thomas, VI, 44 
Weavers: advertisements, II, 326-330; benevolent society, IV, 51, 



Weisa] INDEX 361 

78 ; carpet -convention, VI 1 1, 239-240 ; organisation. VIII, 240- 
242 ; cooperation, VI, 58-59; IX, 148, 149: demand for. II, J47 ; 
fines, IV, Supp., 29, 30, 52, 60, 63, 92, 93, 94 1 g«rl». IV, Supp., 
54; hand loom, V, 250, 274, 275. 276, 280, 281 ; VI, 193; VIII, 
221, 236-238; Irish, II, 316; national convention, VI, 193; no- 
tice of discharge, IV, 88, 89, 106; organization, V, 250; VIII, 
239-240; premiums, IV, Supp., 29, 30, 52, 60, 63; Washington's 
weaving record, II, 222-225; redemptioner, II, 327-328; resolu- 
tions against over-work, VIII, 231-232; resolutions favoring \ 1 
180-181 ; stocking, II, 3 16; strikes, IV, 271 ; IV, Supp., 31-32. 64, 
65; V, 280, 297; VI, 40; VIII, 221 ; strike benefit, IV, Smpp., 
26; union, VIII, 246-249; wages, II, 315; IV, Smpp., 30, 48, 
5i, 53. 55, 79,8i, 84, 85; V, 275, 297; women, VIII, 23«-au; 
see also Conspiracy trials, Factory system. Trade unions 

Weaving: frontier, II, 274; plantation industry, I, 187-189, 191- 
193, 231, 334; pn«, II, 326; wool, II, 334, 335; see also Cot- 
ton, Weavers 

Webb, James, mechanic, VIII, 217 

Webb, Kendal, juror, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 18, 28, 

32, 33, 34, 49 
Webb, Sydney and Beatrice, V, 22 ; History of Trade Unionism, 

V, 22, footnote 

Webber, John, member of Ship Carpenters' and Caulkers' Union, 
delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 171 

Webster, — , cordwainer, IV, 53 

Webster, John, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 321, 322, 326 

Webster, Stephen, associationist, VII, 205 

Weed, George W., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Union, VIII, 

341 
Weed, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Weeks, Joseph, master carpenter, VI, 35 
Weeks, Samuel, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 338 
Weiss, Frederick, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
Weiss, Isaac C, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 



362 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Weiss 

Weiss, Th., member International Workingmen's Association, 

IX, 359. 366 
Weitling, William, editor, I, 25; VIII, 288, 303, 3°8 
Weitzf elder, E., II, 330 

Welch, H. K., member American Emigrant Company, IX, 75 
Welch, Hon. John, VII, 75-76 
Welch (Welsh?), Patrick, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 

196, 224 
Weldon, J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, VIII, 

287 
Welles, Hon. Gideon, IX, 75 
Welles, James, witness, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, Supp., 

87-88 
Wellington, Elberidge, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 157, 168 
Wellington, William, printer, VI, 353 
Wells, Dr. — , VIII, 144, 145 
Wells, Alexander E. H., delegate to New York State Industrial 

Legislature, VIII, 323 
Wells, Austin S., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

157 
Wells, H. M., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union in 

place of Jarvis Blatchley, VI, 157 
Welsh, James, juror, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362; IV, 

Supp., 31, 90 
Welsh, John, defendant, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, IV, 

315, 319, 326 
Welsh, Nicholas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 281, 299 
Welsh, William: witness, trial Philadelphia Weavers, IV, 267 
Wendell, D. C, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 

VIII, 341 
Wendell, Henry, delegate to New England Workingmen's Asso- 
ciation, VIII, no 
West, A. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 230, 231, 

239, 261 
West, Abel P., delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

165, 167, 168 



Whiskey] INDEX tfj 

West, William, delegate to New York City Industrial Congraa, 

VIII, 288; IX, 366 
Western, H. M., counsel, trial Twenty Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 317, 325. 326 
Western Democrat, cited, II, 42 
"Western Waters," I. 84 

Westcwater, James, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 269, 318 

West India Company, II, 242, 246-247 

West Indies: development, I, 91; importation of labor, II, 1 27- 
133 ; industrial systems I, 91-92; sugar methods, I, 281-282; tee 
also Plantation, Slaxe labor, Sugar 

Weston, P. C. J., Documents connected with the History of South 
Carolina, I, 354 

West Virginia, character of settlers, I, 91 

Whaley, J. C. C: National Labor Union, delegate, IX, 127: finan- 
cial policy, IX, 216; immigration policy, IX, 223; on southern 
delegates, IX, 133-134; political policy, IX, 137: preliminary 
meeting, IX, 126; president, IX, 129, 194; presidential ad- 
dress, IX, 171, 198-199; resolutions, IX, !?3-«34 

Wharton, Jonathan [John?], juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwain- 
ers, III, 61, 105 

What is Property f, IX, 33 

Wheat: II, 273; plantation production, I, 191, 209, 328; price, 
VII, 49, 53 

Wheeler, H. C, member Illinois farmers' convention, X, 42 

Wheeler, James H., delegate to New York City Industrial Coo- 
gress, VIII, 287, 301 

Wheeling Gazette, The, cited, II, 277 

Wheelwrights, prison labor, V, 54 

Wheldon, Joseph, association ist, VII, 242 

Wheller, William H., member of Carpenters' and Joiners' Union, 
delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229 

Whig Battering Ram, quoted, VIII, 39 

Whigs, see Politics 

Whip and cane makers, apprentice, V, 69-70 

Whippo, J., VII, 242 

Whiskey, price, II, 314 



364 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [White 

White, Andrew, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 285, 287 
White, Benjamin, land reformer, VIII, 26 
White, Charles H., master cabinet-maker, VII, 108 
White, Henry, weaver, IV, Supp., 31, 32, 33. 56, 65, 69, 90-91 
White, J. T., association ist, VII 206 
White, John, associationist, VII, 201, 241, 245, 308; VIII, 26, 

317. 320 
White, John F., master cabinet-maker, VII, 108 
White, William A., address on hours of labor, VIII, 126, 127 
Whitehead, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302 
Whiteman, Hugh, witness, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 267 
Whitess, Edward, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 362, 

370 
Whiteworth, Richard, plaintiff, trial Baltimore Weavers, IV, 269 
Whiting, J. R., counsel, trial Twenty Journeyman Tailors, IV, 

317. 325, 326 
Whitley, Thomas W., land reformer, VIII, 26 
Whitmore, H. O., delegate to Trades' Union Convention of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, VI, 119 
Whitney, Amaziah, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, 

VI, 144, 146, 149, 151, 152, 161, 162, 165, 166, 174, 265, 266, 

276, 280, 304, 336 
Whitney, Charles, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 258 
Whitney, Eli, I, 46, 85 
Whitney, Walter, delegate to Albany General Trades' Union, VI, 

140 
Whittick, J. T., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 
Whittier, S. S., delegate to International Industrial Assembly, IX, 

120 
Wholey, D., member International Workingmen's Association, IX, 

378 
Whyman, Joseph L., delegate to Newark Trades' Union, VI, 187 
Widdows, Peter, juror, trial Twenty- four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 102 
Wier, George, delegate to National Trades' Union, VI, 265, 266, 

276, 299, 304 



Willis] INDEX 36s 

Wier, Richard, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 282 

Wiggins, William H., master cabinet maker. VIII. 108 

Wilbank. John. VI, 68 

Wilcox, J. W., delegate to New York State Industrial legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316 

Wilcox, John, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 36a 

Wilcox, Thomas J., land reformer, VIII, 27 

Wild, — , delegate to New York City Industrial Congress. VIII. 
290 

Wilder, Col. — , X, 74 

Wiley, Robert K., delegate to Union Trade Society, Baltimor 
108 

Wilkins, John C, land reformer, VIII, 26 

Wilkins, Paul, mechanic, II, 368 

Wilkins, W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 229, 240 

Wilkins, William, counsel, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 17, 77 

Wilkinson, Gen. Joseph, II, 207, 210 

Willard, Mrs. E. O. G., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 
269, 270 

Willard, Paul, clerk Massachusetts Senate, V, 60 

Willcoxson, Judge — , IV, 277, 310-312 

Williams, Chief Justice — , IV, Supp., 16, 113 

Williams, Benjamin F., association ist, VII, 242, 245, 246 

Williams, J. M., General Council of Miners and Laborers, dele- 
gate to National Labor Union, IX, 231 

Williams, John, agent American Emigrant Company, IX, 75, 76, 77 

Williams, John D., master builder, VI, 81 

Williams, John L., Territory of East and West Florida, The, I. 

131-132 
Williams, John S., land reformer, VIII, 26 
Williams, Peere, Reports, III, 273 

Williams, R. R., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 196 
Williams, Robert, planter, I, 348 
Williamson, Jesse, Jr., master carpenter, VI, 54 
Willis, Francis, Jr., planter, I, 251 
Willis, J., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress. \ III. 

289, 301 



366 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Wilm. 

Wilmarth, — , delegate to New England Industrial League, VIII, 

330 
Wilmot, Justice — , opinion, III, 238 
Wilock, Andrew, witness, trial Pittsburgh Cordwainers, IV, 23, 

26, 28 
Wilson, Judge — , opinion, III, 160-161 
Wilson, — , Wisconsin assemblyman, VIII, 59 
Wilson, Alexander, carpenter, II, 371 
Wilson, Charles E., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 128, 

137 
Wilson, Henry, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 302; IX, 76, 244-245 
Wilson, J. C, delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, VIII, 

337 
Wilson, James, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 132, 167 
Wilson, John, ship carpenter, VI, 86 
Wilson, John M., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 

VIII, 288 
Wilson, Joseph E., delegate to Albany Trades' Union, VI, 152 
Wilson, L. H., defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, 

IV, 101, 104, 108, 120, 128, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136, 137, H3, 
168 

Wilson, M., delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, V, 358, 386 
Wilson, M. A., delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 320 
Wilson, Philip, secretary, Newark Trades' Union, VI, 175, 178, 

179, 180, 185, 229, 231, 235, 237, 240, 244 
Wilson, Robert B., deposition, trial Thompsonville Weavers, IV, 

Supp., 32, 38, 108-109, no 
Wilson, Thomas, witness, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 363 
Wilson, Thomas, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 

V, 300 
Winchell, see Vinchell 
Winchester, E., printer, VI, 352 

Winchester Gazette, The, cited, I, 255 ; II, 272, 348 
Window shade painters, see Trade unions 
Windt, John, VII, 305, 326 






Women] INDEX 367 

Windward Islands: decay, I, 91 ; eclipsed by Jamaica, I. 91 ; ex- 
ports, I, 91 j slave labor. II, 128 

Winebrener, David, defendant, trial Twenty-four Journeymen 
Tailors, IV, 113-120, 121, 125, 127, 14114a. H% Ijfc 159, 
173, 205-208 

Wingate, Isaac, mechanic, II, 370, footnote 

Winkie, Alexander, weaver, IV, Supf>., 32, 56, 67, 87-88 

Winn, A. M., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 2 \i 

Winyaw Intelligencer, cited, II, 47 

Wisconsin, The, VIII, 59 

Wiseman, Alexander, delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 301 

Wistar, John, juror, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, III, 62 

Wittenbert, T. C, delegate to New York State Industrial Legisla- 
ture, VIII, 316, 317, 320, 321, 326 

Witter, Daniel, land reformer, VII, 305, 308 

Witter, Henry, land reformer, VII, 310 

Witz [Witts?], John, delegate to New York General TraoW 
Union, V, 282, 283, 296 

Wogram, Francis, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 

Wolf, John Adam, redemptioner, I, 374 

Wolff, J. B., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 257 

Woman Suffrage Association: IX, 198; see also Anthony (Smtan 
B.), National Labor Union 

Women: competition, V, 35; convict, I, 346; domestic manufac- 
tures, VII, 72; domestic service, VII, 77; factory operatives, V, 
333; VI, 217-220, 221 ; VII, 133-135; VIII, 133-150; frontier. 
II, 186, 284; hours of labor. VII. 133, 134; VIII. 1 M-187: In- 
dian, II, 230; organizations - Collar Laundry Work ingworoen's 
Association, IX, 127; Daughters of St. Crispin, IX, 257; Fe- 
male Industry Association, VIII, 228-231; Female Labor Re- 
form Association, VIII, 118; Female Society, VI, 91; Ladies' 
Mechanic Association, VIII, no; Seamstremta* Cooperative So- 
ciety, VIII, 327 ; Workingwomen's Cooperation, IX, 259; Work- 
ingwomen's Protective Association, IX, 195. 231; Women's 
Protective Labor Union. IX, 195; policy of National Labor 
Union, IX, 156-160; report in National Trades' Union. VI, 



368 



AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY [Women 



Women (continued) — 

217-224; sewing women, memorial to President Lincoln, IX, 
72-73; strike, V, 380; tailors, VII, 65; wages, II, 340; VIII, 
226-231, 232; IX, 72-73; weavers, VIII, 231-232; see also 
National Trades' Union 

W onder-W orking Providence of Zion's Saviour in New England, 
see Johnson (Edward) 

Wood, A. H., author Boston Circular, VI, 43, 99 

Wood, David, factory operative, VIII, 151, 152 

Wood, E. R., delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 287 

Wood, Timothy, plaintiff, trial New York Cordwainers, III, 255 

Woodboo plantation, diary, I, 195-203 

Woodbury Herald, The, cited, II, 159 

Wood cutters: demand for, II, 348; wages, II, 306 

Woodhouse, C, associationist, VII, 205 

Woodhull, Victoria, editor, IX, 352 

Woodhull and Claflins Weekly, IX, 352 

Woodruff, Amos, mechanic, VIII, 217 

Woodruff, J., associationist, VII, 245 

Woodruff, John G: Cigarmakers' Trade Agreement Convention - 
address, VIII, 344; committee member, VIII, 346; delegate to 
National Industrial Congress, VIII, 346 ; president, VIII, 343 ; 
resolution, VIII, 346; New York State Industrial Legislature - 
address, VIII, 317; committee member, VIII, 324, 325; vice 
president, VIII, 317 

Wool: carding, II, 329, 330, 332; kerseys, II, 330; preparation 
for weaving, II, 236-237; prices, II, 335; spinning and weav- 
ing, I, 187, 189, I9I-I93, 334 

Wool-pickers, prison labor, V, 54 

Woolen mills, Kentucky, II, 301 

Woolsey, John, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 301 

Working Man's Advocate: IV, Supp., 91, 122; V, 24, 30, 32, 46; 
cited, V, 49, 94, 143, 149-154. 174-177, 182, 204, 303, 305; 
VII, 90, 293-305, 307-310, 312, 317-327, 325-331, 340, 344, 
349-350, 352-364; VIII, 29-40, 86-99, 220-221, 226-231, 263- 
265 



Wurta] INDEX v*t 



ff'orkingman's Advoeate. The, cited, IX, 127-141. l6v 

W, 247-253, 256-269, 270-271. 273-274. HI U-. U7-.MO 

Workingmen's Assembly of New York: endonr International 
Workingmen's Association, IX, 355; repudiate National Labor 
Union, IX, 355 

Working Man's Friend, The, VI. 129 

W or king Man's Gazette, V, 1 85 

Working Men's Convention: VI, 66, 191; see also Tradt 
semblies: Philadelphia General Trades' Union 

Workingmen's Fraternal Association, VIII, 28 

Working Men's Party, see Polities 

Workingmen's National Society, V, 387 

Workingmen's Weekly, planned, IX. \\\ 

Worrall. John, delegate to New York General Trades' Union, V, 
298; VI. 316 

Worrell, Joseph, member of jury, trial Philadelphia Cordwainers, 
III, 62 

Wright, — , cordwainer, IV, 41 

Wright, A. J: New England Workingmen's Association, address, 
VIII, 108; chairman, VIII, 92: delegate. VIII, 92. 110; presi- 
dent, VIII, 105; vice president, VIII, 105; New England Work- 
ingmen's Protective Union, secretary, VIII, 274-277; National 
Industrial Congress, delegate, VIII, 26; Ten Hour Conven- 
tion, committee member, VIII, 83 

Wright, A. R., letter. II, 43 

Wright, Abraham B., delegate to New York City Industrial Con- 
gress, VIII, 302 

Wright, Andrew, delegate to General Convention of Trades, Bos- 
ton, VI, 91, 149 

Wright, Charles S., delegate to New York General Trades' Union, 
V, 223, 233, 243. 3i8 

Wright, Frances: political influence, V, 78; quoted. V, 24; repudia- 
tion of Skidmore's doctrines, V, 142; "The People at W 
V, 180-181 

Wright, James, II, 238 

Wurts, John, counsel, trial Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors, IV, 
102, 105-113. 119. 129. 130, 138, Ui-»42, !5«. »52. 153. 154. 
155, 156, 158, 160-199; VI, 69 



370 AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 

Wygant, John, witness, trial Hudson Shoemakers, IV, 280-283, 

286, 287 
Wyly, Peter, carpenter, II, 371 

Yarraington, William R., vote of thanks, VI, 329 

Yates, Justice — , opinion, III, 238 

Yates, Robert, delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 300 

Yeager, John, master cordwainer, III, 105 

Yearsly, — , delegate to Philadelphia Trades' Union, VI, 68, 69 

Young, Charles E., delegate to Amalgamated Trades' Convention, 
VIII, 316 

Young, Israel: Philadelphia Trades' Union, committee member, 
V, 385; VI, 68; report on prison labor, V, 51-56; vice president 
of ten-hour meeting, VI, 44-46 

Young, Nelson W., delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 197, 
198 

Young, Robert, weaver, IV, Supp., 32 

Young, W. F: delegate to New York City Industrial Congress, 
VIII, 302 ; editor of Voice of Industry, VIII, 83 ; New England 
Workingmen's Association, cooperative policy, VIII, 121 ; mu- 
tual exchange policy, VIII, 122-123 ; resolutions, VIII, 122-123 J 
secretary, VIII, 113, 114; vice president of New England 
League, VIII, 330 

Young, W. P., II, 176 

Young, William, master cordwainer, III, 34, 125-127, 131 

Young, William J., member Mechanics' Union, V, 123 

Young America, cited, VII, 310, 312-317, 341, 343; VIII, 44-48, 
236-238 ; contrasted with The Harbinger, VII, 341 ; see Work- 
ing Man's Advocate 

Zell, Phillip, delegate to National Labor Union, IX, 170 

Ziebrick, C, land reformer, VIII, 28 

Zimmerman, John C, delegate to New York General Trades' 

Union, V, 221, 276 
Zoarites, VII, 319 



•^•9 'QTOTQH JLVTiai'I 




AHVH9I1 
01N0H01 JO A1ISH3AIN0 






I 



JfflF 1 " 1 



[iiiltiiiitijiiiiiiiii J' 



I'.ilHtlJ 
li.il 



! I '• 



1 ■' T 1 il -, ' i ■ ' l I " <>!|!l HI !, I' I I I I 

i II 1 ,!!;; il iliii 1 Wit 



in i 



ill 111 i ii'lil 

ISiiiff 1 1 111 

ill i I III II I I 



■Hi 



ilui'fiiWffliiiiiiii'ir'i,! 

wfflJP u ill ill 



ll<l 



'lit I! 









■ 






Jwa 



Bllllii! 

;i ! Willi I s I